What is Black Cohosh?Black Cohosh-A Lady's Herb.
- Botanical Data of Black Cohosh.
- Narrative History of Black cohosh.
- Application and Uses of Black cohosh.
- Phytochemicals,constituents and functional mechanism of Black Cohosh.
- Historical Development of Black Cohosh.
- Black Cohosh Physiology.
- Clinical studies of Black Cohosh.
- Dosage and Administrations of Black Cohosh.
- Skunk Bugbane and Application.
- How Search engine think about black cohosh.
- Photo Gallery of Cimicifuga racemosa.
Applications and Properties:
Black cohosh has a history of traditional use among Native Americans for the treatment of a variety of disorders, including various conditions unique to women such as amenorrhea and menopause. Contemporary uses of black cohosh are primarily geared toward the treatment of symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes, and menopausal anxiety and depression. Extracts also have been shown to be useful for younger women suffering hormonal deficits following ovariectomy or hysterectomy, as well as for juvenile menstrual disorders.From some modern knowledge viewpoint,there are certain new findings of black cohosh applications and identified opinions,some of them are contradictive and interesting.
Climacteric complaints:Interest in non-hormonal therapies for the treatment of menopausal symptoms has increased since the publication of adverse effects of estrogen replacement therapy.Some study evaluated rootstock of the herb Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) extracts(ethanolic and isopropanolic aqueous, Remifemin),studies show good therapeutic efficacy and tolerability profiles for C. racemosa to treat menopausal symptoms (e.g., hot flashes, profuse sweating, sleep disturbances, depressive moods),and clinical and experimental investigations indicate that the rootstock of C. racemosa does not show hormone-like activity, as was originally postulated,results on this are contradictive.Climacteric complaints are caused by a decrease in estrogen production and are characterized by neurovegetative and psychic complaints.Hot flushes represent the leading symptom, in addition excitability, irritability and sleep disturbances are reported.Actually for the Climacteric complaints applications of Cimicifuga racemosa,there are contradictive testing results co-existed simutaneously.
Endocrine activity:For the Endocrine activity and LH suppressive effect which said as property of black cohjosh,at least some related study suggested maybe the isoflavone formononetin which was considered to release estrogen-like action,maybe actually Not existed in black cohosh,and that may come from other compounds combinations.
Estrogenic Activity related:Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) is widely used in the treatment of menopausal symptoms,yet its activity on its evidence of mechanisms got questioned recent years,and a lot of opposite study got processed to investigate the actual status of the said estrogenic property of Cimicifuga racemosa.Actually there existed some other relative study proposed that black cohosh actually has no or nearly has no or do not possess estrogenic activity or most likely not estrogenic.
Antiestrogenic activities: Groups of studies following the no estrogenic effects of black cohosh study proposed further that Cimicifuga and its preparations seems release weak antiestrogenic activities.
Serotonin receptor (5-HT) binding:progressive studies proposed that it seems the Serotonin receptor(5-HT) binding property of black cohosh are thought to be potential ways for its menopausal symptoms hot flashes reduction property,the components N(omega)-methylserotonin and other components groups such as homoproline-analogue cimipronidines and dopamine-derived Cimificuga alkaloids(these are called as zwitterionic nitrogenous metabolites) are thought to be the major composition of the black cohosh serotonergic fractions.
Vasoactive effects and Vasomotor Symptoms management:for the property of cimicifuga application to reduce vasomotor symptoms,there exist positive and negative conclusions from modern relative studies,these studies got opposite conclusions.
Antiosteoporosis effect:Osteoporosis and its accompanying, predominantly metaphyseal, fractures are a major health problem. Black cohosh ( CIMICIFUGA RACEMOSA) and estrogen positively influence osteoporotic bone,there are some molecular study proposed findings that the antiosteoporotic effect or antiosteoporosis effect of black cohosh could be identified to groups of its constituents,such as triterpenoid glycoside named 25-acetylcimigenol xylopyranoside(ACCX),Cimicidol-3-O-beta-D-xyloside,and some cycloartane triterpenoid of cimicifuga foetida,such as cimigenol (2),actein (7),(23R, 24S) 25-O-acetyl-cimigenol-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (10) and (23R, 24S) cimigenol-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (11).
Other important applications:actually progressive studies has identified cimicifuga racemosa and other related cimicifuga species have certain interesting applicable value,such as Menstrual Migraine prevent,Collagenolytic activity,Anti-inflammatory,Antioxidant activity and Renal disorders,chronic renal disease prevention,Nitric Oxide Inhibition,Anti-allergic effect,Antimalarial effects,Anti-HIV activity,Anti-Coronavirus,Breast Cancer Inhibition,Human Prostate cancer inhibition,Anti-tumor,Analgesic and sedative effects,Antidepressant effect,Lipid metabolism,Female Sexual Dysfunction,Increase Pregnancy and fertility rate,Hyperpigmentation prevention and uses in whitening and/or lightening cosmetics,Immunosuppressive effects and other unclassified new properties.
Cardiovascular and Circulatory Functions:Actein is hypotensive in cats and rabbits, but not consistently in dogs.
Hypothalamic and Pituitary Functions,estrogenic activity: increase uterine weight and raise serum ceruloplasmin levels, both results indicative of an estrogenic activity.
Cycloartane triterpenoids are thought effective to anti-tumor, anti-virus, antibacterial, anti-inflammation, immune-regulatory, cardiovascular system, hepatic protection, osteoclast inhibition and so forth.
Dosage:Rhizome,300-2,000 mg per day,dry powdered extract,250 mg three times per day, Tinctures can be taken at 2-4 ml per day.
Safety and Toxicity:
Allergies:Avoid if allergic to black cohosh or other members of the Ranunculaceae (buttercup or crowfoot) family.should be used cautiously in people allergic to aspirin or to other salicylates.
As to many complaints cases recent years about the chronic applications of so called black cohosh supplement or other multiherbs complex contains black cohosh,the safety problems of black cohosh seems really a questionable matter and need pay a lot attentions,as even comparative repetitive studies on this issue seems got result contradictive and hepatitis or other problems causing.
- 1.What is Black Cohosh?Black Cohosh-A Lady's Herb.
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