Aporias»Questions between the "punctum" and "la rive"!Back
Questions between the "punctum" and "la rive"
Questions,origins,big Events and Date,critical authors and brief studies of the event sequence between/from the "punctum" and/to the "la rive",a trial initial study with clues and literature citations references.
As early to 1930s,around year 1936,Prof.Maurice Blanchot(September 22nd,1907~February 20th,2003) started his own concern about "l'autre" and "l'inconnu",what related closely to the subject is his works titled récits and L'entretien infini... .
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At year 1964,a critical works emerged,it titled as Violence and Metaphysics:An Essay on the Thought of Emmanuel Levinas,3 years later,year 1967,the enlarged sisters works of it emerged too,it titled L'écriture et la différence... .
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At years late 1970s,Prof.Roland Barthes,proposed in his classics LA CHAMBRE CLAIRE,that he recognized a visible referent,or the photographic referent,and he believed that a photography always points to the preexistence of an external origin or model.With the term "punctum",Prof.Barthes represented that meaning,in his own words,is about "the notion of punctuation.",but,is the "punctum" just so simple?,and what interestingly or vitrifying matter is that a new being got recognized by Barthes himself,in his own words,it is "neither image nor reality,...yet a reality one can no longer touch"...Unfortunately,Prof.Barthes died at the age of 64 after injuries sustained in a car accident happened in year 1980... .
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At time around before 1985,In the case of Camille and Claude,the two girls playing chess and looking at each other,which as one narrative unfolds in photographs by artist Marie-Françoise Plissart,in the title Droit de regards,with the lecture about it,Prof.Jacques Derrida proposed a general limit of representation,that the impossibility of "see the look of the one looking--right in the eyes--at the look of the other,nor for that matter at your own",this impossibility itself exposed,as "It is seen to be analyzed as a limit of photograhy,and of objectifying representation in general.",he suggested there is a general limit of representation,as important as what he stealthily suggested elsewhere,"l'hétéronomie au regard de l'autre"... .
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At year 1987,another critical works emerged,it titled as Psyché:Inventions de l'autre,itself emerged as a book of mourning,with this critical classics,in a very small section of it,Prof.Jacques Derrida historically for the first time made some critical discoveries very complicated and elusive ever since the photograph and its technology appeared,those about the punctum,and Time as a double,about space and the unique time of the referent togethor with the photograph,also a "terrifying syntax" in his own words...
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At time around year 2000~2006,in a series of works,also mourning works,Prof.Kas Saghafi,proposed again that La chambre claire,which written by Prof.Roland Barthes,its translation into "Camera Lucida" does not quite capture all the meanings of the French term "La chambre claire(the light room)."......silence......
as amaizingly as mysterious,everything starts before and from the "face",as what well known from the passage of the Book of Exodus,Moses is said to implore God:"I beseech thee,show me thy glory"(Exod.33:18 AV).God replies and denied:"Thou canst not see my face:for there shall no man see me,and live"(Exod.33:20).As what Prof.Saghafi pointed out,that "the face,what has been traditionally misrecognized by the science and philosophy as 'the object of a form'.",what Prof.Saghafi concluded futher from the famous address by Prof.Derrida to Levinas(that address titled "Adieu to Emmanuel Levinas"),is to pose such a new question:"What kind of welcome can be given to a figure without figure or face?",as what Prof.Derrida ever argued seriously that we must think the possibility of welcome or hospitality in conjunction with a thinking of the face...
The Questions origin of the L'autre,its variant forms and spectrums
The important clues back to year 1929,at Paris where the German-Austria philosopher Prof.Edmund Husserl(Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl,April 8th,1859~April 26th,1938) delivered his lecture under title "Cartesian Meditations.",and showed that through phenomenological self-reflection,the other appears within my primordial sphere but does so precisely by not appearing as such.The thinker sumed up that "An Other:an Other Ego,'Alter' signifies alter ego. ",and in his viewpoint,the other as alter ego is never actually Other as such.
The "Cartesian Meditation",especially the Fifth Meditation,triggered various profound influence for later thinkers,in the paragraphs 50 and 54 of the Fifth Meditation,Prof.Husserl reveals that phenomenology--purportedly an egology of the subject--must also take account of an intersubjective,shared world.As later thinkers Richard Kearney and Kascha Semonovitch proposed(),Prof.Husserl found "immanent transcendency" with the "transcendent other",and transformed the "mind-body" as thing and into relations.In the opinion of Prof.Husserl,the other as alter ego is never actually Other as such.
At year 1961,one important works published,it titled Totalité et Infini: essai sur l'extériorité.,with this great works,Prof.Emanɥɛl Ləvinas(12 January 1906~25 December 1995) brought some topics which may make folks trembling.
In the critical works of 1964,with discussions of Prof.Jacques Derrida recognized a critical moment at which the Greek named Plato "could never resolve to do",as what he emphasised the wellknown position of the Greek Plato and the Greek source on which the entirety of philosophy based,and his recognition the difference within the Greek background root that Plato got different meanings for Husserl and Heidegger,as Prof.Derrida proposed "...That Plato,for Husserl,was the founder of a reason and a philosophical task whose telos was still sleeping in the shadows;or that for Heidegger,on the contrary,Plato marks the moment at which the thought of Being forgets itself and is determined as philosophy---this difference is decisive only at the culmination of a common root which is Greek."
In the section under title "The Violence of Light",very clearly and sensitive understanding with both Husserl's Phenomenology and Levinas,Prof.Derrida sensed out many critical tips with Prof.Levinas,although these tips not yet showed out its obvious critical importance there and that time,let me count some out here first,as those shocking result from these may comes later,as a critical notes,it has to be counted by its weight,one of the tips,with the title "Theory of Intuition" and later works,followed Husserl's concusion in "Ideas I" which normally got understood as "a philosophy of consiciousness is always a philosophy of the object",as early as in "the Theory of Intuition" and later works,Prof.Levinas insist more and more on "those aspects of Husserlian phenomenology which take us to the inner or outer reaches of the 'subject-object' correlation","For example,this would be 'intentionality as a relationship with otherness,' as an 'exteriority which is not objective,'sensibility,passive genesis,the movement of temporalization,etc";As Prof.Derrida sensed out,that "The complicity of theoretical objectivity and mystical communion will be Levinas's true target.The premetaphysical unity of one and the same violence.an alternation which always modifies the same confinement of the other."Under the glance and metaphor of light,"the self-evident is no longer the fundamental mode of intellection,",and "the existence is irreducible to the light of the self-evident" is played out 'before light'.And clearly Prof.Derrida suggested that for Heidegger,"The structure of Mitsein itself will be interpreted as a Platonic inheritance,belonging to the world of light.",with this Platonic tradition,as what is called "Platonic light" by Prof.Jacques Derrida,Prof.Levinas suggested two murder of the Greek father Plato,for the critical reason of this parricide suggestion from Levinas,Prof.Derrida suggested very interestingly that may the Platonic gesture "will be ineffectual for as long as multiplicity and alterity are not understood as the absolute solitude of the existent in its existence.",and this solitude is the origin of the relationship with the other,as Prof.Derrida suggested clearly "The relationship to the other arise from the depth of this solitude."With this Platonic tradition,or as what Prof.Derrida called "the Parmenidean tradition",it becomes "the solitude of totality and opacity",and "Incapable of respecting the Being and meaning of the other,phenomenology and ontology would be philosophies of violence"
and why?According to Prof.Kas Saghafi,it was Levinas who proposed that "ontology has always conceptualized and totalized,hence neutralized,the relation to the other(l'autre)"
In year 1930,Prof.Levinas turns toward Heidegger against Husserl.Sein und Zeit is published,and Heidegger's teaching begins to spread.And just in 1931,Emmanuel Levinas translate Husserl's Cartesian Meditation into french,his doctoral thesis,The Theory of Intuition in Husserl published at 1930 offers a radical interpretation of his mentor's model of intersubjectivity and was to exert a formative influence on the development of phenomenology in France.
.....with the Parmenides,Prof.Derrida proposed clearly that "The Eleatic stranger and disciple of Parmenides had to give language its due for having vanquished him:shaping non-Being according to Being,he had to 'say farewell to an unnamable opposite of Being' and had to confine non-Being to its relativity to Being,that is to the movement of alterity."().Personally i do speculate this is by far a possible dayspring of a series insights or einsichts lasting decades of years followed after that.[......]
The "alter ego",in the system of Prof.Husserl basically understood as "un Moi",or as "l'autre comme autre",in that lecture of 1929 under title "Cartesian Meditations.",Prof.Husserl proposed that for "Descartes,as we know,Indicated all that by the name cogito.The world Is for me absolutely nothing else but the world existing for and accepted by me in such a conscious cogito."(),as recognized by Prof.Jacques Derrida and insisted by him,and also as what Prof.Kas Saghafi emphasized and agreed with that a key importance is that without the recognition of the other as a transcendental alter ego,the entire alterity of the l'autre would collapse,in another words,for the other,the phenomenality as disappearance,and the alter ego resisiting those phenomenology principles().
With the important traces followed with Prof.Levinas,who laid emphasis of the "human Autrui" throughout his works,Prof.Blanchot,in his classics L'entretien infini(published at year 1969),insteadly emphasized a relation without knowledge and the possibility of such a relation without knowledge(and without philosophy),with his modification of the "human Autrui" of Prof.Levinas,Prof.Blanchot did a great step devotion to later thinkers,in this modification,the Levinas's "human Autrui" got enlarged and refered by Blanchot both as "l'Etranger" and "l'Inconnu",which present a relationship experience of the obscure,and with the influence of Prof.Levinas,the reckoning of Blanchot about "l'inconnu" could be traced back as early as to year 1935 and 1936,as in "Idyll" and "The Last Word".
With the work Violence and Metaphysics of Levinas,both Husserlian phenomenology and Heideggerian ontology as a fundamental thinking of the other were challenged,with the critical works L'entretien infini,Prof.Maurice Blanchot proposed a very critical thesis core with l'autre,and a capital letter,For Blanchot,the relation with Autrui,as the experience of the obscure substitute a relationship of knowledge,the form of separation is the case of encounter,thus the face only be reached as inaccessible,separative and invisible and secret.
With tracing the etymology of Autrui,and related it to the greek genre "heteron",an alterity relative,as Prof.Saghafi recognized shockingly that Prof.Derrida ever proposed a very critical questions there,to put l'autre before prior to either "heteron" or "Autrui",which means in the 2 forms as the "Huic of autrui" and "the alter of alter-huic",with the first form,beyond the Levinas' this autrui in the sense of "l'autre homme" which means given Autrui as the priviliged form of alterity,Derrida enlarged the "Huic" to all that is alter,and with his earlier reading of the Husserlian other as alter ego,(Prof.Derrida,who,as an alter ego too),re-estimated again the alerity of the alter-huic.Thus,an important conclusion Dr.Saghafi observed which may played some importance later is that "...This rapport sans rapport is a paradoxical relationship...",and recognized the twofold of the relation to the other,one as a suspension of opposition at the same time,another as a radical heterogeneity.With what,Prof.Saghafi proposed a pretty weird finding of two logics of economy(mediation without opposition) and aneconomy(radical alterity).
With the analogy of the Moses and God story,which Levinas may understood and in Prof.Saghafi's words,an "unusual analogy" relating thought to speech in forms of sound(than vision and light),and with the works Totality and Inifnity in which the the ethical relation with Autrui is speech or discourse,Prof.Derrida concluded that "Autrui resembles God",with found the problems relationships of theology and metaphysics in Levinas's work Totality and Inifnity,the problems is all related with resemblance,in the Moses-God relationships,Prof.Derrida found that face-to-face of Moses-God of Exodus in Levinas,some asymmetry,as in this resemblance case,the Face of God command but hide itself,with this presence and absence,with the presence-absence as resemblance,and this resemblance to God,prevent the face from appearing with other beings,that is the importance of the Autrui determined by the resemblance to God.As Levinas proposed "...It is the analogy between the face and God's visage[le vis-age avec la face de Dieu] that,in the most classical fashion,distinguish man from animal...Man's substantiality,which permit him to be face,is thus founded in his resemblance to God who is thus the Face[Le Visage]and absolute substantiality".[...in writing...]
The Questions of the Punctum:
"The photograph is the advent [l'avenement] of myself as [*****]."..."What I see may have been there yet already de[******]"
"In order to be photographable,in order for it to be possible to have technically reproduced images and [******],the 'now' of what is photographed must already be self-[*********] and -[de*******],it must constantly [**-]verge from it-[****].It can only [****] be itself through a [******],by way of the [*****].The photographic [********] is thus never [****]-identical but already split from [******],already [*****}ly.This self-[********]ce constitutive of any en[****] is [*p*c*r*l*t*] itself and makes photography possible."
Prof.Roland Barthes distinguished 2 elements of a photography in his weird works La chambre claire,the punctum and the studium.With the original definition,Prof.Barthes defined the punctum as a "sting[piqure],speck,cut,little hole-and also a cast of the dice.A photography's punctum is that accident which pricks me,points me[me point],(but also bruises me,is poignant to me[me poigne])(27 $10.)"The studium,in contrast,is "which doesn't mean,at least not immediately,'study,'but application to a thing,taste for someone,a kind of general,enthusiastic commitment,of course,but without special acuity" ,and which "The studium is of the order of liking,not of loving,"..."To recognize the studium is inevitably to encounter the photographer's intention..."(26,27$10,$11)().
Before these definitions,Prof.Barthes ever pointed some tips what he suggested important for the photography,one of them is the adhere of the "referent" which he suggested as "fatality" to a photography,one of them is the "invisible" or "mask" as he suggested too.(),as Prof.Barthes suggested weirdly "the referent adheres",the referent is so important,and it finally related with the "photography structure" as what Prof.Jacques Derrida-Prof.Kas Saghafi discovered and rediscovered,although Prof.Barthes not found it by himself at the moment,which connect the question to "tout autre" from this "au regard de l'autre",or what conditioned in this "invisible" or "mask",...
To recognize then discuss the series of aporias,those pioneer philosophers and thinkers quoted here had found,discovered,invented various inaccessible and difficult terms to interpret those,any cleverness plan to figure out an easy way to get its conclusion without knowing them well for long period,result will bewildered,they are "aporias",and not only one "aporia"...
To present questions in brief with only some necessary hint,and without detailed explains which may unnecessary for related scholar pursuiting this as similar,What Prof.Barthes suggested,unconsciously based on a traditional concept of "referent" which based on that order of appearance bias which believed as truth over thousands years ever since the philosopher Socrates established when discuss and coined the terms mimēsis and mimetology(the likeness or fabrication of images,or eidōlōpoiikē) whis an ever "most decisive judgement" as what Prof.Saghafi used,between the magical and thaumaturgical operation,in the works titled Republic,it possibly a basis of what Prof.Barthes believed unconsciously in his works,he defined that "photographic referent",where Prof.Kas recognized what Barthes means is that "photography is thus always dependent on 'a visible referent'",which hinted that unconscious belief of the appearance order,or in brief the signified the referent first,and the signifier and the double second,this Socrates' such precedence tradition may escaped out from the eyes of Jacques Derrida,but seems not eacaped out from the eyes of his one follower Prof.Kas Saghafi,to scrutinize Barthes's original writing,he proposed like photographic referent is..."not the optionally real[facultativement reelle] thing to which an image or sign refers but the necessarily real thing which has been placed before the lens,without which there would be no photograph",this sounds reasonable,and what he suggested since start before opinioned that pair punctum and studium,and ever raised a question about some "disturbance" in the scene what he termed as "Heautoscopy",when one "see oneself" as an other,when one watch his or her own photograph,and he oddly raised a weird question that "This disturbance is ultimately one of ownership....to whom does the photograph belong?",so,this simple questions sounds not a little terrifying this moment right?who know why he could ever asked such a strange brilliant and such a powerful question?Prof.Barthes is a real genius in that way thinking about photographs.
"The photograph is literally an emanation of the referent",Prof.Barthes proposed such a conclusion in his works,Prof.Jacques Derrida made a conclusion in the art works Droit de Regards,that "...Camera obscura or camera lucida,...On the contrary,photography seems to me the only one of all the arts that is unable to suspend its explicit dependence on a visible referent.In the final analysis,however perverse or ingenious the montage might be,it is unable to produce or domesticate its referent.It must presume it to be given,a capitive of what is captured by the apparatus.It must 'take,'and the prerogative returns finally to the order of the referent:to the look-at."().The term "photographic referent" belongs to Prof.Barthes,with thoroughly understand the S-P relationships,the key point is located at where the modification of Prof.Jacques Derrida with the term "photographic referent",in the work Psyché:Inventions de l'autre which published at year 1987,at the section "$11,The Death of Roland Barthes",Prof.Jacques Derrida dug out the truth what and how solely or the uniqueness of the discovery Prof.Barthes ever made in history,as he wrote with memory and mourning:"To keep alive,in itself/within oneself,is this the best sign of fidelity?...Camera Lucida,whose time and tempo accompanied his death as no other book,I believe,has ever kept watch over its author."(),as Prof.Derrida propsed the S-P "compose togethor,the one with the other",and he summarized that "?host:the concept of the other in the same,the punctum in the studium," or briefly,"S-P:S is P",as what Prof.Kas discovered later,Prof.Derrida prefer more describe it as "le référentiel" instead of an either either choice between "the reference" and "the referent",this "le référentiel",or "the referential",is the modification by Prof.Jacques Derrida,origined from Prof.Barthes but different,this modification is one key aporia of the question series.
The "le référentiel" is one critical key aporia among this series of key aporias,it connecting the "S-P",or the "Studium-Punctum" with the questions of the "la rive",without penetrating the "referential",the 3 forces of the contrapuntal pair "Studium-Punctum"(the 3 forces or powder,are known as:the supplemental,the rhythmic and the hxxnting) will hardly understood thoroughly.From the supplemental structure,Prof.Derrida recognized the metonymic power of the punctum,as he proposed in Psyché,"...As the place of irreplaceable singularity and of the unique referential,the punctum irridiates and,what is most suprising,lends itself to metonymy.As soon as it allows itself to be drawn into a network of substitution,it can invade everything,objects as well as affects.This singularity that is nowhere in the field mobilizes everything everywhere;it pluralizes itself...This metonymic power is essentially related to the supplementary structure of the punctum('it is a supplement') and of the studium that receives from it all its movement,even if it must content itself,like..."(),in the terms of Prof.Jacques Derrida,the metonymic power(of punctum) bears two other names and known as the "metonymic force",or the "force of pluralization",this metonymic power or force,is a key,as Prof.Derrida and Prof.Kas discovered from Barthes(),which divide or split the "referential trait" while leave it constitutes itself in the process of self-detachment and splitting,in another name,this "detour"(or,this "-differing and -deferring") was recognized as "self-divergence".From original noticed "deferred" and "delay" of Prof.Barthes with photography,Prof.Derrida and Prof.Kas gave penetrating findings of it,at where the connection point with the "la rive" became sensible...
1:see Violence and Metaphysics:An Essay on the Thought of Emmanuel Levinas:I.The Violence of Light.page81,89.
2:see CARTESIAN MEDITATIONS:AN INTRODUCTION TO PHENOMENOLOGY.under title "The First Meditation.8. The ego cogitoas transcendental subjectivity.",by Edmond Husserl,page 21.Translated by Prof.Dorion Cairns,Published by MARTINUS NIJHOFF PUBLISHERS,which referred to 1st volume of Husserliana(Haag, Martinus Nijhoff, 1950) translated by Professor S. Strasser,and Typescript C which Husserl wrote in 1933: ''Cartes.Meditationen / Originaltext 1929 / E. Husserl / fiir DorionCairns",and the French translation version by Gabrielle Peiffer and Emmanuel Levinas (Paris,Armand Collin,1931).
3:see Apparitions--of Derrida's other.by Kas Saghafi,Fordham University Press.2010.ISBN978-0-8232-3162-1.page 3.
4:see "At the Threshold:Foreigners,Strangers,Others".by Richard Kearney and Kascha Semonovitch,Fordham University Press.New York.2011.ISBN 978-0-8232-4362-2,First Edition.at page 7~9.Richard Kearney proposed that "Husserl's great innovation is to show that through phenomenological self-reflection,the other necessarily appears 'within my primordial sphere' but does so precisely by not appearing as such"..."Husserl succeeds in changing our understanding of 'mind' and 'body' as thing and transforms them into relations."
5:see Camera Lucida-Reflections on Photography,translated by Richard Howard,Translation copyright©1981 by Farrar,Straus and Giroux,Inc.Originally published in French as LA CHAMBRE CLAIRE.©Editions du Seuil 1908.First American edition,1981,Second printing,1982.page 26,27,$10~11.
6:see Ibid.,p.2~5.It is important to understand is that Prof.Barthes raised the reason after he pointed out the adhere of the referent,he pointed out that the singular adherence bring some difficulty to focus on the Photography,as he proposed "In short,the referent adheres.And this singular adherence makes it very difficult to focus on Photography.The books which deal with it,much less numerous moreover than for any other art,are victims of this difficulty." and Barthes proposed that his books will focus on some technical reasons "in order to 'see' the photographic signifier,...others are historical or sociological...",to understand why he used to "see" may need know well what Barthes means by his own term "invisible" and "mask",for invisible,as he suggested "Whatever it grants to vision and whatever its manner,a photograph is always invisible:it is not that we see."(p.4),and as he suggested the "mask" is the difficult of a photograph with case explain of the "Photograph of the Nazis",and concluded the dangerosity of a photograph is when it "pensive" or "thinks"(p.24~27.)
7:see Droit de regards/Right of inspection[English],Jacques Derrida,photographs by Marie-Francoise Plissart;translated by David Wills.Copyright©1985 by Editions de Minuit,English translation copyright©1998 by The Monacelli Press,Inc.
8:see Psyché:Inventions de l'autre,tomes I et II,Jacques Derrida,Copyright©Editions Galilee 1987/2003.Psyche:inventions of the other.Stanford University Press.ISBN 978-0-8047-4799-8(pbk.:v.1:alk.paper).Page 266,264~298.
9:see Ibid.,in section titled "The Deaths of Roland Barthes",page 287~289.
10:see Camera Lucida-Reflections on Photography,in which Prof.Bathes ever concluded in the photograph,"What I see may have been there yet already deferred".
♥The academic research and literature is being edited by Mickael,this is dedicated to a subject research that entangled me for 5 or more years,it is an aporias and always sense like a wall on a night road,to record a little progress in the subject,some representation in writing forms got down recorded in brief outline forms,with necessary brief supplement and literature notes,and thanks to all those authors dead or alive,who as references and also related to this subject.
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