What is Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill. extracts? What is Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils. extracts?

Contents

Research Update of Schisandra.:

Schizandra Chinensis Extract.CAS.223748-53-6.Schizandra Berry Extract.Schizandra Berry extract.Schisandrins,Schizandrin A,Deoxyschisandrin.Schizandrin B,Deoxygomisin A.Schisandra Chinensis Baill extract.Schisandra Fruit Extract photo picture image    Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra chinensis protect primary cultures of rat cortical cells from glutamate-induced toxicity.:J Neurosci Res. 2004; 76(3):397-405 (ISSN: 0360-4012).Kim SR; Lee MK; Koo KA; Kim SH; Sung SH; Lee NG; Markelonis GJ; Oh TH; Yang JH; Kim YC.College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

 A methanolic extract of dried Schisandra fruit (Schisandra chinensis Baill.; Schisandraceae) significantly attenuated the neurotoxicity induced by L-glutamate in primary cultures of rat cortical cells. Five dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans (deoxyschisandrin, gomisin N, gomisin A, schisandrin, and wuweizisu C) were isolated from the methanolic extract; their protective effects against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity were then evaluated. Among the five lignans, deoxyschisandrin, gomisin N, and wuweizisu C significantly attenuated glutamate-induced neurotoxicity as measured by 1). an inhibition in the increase of intracellular [Ca(2+)]; 2). an improvement in the glutathione defense system, the level of glutathione, and the activity of glutathione peroxidase; and 3). an inhibition in the formation of cellular peroxide. These results suggest that dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra chinensis may possess therapeutic potential against oxidative neuronal damage induced by excitotoxin.

   Microwave-assisted extraction and fingerprint studies of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) by high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography.:J Sep Sci. 2007; 30(1):67-73 (ISSN: 1615-9306).Zhu M; Cao Y; Fan G.College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang Shuren University, Hangzhou, P. R. China. hzzm60@163.com

 In order to choose an appropriate extraction method, samples of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill were extracted by different methods and it was found that microwave-assisted extraction gave the best results. The contents of schisandrin, schisantherin, deoxyschizandrin, and r-schizandrin of 10 samples collected from different regions in China were determined by HPLC. The chromatograms of ten samples were used to establish the fingerprints of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and two methods based on HPLC and GC were applied to them simultaneously. The fingerprints consisted of 18 common peaks obtained by HPLC and 17 common peaks obtained by GC, which showed good stability and repeatability with RSD less than 3% for retention time. The fingerprints are suitable for identifying and differentiating samples by geographical origin and can be used for quality control.

   Separation and determination of active components in Schisandra chinensis Baill. and its medicinal preparations by non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis.:Biomed Chromatogr. 2005; 19(7):481-7 (ISSN: 0269-3879).Anjia C; Cunhong L; Wenhua G; Zhide H; Xingguo C.Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, People's Republic of China.

 A simple, economical and effective non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis separation and detection method was developed for the quantification of deoxyschizandrin and gamma-schizandrin in Schisandra chinensis Baill. and its medicinal preparations for the first time. After optimization of separation conditions, a buffer of 140 mmol/L sodium cholate in methanol was selected for separating the two analytes, but baseline separation of SA and SB in real samples was not obtained. Therefore second-order derivative electropherograms were applied for resolving overlapping peaks. Regression equations revealed good linear relationships (correlation coefficients 0.9975--0.9988) between peak heights in second-order derivative electropherograms and concentrations of the two analytes. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of the migration times and the peak height of the two constituents were in the ranges 0.62--0.79% and 0.25--2.17% (intra-day) and 1.43--2.06 and 4.08--5.72% (inter-day), respectively. The recoveries of the two constituents ranged from 93.2 to 103.0%. The results indicated that baseline separation of the analytes was sometimes hard to obtain in real samples and second-order derivative electropherograms were applicable for the resolution and analysis of overlapping peaks.

   Influence of mannan oligosaccharide, Ligustrum lucidum and Schisandra chinensis on parameters of antioxidative and immunological status of broilers.:Arch Anim Nutr. 2006; 60(6):467-76 (ISSN: 1745-039X).Ma D; Li Q; Du J; Liu Y; Liu S; Shan A.Institute of Animal Nutrition, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

 The study was conducted to evaluate effects of dietary supplementation with Ligustrum lucidum (LL, 10 g/kg), Schisandra chinensis (SC, 10 g/kg), LL (10 g/kg) + mannan oligosaccharides (MOS, 50 mg/kg), or SC (10 g/kg) + MOS (50 mg/kg) on growth performance and parameters of antioxidative and immunological status of broilers. The results showed that feeding LL, SC, LL + MOS, or SC + MOS had no significant effect on growth performance of broilers relative to the control. However, compared to the control, LL, SC, LL + MOS, or SC + MOS significantly decreased malondialdehyde concentration in serum, thigh, and heart of broilers. In addition, glutathione reductase activity of heart and sera of the birds were significantly elevated by supplementation LL, SC, LK + MOS, or SC + MOS. Furthermore, LL, SC, LL + MOS, or SC + MOS significantly improved antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus and lymphocyte proliferation of broilers (p < 0.05). Whereas, no cooperating effect between LL (or SC) and MOS on antioxidant status and immunity of broilers were found.

   Schisandrene, a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan from Schisandra chinensis: structure-antioxidant activity relationships of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans.:J Nat Prod. 2006; 69(3):356-9 (ISSN: 0163-3864).Choi YW; Takamatsu S; Khan SI; Srinivas PV; Ferreira D; Zhao J; Khan IA.National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Mississippi, 38677, USA.

 Phytochemical investigation of the fruits of Schisandra chinensis led to the isolation of 13 lignans including schisandrene (13), a new lignan based on a dibenzocyclooctadiene backbone with an exocyclic double bond. Its structure and absolute configuration were established using NMR, MS, and CD data. Antioxidant activity of the lignans was evaluated using a DCFH-DA cellular-based assay. The structure-activity relationships of the dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans showed that the exocyclic methylene functionality was essential for antioxidant activity, with the benzoyloxy group probably enhancing such effects.
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   Application of preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography for isolation and separation of schizandrin and gomisin A from Schisandra chinensis.:J Chromatogr A. 2005; 1082(2):203-7 (ISSN: 0021-9673).Peng J; Fan G; Qu L; Zhou X; Wu Y.Shanghai Key Laboratory for Pharmaceutical Metabolite Research, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, No. 325 Guohe Road, Shanghai 200433, China.

 Following an initial cleaning-up step on the D101 macroporous resin, a preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:0.9:0.9:1, v/v) was used to isolate and separate schizandrin and gomisin A from Schisandra chinensis. A total of 107 mg schizandrin and 36 mg gomisin A with purities of 99.5% and 99.1% were obtained from 400 mg crude extract in one-step elution and less than 3 h, and the structure identification was performed by UV, IR, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR.

   Effect of Ligustrum lucidum and Schisandra chinensis on the egg production, antioxidant status and immunity of laying hens during heat stress.:Arch Anim Nutr. 2005; 59(6):439-47 (ISSN: 1745-039X).Ma D; Shan A; Chen Z; Du J; Song K; Li J; Xu Q.Institute of Animal Nutrition, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

 The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of two plants belonging to Chinese herbal medicines, Ligustrum lucidum (LL) and Schisandra chinensis (SC), on the laying performance, antioxidant status and immunity of hens during heat stress. The results showed that diets supplement with 1% of either LL or SC had beneficial effects on egg production and FCR of hens during heat stress (p < 0.05), compared with the control group. Either LL or SC significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of heart, liver, sera and egg yolk. In addition, glutathione reductase (GR) activity of tissues and sera of the birds was significantly elevated by supplementation LL or SC. Furthermore, LL or SC supplementation significantly elevated lymphoblastogenese of the birds and the antibody values against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The results suggest that diets supplement with 1% of either LL or SC may enhance egg production, immune function, and antioxidant status of hens during heat stress.

   Preparative separation and purification of deoxyschisandrin and gamma-schisandrin from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill by high-speed counter-current chromatography.:J Chromatogr A. 2005; 1066(1-2):239-42 (ISSN: 0021-9673).Huang T; Shen P; Shen Y.Institute of Chemical and Pharmaceutical, East China University of Science and Technology, 897 #, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237, China. hth169@yahoo.com.cn

 High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to the preparative separation and purification of deoxyschisandrin and gamma-schisandrin from the crude petroleum ether extracts of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. The optimum solvent system composed of n-hexane-methanol-water (35:30:3, v/v) led to the successful preparation of deoxyschisandrin and gamma-schisandrin. The analysis of HPLC for each peak fraction of preparative HSCCC showed that the purity of deoxyschisandrin (8 mg) was over 98% and gamma-schisandrin (12 mg) was over 96% from 100 mg of the crude petroleum ether extracts in one-step separation.

   Traditional Chinese medicines Wu Wei Zi (Schisandra chinensis Baill) and Gan Cao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) activate pregnane X receptor and increase warfarin clearance in rats.:J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006; 316(3):1369-77 (ISSN: 0022-3565).Mu Y; Zhang J; Zhang S; Zhou HH; Toma D; Ren S; Huang L; Yaramus M; Baum A; Venkataramanan R; Xie W.Center for Pharmacogenetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

 The traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) are essential components of alternative medicines. Many TCMs are known to alter the expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The molecular mechanism by which TCMs and/or their constituents regulate enzyme and transporter expression, however, has remained largely unknown. In this report, we show that two TCMs, Wu Wei Zi (Schisandra chinensis Baill) and Gan Cao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch), and their selected constituents activate the xenobiotic orphan nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR). Treatment with TCM extracts and the Schisandrol and Schisandrin constituents of Wu Wei Zi induced the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in reporter gene assays and in primary hepatocyte cultures. The affected enzymes and transporters include CYP3A and 2C isozymes and the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. In transient transfection and reporter gene assays, the Schisandrin constituents of Wu Wei Zi had an estimated EC50 of 2 and 1.25 microM on hPXR and mPXR, respectively. Interestingly, mutations that were intended to alter the pore of the ligand-binding cavity of PXR had species-specific effects on the activities of the individual Schisandrols and Schisandrins. In rats, the administration of Wu Wei Zi and Gan Cao increased the metabolism of the coadministered warfarin, reinforcing concerns involving the safe use of herbal medicines and other nutraceuticals to avoid PXR-mediated drug-drug interactions. Meanwhile, the activation of PXR and induction of detoxifying enzymes provide a molecular mechanism for the hepatoprotective effects of certain TCMs.

   Evaluation of the protective effects of Schisandra chinensis on Phase I drug metabolism using a CCl4 intoxication model.:J Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 67(1):61-8 (ISSN: 0378-8741).Zhu M; Lin KF; Yeung RY; Li RC.Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong.

 To evaluate the potential activity of Schisandra chinensis in restoring hepatic drug metabolism in CCl4 damaged liver, antipyrine was employed as a probe for the possible effects of the herb on Phase I oxidative metabolism in rats. Schisandra lignan fraction (160 mg/kg) was given orally to male Sprague-Dawley rats (220-240 g) 30 min or 6 h before CCl4 intoxication (4 ml/kg, s.c.). Following a single oral dose of antipyrine (80 mg/kg) to the rats with damaged liver, the pharmacokinetics of antipyrine in whole blood were determined and levels of liver enzymes, e.g. SGPT, SGOT, and cytochrome P450 were measured. Pharmacokinetic parameters for antipyrine were estimated using noncompartmental analysis. Results indicated that CCl4 significantly increased the elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of antipyrine from 2.59 +/- 1.04 to 11.25 +/- 3.91 h (P < 0.001) and decreased its clearance (CL) from 65.94 to 10.84 ml/h as compared to control. Pretreatment with the Schisandra lignan fraction 30 min or 6 h before intoxication significantly (P < 0.001) improved antipyrine elimination by reducing its t(1/2) to 3.30 +/- 0.52 and 3.58 +/- 1.05 h, respectively. The corresponding improvements observed for CL, i.e. 49.06 +/- 21.75 ml/h (P < 0.01); 21.10 +/- 10.42 ml/h (P < 0.05), were also substantial. Moreover, normalization of SGPT, SGOT and P450 levels was observed with the two Schisandra pretreatment schedules. In conclusion, Schisandra lignans exhibited strong protective effect on Phase I oxidative metabolism in the liver damaged by CCl4. Furthermore, pretreatment of Schisandra 30 min before intoxication showed a more pronounced effect than that of the 6 h pretreatment. The current pharmacokinetic approach allowed the protective effects of Schisandra on oxidative drug metabolism in damaged liver to be systemically examined and will certainly help in the evaluation of hepato-protectants obtained from natural sources.
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   Improvement of phase I drug metabolism with Schisandra chinensis against CCl4 hepatotoxicity in a rat model.:Planta Med. 2000; 66(6):521-5 (ISSN: 0032-0943).Zhu M; Yeung RY; Lin KF; Li RC.Department of Pharmacy, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

 The seed extract of Schisandra chinensis was investigated in the rat for its restorative or therapeutic effect on Phase I hepatic drug metabolism following intoxication by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Male Sprague Dawley rats (220-250 g) were divided into two sets, one included rats with or without CCl4 intoxication, the other included CCl4 intoxicated rats with or without treatment of Schisandra extract. With the treatment regimen, rats received four oral doses of Schisandra (160 mg/kg) or the same volume of water at 8, 24, 32 and 48 h after CCl4 intoxication. A single oral dose (80 mg/kg) of antipyrine, a conventional probe for oxidative drug metabolism, was then administered. The levels of liver serum transaminases and cytochrome P450 were measured and the pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were assessed using a non-compartmental approach via WinNonlin. In comparison to the rats without CCl4 intoxication (t1/2: 2.2 +/- 0.9 h; Cl/F: 0.30 +/- 0.01 L/h/Kg; P450: 0.611 +/- 0.190 nmol/mg protein), CCl4 administration significantly decreased elimination (t1/2: 12.0 +/- 3.9 h) and oral clearance (Cl/F: 0.049 +/- 0.018 L/h/kg) of antipyrine, and markedly reduced the content of P450 (0.075 +/- 0.011 nmol/mg protein). Data obtained from intoxicated animals treated by Schisandra extract, compared to those without treatment, showed significant (p < 0.05) improvement in the t1/2 (4.45 +/- 1.7 h) and Cl/F (0.096 +/- 0.018 ml/h) estimates of antipyrine and a 2-3 fold increase in P450 level (0.190 +/- 0.072 nmol/mg protein). Findings in this study suggest that the seed extract of Schisandra appeared to be a promising agent for the improvement of Phase I oxidative metabolism in the liver damaged by CCl4.

   Application of capillary electrochromatography using macroporous polyacrylamide columns for the analysis of lignans from seeds of Schisandra chinensis.:J Chromatogr A. 2001; 916(1-2):265-71 (ISSN: 0021-9673).Kvasnickov?? L; Glatz Z; Sterbov?? H; Kahle V; Slanina J; Musil P.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

 Capillary electrochromatography (CEC) using polymer-based monolithic stationary phase has been developed as a promising method for the determination of lignans of Schisandra chinensis. The columns were prepared by in situ copolymerisation of acrylamide, N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide, vinylsulfonic acid and lauryl acrylate in presence of poly(ethylene glycol) as a porogenic agent. The columns [33 cm (24.5 cm effective length) x 75 microm I.D.] were successfully used to analyse and quantify the major lignans in extract of the seeds of Schisandra chinensis. Good separations were achieved in less than 35 min. The calibration graphs were linear in the range 0.025-1.0 mg/ml of given lignan with correlation coefficients between 0.9951 and 0.9996. The inter-day reproducibility of the peak area were below 3.9% and the inter-day reproducibility of the migration time were below 4.2%. The results of quantitative CEC analyses were compared with those obtained by reversed-phase HPLC, the levels of schizandrin, gomisin A, gomisin N and wuweizisu C determined by CEC were in a good agreement with those determined by HPLC.

   Analysis of volatile fractions of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. using GC-MS and chemometric resolution.:Phytochem Anal. 2003; 14(1):23-33 (ISSN: 0958-0344).Li XN; Cui H; Song YQ; Liang YZ; Chau FT.College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemometrics and Chemical Sensing Technology, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, People's Republic of China.

 The two-dimensional data obtained from GC-MS has been used qualitatively and quantitatively to determine the components of the volatile fractions of Schisandra chinensis obtained by six different extraction methods. Sub-window factor analysis (SFA) was employed to confirm the identities of components determined in different samples. With the help of SFA, and other chemometric techniques, peak purity in the chromatograms was determined, and overlapping peaks were resolved to yield a pure chromatographic profile and mass spectrum for each component. It is demonstrated that the accuracy of qualitative and quantitative analysis may be greatly enhanced using chemometric resolution methods, such methods being particularly valuable with respect to the analysis of complex samples such as traditional Chinese medicines. It is further demonstrated that different extraction methods give rise to volatile fractions of S. chinensis which differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their composition.

   Analysis of the essential oil of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. with GC/MS.:Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2001; 36(3):215-9 (ISSN: 0513-4870).Li XN; Cui H; Song YQ; Liang YZ.College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemometrics and Chemical Sensing Technology, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China.

 AIM: To detect chemical components of the essential oil of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.. METHODS: The essential oil was analyzed with GC/MS, heuristic evolving latent projections(HELP) resolution and overall volume integration method. RESULTS: HELP method along with the data from GC/MS can be used to conduct the peak purity examination and resolution of overlapping peaks to obtain pure chromatogram and MS spectrum of each component. Fifty six components were separated and 49 of them were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. All the components represent about 98.27% of the total content. CONCLUSION: The resolved pure chromatogram and MS spectrum can greatly enhance the reliability of similar searches in the commercial MS database and thus contribute to the accuracy of the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the essential oil.

   Phytotherapeutic aspects of diseases of the circulatory system. 7. Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.): its composition and biological activity.:Ceska Slov Farm. 2001; 50(4):173-80 (ISSN: 1210-7816).Opletal L; Krenkov?? M; Havl?-ckov?? P.Katedra farmaceutick?? botaniky a ekologie, Farmaceutick?? fakulty, Univerzity Karlovy, Hradec Kr??lov??. opletal@faf.cuni.cz

 Schisandra chinensis (TURCZ.) BAILL., yields a vegetable drug (Schisandrae fructus) with a number of very utilizable therapeutic effects. The paper reports the results of phytochemical and pharmacological-toxicological studies approximately from the year 1990 carried out both with the drug and, in particular, the principal isolated lignans of the dibenzo[a,c]cyclooctadiene type. The results confirm the validity of the historical use of the drug, in particular as a hepatoprotective, adaptogenic, and antioxidative agent. It is obvious that a very positive therapeutic effect based on the use of a complex mixture of its principal constituents because their biological effects are complementary and potentiate each other. At the same time, some lignans (e.g. gomisin A, gomisin N) are interesting as new prospective medicines.
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   Lignans with inhibitory activity against NFAT transcription from Schisandra chinensis.:Planta Med. 2003; 69(1):63-4 (ISSN: 0032-0943).Lee IS; Lee HK; Dat NT; Lee MS; Kim JW; Na DS; Kim YH

 Seven lignans from Schisandra chinensis were investigated for their inhibitory activity on NFAT transcription. Both gomisin N (IC 50 : 1.33 +/- 0.05 microM) and schisandrol A (IC 50 : 1.34 +/- 0.05 microM) showed higher activity than gomisin E (IC 50 : 4.73 +/- 0.09 microM), schisandrin A (IC 50 : 7.23 +/- 0.21 microM), schisandrin C (IC 50 : 7.54 +/- 0.22 microM), benzoylisogomisin O (IC 50 : 11.06 +/- 1.02 microM) and schisandrol B (IC 50 : 16.37 +/- 1.00 microM).

   Lignans in the Seeds and Fruits of Schisandra chinensis Cultured in Europe.:Planta Med. 1997; 63(3):277-80 (ISSN: 0032-0943).Slanina J; T??borsk?? E; Lojkov?? L.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Komensk??ho n??m. 2, CZ-662 43 Brno, Czech Republic.

 The fruits of SCHISANDRA CHINENSIS (Turcz.) Baill. (Schisandraceae/Magnoliaceae) are a traditional Oriental medicine possessing adaptogenic and hepatoprotective activities. The lignan content in seeds and fruits of the species cultured in various European locations has been investigated. The lignans were extracted from 17 samples of the seeds with supercritical CO (2) and the major components - schizandrin ( 1), gomisin A ( 2), de-oxyschizandrin ( 3), gomisin N ( 4), and wuweizisu C ( 5 - were quantified by HPLC. Compounds 1-5 were present in the seeds in the range 0.75-1.86, 0.13-0.90, 0.07-1.09, 0.24-1.49, and 0.01 -0.34 %, respectively. It was found that the plants cultivated in Europe accumulated comparable amounts of lignans as those of the natural distribution range.

   Structure-activity relationships of lignans from Schisandra chinensis as platelet activating factor antagonists.:Biol Pharm Bull. 1999; 22(3):265-7 (ISSN: 0918-6158).Lee IS; Jung KY; Oh SR; Park SH; Ahn KS; Lee HK.Biotechnology Research Division, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon.

 We studied the structure-activity relationships of lignans from Schisandra chinensis and their derivatives as platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonists. Strong activity was shown in lignans without an ester group at C-6, a hydroxyl group at C-7 or a methylene dioxy moiety and with an R-biphenyl configuration. 6(7)-Dehydroschisandrol A, a derivative of schisandrol A, showed the highest activity (IC50, 2.1x10(-6) M) in this study.

   Phytotherapeutic aspects of diseases of the circulatory system. 8. Chinese magnolia (Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.): production of the drugs and their evaluation, therapeutic and dietary preparations.:Ceska Slov Farm. 2001; 50(5):219-24 (ISSN: 1210-7816).Opletal L; Krenkov?? M; Havl?-ckov?? P.Katedra farmaceutick?? botaniky a ekologie Farmaceutick?? fakulty Univerzity Karlovy, Hradec Kr??lov??. opletal@faf.cuni.cz

 Extracts from the fruits (seeds) of Schisandra chinensis L. and pure isolated substances are one of the components of medicinal preparations designed for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, liver diseases, diseases of the CNS related to the old age, as a supplement in the treatment of neoplasms, diabetes, etc. They are also used for the production of nutraceuticals (soft drinks and health foods), preparations for oral hygiene and for the care for the skin and hair. The review discusses complex analytical methods used for the determination of the content of substances and the phenomena of population ecology in relation with drug production.

   Simultaneous determination of quercetin, kaempferol and (E)-cinnamic acid in vegetative organs of Schisandra chinensis Baill. by HPLC.:J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2001; 24(5-6):1049-54 (ISSN: 0731-7085).Sladkovsk?? R; Solich P; Opletal L.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Heyrovsk??ho 1203, 500 05 Hradec Kr??lov??, Czech Republic.

 A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) separation method with UV spectrophotometric detection has been developed for the determination of major components in leaves and caulomas of Schisandra chinensis Baill. The flavonols (quercetin and kaempferol) and (E)-cinnamic acid were analysed after extraction with alcohol from the dry plant material. Identification was based on retention times and UV spectra by comparison with commercial standards. Quercetin, kaempferol and (E)-cinnamic acid were separated within 12 min using acetonitrile-aqueous 0.05% ortho-phosphoric acid (40:60 v/v) mobile phase. The method has been successfully applied for the quantitative analysis of all three major components in several samples from different harvests using propylparaben as the internal standard.
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   Schisandra chinensis protects against adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.:Chang Gung Med J. 2006; 29(1):63-70.You JS; Pan TL; Hou YC.School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipe, ROC. y0606@mail.cgu.edu.tw

 BACKGROUND: Adriamycin (ADR) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent against cancers but its clinical use is limited due to its cardiotoxicity. It has been suggested that the pathogenesis involves inhibition of nucleic acid and protein synthesis, free radical formation and lipid peroxidation. Schisandra (SC) has strong antioxidant activity. We investigate the protective effects of SC on adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into four groups: CONT (control), ADR, SC and SC + ADR. After treatment, the hearts of the rats were surgically removed and studied for synthesis rates of nucleic acid and protein, myocardial antioxidants and lipid peroxidation. Results: Cardiotoxicity was characterized by ascites, congested liver and depressed cardiac function. Nucleic acid and protein synthesis were inhibited, malondialdehyde (MDA) was increased, while myocardial glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were decreased by ADR. In contrast, administration of SC before and concurrent with ADR significantly reduced mortality and the amount of ascites. Indexes in myocardial GSHPx, macromolecular biosynthesis and SOD activities increased with a concomitant decrease in lipid peroxidation. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that ADR cardiotoxicity is associated with antioxidant deficit and SC treatment changes the antioxidant status of the heart and improves cardiac function.

   Determination of lignans in Schisandra chinensis using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.:Electrophoresis. 2002; 23(2):253-8 (ISSN: 0173-0835).Sterbov?? H; Sevc?-kov?? P; Kvasnickov?? L; Glatz Z; Slanina J.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

 Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) has been developed as a promising method for the determination of lignans in plant samples. The separation conditions have been optimized with respect to the different parameters including sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and acetonitrile concentration, pH of the background electrolyte, separation voltage, and capillary temperature. The background electrolyte consisting of 40 mM SDS and 35% acetonitrile in 10 mM tetraborate buffer (pH 9.3) was found to be the most suitable electrolyte for this analysis. The applied voltage of 28 kV (positive polarity) and the capillary temperature 25 degrees C gave the best separation of lignans. The interday reproducibility of the peak areas and the migration times was below 2.0%. The results of MEKC analyses were compared with those obtained by capillary electrochromatography (CEC) and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The possibilities of using this method for the determination of lignans in drug and in serum samples were also tested.

   Seed germinative characteristics and embryo development of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Bail.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1999; 24(8):459-61, 510 (ISSN: 1001-5302).Zhang L; Chen Z; Li X.Institute of Medicinal Plant, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100094.

 OBJECTIVE: To detect the germinative character of S. chinensis seeds. METHOD: Using low temperature and gibberellin treatment. RESULT: The breach rate of seeds was increased by both low temperature and gibberellin, but the breach on different seeds appeared untidy, which showing a character. The embryo development is normal before breaching and increased in volume rapidly after breaching. CONCLUSION: The bypoplasia of embryos is not the primary reason for long dormancy of the seeds.

   Separation and determination of lignans from seeds of Schisandra species by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography using ionic liquid as modifier.:J Chromatogr A. 2005; 1078(1-2):181-7 (ISSN: 0021-9673).Tian K; Qi S; Cheng Y; Chen X; Hu Z.Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.

 In this paper, a micellar electrokinetic chromatographic (MEKC) method using ionic liquid as modifier for the quantification of the active components of lignans found in the medicinal herbs Schisandra species was developed for the first time. Preliminary investigations employing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant did not lead to the necessary resolution of the studied compounds, the addition of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM-BF4) to the SDS micellar system resulted in the complete separation of all the compounds. The effects on the separation by several parameters such as BMIM-BF4 and SDS concentration, applied voltage, background electrolyte pH and concentration, were evaluated. Under the optimal conditions (5 mM borate-5 mM phosphate buffer in the presence of 20 mM SDS and 10 mM BMIM-BF4, pH 9.2, applied voltage 25 kV and detection at 254 nm), the method successfully applied to the determination of lignans in extracts of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. and Schisandra henryi C.B. Clarke in less than 13 min. The separation mechanism was also discussed.

   Research progress on determination of lignans from Schiandra chinensis and its preparations.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005; 30(9):650-3 (ISSN: 1001-5302).Yang LQ; Wu XY; Xu ZQ; Hou HR; Fu HZ.School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212001, China. yangliuqing@ujs.edu.cn

 The latest research progress on quantitative determination methods of main active components-lignans from Schisandra chinensis and its preparations has been summarized, such as spectrophotometry, thin-layer chromatography scanning, high performance liquid chromatograpy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and capillary electrochromatography. The characteristics and application areas of every analytical method have also been stated. It offers reference on quality control of crude drug and its preparations of S. chinensis.
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   Dibenzo[a,c]cyclooctadiene lignans of the genus Schisandra: importance, isolation and determination.:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2004; 812(1-2):357-71 (ISSN: 1570-0232).Opletal L; Sovov?? H; B??rtlov?? M.Department of Pharmaceutical Botany and Ecology, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kr??lov??, Charles University in Prague, Heyrovsk??ho 1203, CZ-50005 Hradec Kr??lov??, Czech Republic.

 The drug Wuweizi (dried fruits of Schisandra chinensis or S. sphenantherd) is one of important medicinal means used in the Oriental medicine. The lignans of dibenzo[a,c]cyklooctadiene type are major constituents, a volatile oil with mono- and ses-quiterpens, an oil, organic acids and small amounts of additional compounds are also present. The content of major lignans (schizandrin, deoxyschizandrin, gomisin A, gomisin N, gamma-schizandrin, wuweizisu C) in commercially available drugs ranges usually between 3 and 5%. The present paper biefly comments the isolation and biological activity of the lignans and is especially concerned with analytical methods (TLC and HPLC) for the determination of the drug fingerprint and methods for the determination of constituents in drugs, mixtures and biological materials. HPLC methods using RP-silica bonded phases and diluted methanol, acetonitrile (or a mixture of both), are most important for these purposes. Electromigration methods are less suitable and the importance of hyphenation procedures is practically negligible.

   Determination of lignans of Schisandra medicinal plants by HPLC.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003; 28(12):1155-60 (ISSN: 1001-5302).Wang YH; Gao JP; Chen DF.Deparment of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To determinate the contents of lignans in the stems, roots and fruits of Schisandra medicinal plants. METHOD: HPLC was applied to determine the contents of schisandrin, gomisin A, schisantherin A, deoxyschizandrin, d-epigalbacine, (+)-anwulignan, wuweizisu B, 6-O-benzoylgomisin O and wuweizisu C in the stems, roots and fruits of Schisandra. RESULT: The percent contents of 9 lignans in the fruits of 5 species were 0.52% - 1.96%, and 0.02% - 1.51% in the stems of 11 species. The lignans in the fruits of S. micrantha were similar to that of S. sphenanthera, especially with high content of deoxyschizandrin. The lignans of S. viridis were similar to that of S. chinensis and with high content of schisandrin, gomisin A and wuweizisu B. (+)-Anwulignan was present in the fruits of S. henryi and S. sphenanthera, in the stems of S. micrantha and S. pubescens var. pubinervis, and in the roots of S. bicolor with percentages of 0.77%, 0.42%, 0.50%, 0.26% and 0.38% respectively. d-Epigalbacine was present in the stems of S. pubescens var. pubinervis, S. pubescens and S. glaucescens with percentages of 0.89%, 1.51% and 0.17% respectively. CONCLUSION: The lignans contents in the fruits of Schisandra were higher than that in the roots and stems. The fruits of S. henryi and S. sphenanthera, the stems of S. micrantha and S. pubescens var. pubinervis and the roots of S. bicolor, the stems of S. pubescens var. pubinervis, S. pubescens and S. glaucescens may be served as the resources plants of (+)-anwulignan and d-epigalbacine respectively.

   In vivo antioxidant action of a lignan-enriched extract of Schisandra fruit and an anthraquinone-containing extract of Polygonum root in comparison with schisandrin B and emodin.:Planta Med. 2002; 68(11):951-6 (ISSN: 0032-0943).Chiu PY; Mak DH; Poon MK; Ko KM.Department of Biochemistry, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China.

 The in vivo antioxidant action of a lignan-enriched extract of the fruit of Schisandra chinensis (FS) and an anthraquinone-containing extract of the root of Polygonum multiflorum (PME) was compared with their respective active constituents schisandrin B (Sch B) and emodin by examining their effect on hepatic mitochondrial glutathione antioxidant status in control and carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-intoxicated mice. FS and PME pretreatments produced a dose-dependent protection against CCl 4 hepatotoxicity, with the effect of FS being more potent. Pretreatment with Sch B, emodin or alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) also protected against CCl 4 hepatotoxicity, with the effect of Sch B being more potent. The extent of hepatoprotection afforded by FS/Sch B and PME/emodin pretreatment against CCl 4 toxicity was found to correlate well with the degree of enhancement in hepatic mitochondrial glutathione antioxidant status, as evidenced by increases in reduced glutathione level and activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase as well as glutathione S-transferases, in both control and CCl 4 -intoxicated mice. alpha-Toc, which did not enhance mitochondrial glutathione antioxidant status, seemed to be less potent in protecting against CCl 4 hepatotoxicity. The ensemble of results indicates that FS/PME produced a more potent in vivo antioxidant action than alpha-Toc by virtue of their ability to enhance hepatic mitochondrial glutathione antioxidant status and that the differential potency of FS and PME can be attributed to the difference in in vivo antioxidant potential between Sch B and emodin. Abbreviations. ALT:alanine aminotransferases CCl 4 :carbon tetrachloride FS:lignan-enriched extract of Schisandra fruit GRD:glutathione reductase GSH:reduced glutathione GSH-Px: Se-glutathione peroxidase GST:glutathione S-transferases mt:mitochondrial MDA:malondialdehyde PME:anthraquinone-containing fraction of Polygonum root Sch B:schisandrin B SDH:sorbitol dehydrogenase alpha-Toc:alpha-tocopherol

   Schisandrin B protects myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury partly by inducing Hsp25 and Hsp70 expression in rats.:Mol Cell Biochem. 2004; 266(1-2):139-44 (ISSN: 0300-8177).Chiu PY; Ko KM.Department of Biochemistry, The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong SAR, China.

 Schisandrin B (Sch B) is a hepato- and cardioprotective ingredient isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, a traditional Chinese herb clinically used to treat viral and chemical hepatitis. In order to investigate whether the induction of heat shock protein (Hsp)25 and Hsp70 expression plays a role in the cardioprotection afforded by Sch B pre-treatment against ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury, the time-course of myocardial Hsp25 and Hsp70 expression was examined in Sch B-pre-treated rats. Sch B pre-treatment (1.2 mmol/kg) produced time-dependent increases in Hsp25 and Hsp70 expression in rat hearts, with the maximum enhancement observable at 48 and 72 h post-dosing, respectively. Buthionine sulfoximine/phorone treatment, while abolishing the beneficial effect of Sch B on mitochondrial glutathione redox status, did not completely abrogate the cardioprotection against I-R injury. Heat shock treatment could increase myocardial Hsp25 and Hsp70 expression and protect against I-R injury under the present experimental conditions. The results indicate that the induction of Hsp25 and Hsp70 expression contributes at least partly to the cardioprotection afforded by Sch B pre-treatment against I-R injury.

   Impact of Chisan (ADAPT-232) on the quality-of-life and its efficacy as an adjuvant in the treatment of acute non-specific pneumonia.:Phytomedicine. 2005; 12(10):723-9 (ISSN: 0944-7113).Narimanian M; Badalyan M; Panosyan V; Gabrielyan E; Panossian A; Wikman G; Wagner H.Department of Family Medicine, Yerevan State Medical University, Yerevan, Armenia.

 A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized (simple randomisation), pilot (phase III) study of Chisan, (ADAPT-232; a standardised fixed combination of extracts of Rhodiola rosea L., Schisandra chinensis Turcz. Baill., and Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim) was carried out on two parallel groups of patients suffering from acute nonspecific pneumonia. Sixty patients (males and females; 18-65 years old) received a standard treatment with cephazoline, bromhexine, and theophylline: in addition, one group of 30 patients was given Chisan mixture, whilst the second group of 30 patients received a placebo, each medication being taken twice daily from the beginning of the study for 10-15 days. The primary outcome measurements were the duration of antibiotic therapy associated with the clinical manifestations of the acute phase of the disease, together with an evaluation of mental performance in a psychometric test and the self-evaluation of quality-of-life (QOL) (WHOQOL-Bref questionnaires) before treatment and on the first and fifth days after clinical convalescence. The mean duration of treatment with antibiotics required to bring about recovery from the acute phase of the disease was 2 days shorter in patients treated with Chisan compared with those in the placebo group. With respect to all QOL domains (physical, psychological, social and ecological), patients in the Chisan group scored higher at the beginning of the rehabilitation period, and significantly higher on the fifth day after clinical convalescence, than patients in the control group. Clearly, adjuvant therapy with ADAPT-232 has a positive effect on the recovery of patients by decreasing the duration of the acute phase of the illness, by increasing mental performance of patients in the rehabilitation period, and by improving their QOL. Both the clinical and laboratory results of the present study suggest that Chisan (ADAPT-232) can be recommended in the standard treatment of patients with acute non-specific pneumonia as an adjuvant to increase the QOL and to expedite the recovery of patients.
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   Arbutin, salicin: the possibilities of their biotechnological production.:Ceska Slov Farm. 2005; 54(2):78-81 (ISSN: 1210-7816).Duskov?? J; Dusek J; Jahod??r L; Poustka F.Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Farmaceutick?? fakulta v Hradci Kr??lov??, Katedra farmaceutick?? botaniky a ekologie. duskova@faf.cuni.cz

 The paper aimed to transform exogenous precursors with in vitro cultures of Datura meteloides, Coronilla varia, Leuzea carthamoides and Schisandra chinensis. These cultures were added the precursors of arbutin and salicin (phenylalanine, cinnamic, p-coumaric, p-anisoic, o-coumaric, salicylic acids, salicylaldehyde, helicin), not yet tested by the present authors. The culture of Schisandra chinensis was also added, besides the above-mentioned precursors, hydroquinone, because this culture had not been employed for biotransformation purposes yet. The precursors tested were used in a concentration of 100 mg x l(-1) and the period of their action was 6; 12; 24; 48, and 168 hours. Positive results (both TLC and HPLC) in arbutin production were obtained in the culture of Schisandra chinensis after an addition of hydroquinone. The largest amount of arbutin in callus cultures was measured after a week's cultivation with hydroquinone (5.08 %). In this experimental variant, arbutin was released also to the culture medium. Our results revealed salicylaldehyde to be the optimal precursor of salicin. It was transformed by the culture of Datura meteloides after 6; 24, and 168 hours and by the culture of Coronilla varia after 6 hours. In comparison with arbutin, its amount was smaller.

   Total synthesis of schizandrin, the main active ingredient isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine fructus schizandrae.:Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1998; 33(6):424-8 (ISSN: 0513-4870).Chang J; Xie J.Henan Institute of Chemistry, Zhengzhou 450003.

 In this paper, schizandrin(9), the main active ingredient isolated from Schisandra chinensis, was synthesized from gallic acid by a new route. This route consists of only nine steps, including reductive-coupling reaction of compound(5) and dehydryoxylatic reaction of compound(6) to give compounds(7Z, 7E). By hydroboration, compound (8) was obtained from compound(7Z). With the presence of thallium trifluoroacetate (TTFA) and 2, 3-dichloro-5, 6-dicyano-1, 4-benzoquinone (DDQ) compound (9) is obtained from compound (8) by intramolecular nonphenolic oxidative coupling. These compounds were identified by elemental analysis, MS, UV, IR and NMR spectra.

   Natural occurrence of cancer-preventive geranylgeranoic acid in medicinal herbs.:J Lipid Res. 2004; 45(6):1092-103 (ISSN: 0022-2275)

 Geranylgeranoic acid (GGA; all-trans 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenoic acid) has been shown to induce apoptosis in a human hepatoma-derived cell line, HuH-7. We aimed not only to confirm the apoptogenic properties of GGA and its derivatives, but also to search for natural GGA in medicinal herbs. GGA induced apoptosis in human hepatoma-derived cell lines, HuH-7, PLC/PRF-5, and mouse transformed hepatocyte-derived cell line, MLE-10, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but failed to induce cell death in human hepatoblastoma-derived HepG-2 and mouse primary hepatocytes in the same condition. Besides GGA, 4,5-didehydro GGA, 14,15-dihydro GGA, and 2,3-dihydro GGA were also active to induce cell death in HuH-7 cells, while 4,5-didehydro-10,11, 14,15-tetrahydro GGA, 4,5,8,9-tetrahydro GGA, farnesoic acid, and geranylgeraniol were inert. By using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, we found natural GGA as a negative ion of m/z 303.4 in a Chinese herb, Schisandra chinensis, and Schisandra GGA was identified by derivatization with both mild methylation and catalytic hydrogenation. Some other GGAs hydrogenated in the different degrees, including phytanic acid (perhydro GGA), were also found in S. chinensis. GGA and phytanic acid were detected in 24 out of 25 herbs tested. The present study is the first report of natural GGA in medicinal herbs.

   Dibenzocyclooctadiene lingnans: a class of novel inhibitors of P-glycoprotein.:Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2006; 58(1):99-106 (ISSN: 0344-5704).Pan Q; Lu Q; Zhang K; Hu X.The Cancer Institute, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

 PURPOSE: To determine if five dibenzocyclooctadiene lingnans, a class of naturally occurring compounds from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill, have the activities to reverse P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated multidrug resistance (MDR). METHODS: The IC(50)s of four MDR cell lines (K562/Adr, MCF-7/Adr, KBv200, and Bcap37/Adr) toward daunorubicin, vincristine, and paclitaxel in the presence or absence of one of the dibenzocyclooctadiene lingnans were determined by a FACscan assay. The intracellular daunorubicin accumulation in the four MDR cell lines was determined by incubation of cells with daunorubicin (2 microg/ml) in the presence or absence of one of the dibenzocyclooctadiene lingnans by a FACscan assay. The interaction of the five dibenzocyclooctadiene lingnans with P-gp was assayed by their inhibition of (3)H-azidopine photoaffinity labeling of P-gp. RESULTS: Among the five lingnans, while schisandrin A and B, and schisantherin A demonstrated strong and comparable activities to reverse the drug resistance and the intracellular drug accumulation in four MDR cell lines, schisandrol A and B showed very limited activities. The poor activities of schisandrol A and B are possibly caused by the hydroxyl groups on the cyclooctadiene ring, because the activities of the molecules resumed when the hydroxyl group was esterified to form a benzoate. Further studies demonstrated that these compounds physically interacted with P-gp. CONCLUSION: Schisandrin A and B, and schisantherin A are potent P-gp inhibitor and is of potential for future clinical application.

   Immuno-regulatory effects of CKBM on the activities of mitogen-activated protein kinases and the release of cytokines in THP-1 monocytic cells.:Biol Pharm Bull. 2005; 28(9):1645-50 (ISSN: 0918-6158).Chan AS; Yip EC; Yung LY; Pang H; Luk SC; Pang SF; Wong YH.Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Neuroscience Center and Biotechnology Research Institute, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China.

 CKBM is an herbal formula composed of five Chinese medicinal herbs (Panax ginseng, Schisandra chinensis, Fructus crataegi, Ziziphus jujube and Glycine Max) supplemented with processed Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Previous studies have demonstrated that CKBM is capable of triggering the release of IL-6 and TNFalpha from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and its anti-tumorigenic activity has been demonstrated in nude mice with gastric cancer. In this report, we utilized the THP-1 monocytic cell line as a cellular model to investigate how CKBM regulates the intracellular signaling of monocytes and the subsequent release of the produced cytokines. In terms of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, CKBM (20%) had no significant effect on ERK, but was linked to an inhibitory effect on JNK and a stimulatory effect on p38 MAPK. The differential responsiveness of JNK and p38 was dependent on the duration of treatment, as well as on the dosage of CKBM. Treatment of CKBM alone induced the release of IL-10 and IFNgamma, but not IL-1beta, IL-4, IL-6 and TNFbeta, while increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration by A23187 triggered the release of IL-10 only. Interestingly, A23187 synergized with the activities of CKBM-treated THP-1 cells in terms of IL-1beta and IFNgamma production, while the IL-10 production showed no synergistic relationship between CKBM and A23187. This A23187-induced synergism was associated with a dose-dependent character towards CKBM administration. In view of the intracellular Ca2+ elevation during monocyte activation, our results suggest that CKBM can serve as a promoting agent for modulating the functions of monocytes.
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   In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori action of 30 Chinese herbal medicines used to treat ulcer diseases.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 98(3):329-33 (ISSN: 0378-8741).Li Y; Xu C; Zhang Q; Liu JY; Tan RX.Institute of Functional Biomolecules, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, PR China.

 Infection by Helicobacter pylori has been ascertained to be an important etiologic impetus leading usually to chronic active gastritis and gastric ulcer with growing incidences worldwide. Utilizing as the test pathogen a standard and five clinic strains of Helicobacter pylori, the antibacterial action was assessed in vitro with ethanol extracts of 30 Chinese herbal medicines which have been frequently prescribed since ancient times for treating gastritis-like disorders. Among the 30 tested materials, the ethanol extracts of Abrus cantoniensis (Fabaceae), Saussurea lappa (Asteraceae) and Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) were strongly inhibitory to all test strains (MICs: approximately 40 microg/ml), and Hippophae rhamnoides (Elaeagnaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii (Liliaceae), Magnolia officinalis and Schisandra chinensis (Magnoliaceae), Corydalis yanhusuo (Papaveraceae), Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae), Bupleurum chinense and Ligusticum chuanxiong (Apiaceae) substantially active with MICs close to 60.0 microg/ml. As to antibacterial actions of the aqueous extracts of the same drugs, those derived from Cassia obtusifolia (Fabaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii and Eugenia caryophyllata were remarkably inhibitory against all the six Helicobacter pylori strains (MICs: approximately 60 microg/ml). The work compared almost quantitatively the magnitude of the anti-Helicobacter pylori actions of the 30 most prescribed gastritis-treating Chinese herbal drugs, and located as well some source plants where potent anti-Helicobacter pylori phytochemicals could be characterized.

   Schisandrin B--a novel inhibitor of P-glycoprotein.:Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005; 335(2):406-11 (ISSN: 0006-291X).Qiangrong P; Wang T; Lu Q; Hu X.The Cancer Institute, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

 P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux is one of the major causes of the cancer multidrug resistance (MDR). Inhibition of P-glycoprotein could reverse cancer MDR. Here, we show that schisandrin B, a naturally occurring compound from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill, bears strong potency to inhibit P-glycoprotein. Schisandrin B reversed the drug resistance of four MDR cell lines characterized with overexpression of P-glycoprotein and fully restored the intracellular drug accumulation by interacting with P-glycoprotein. Schisandrin B has a core structure of dibenzocyclooctadiene, representing a novel P-glycoprotein inhibitor. To our best knowledge, the role of schisandrin B to inhibit P-glycoprotein has not been reported.

   Inhibitory effect of the Korean herbal medicine, Dae-Jo-Whan, on platelet-activating factor-induced platelet aggregation.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 102(3):430-9 (ISSN: 0378-8741).Chang GT; Kang SK; Kim JH; Chung KH; Chang YC; Kim CH.Department of Pediatrics, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Oriental Medicine, Dongguk University, Kyungju City, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea.

 The anti-thrombic properties of the Korean herbal medicine, Dae-Jo-Hwan (DJW) were investigated. Water extracts, a 70% methanol (MeOH) extract and an ethyl acetate (EtOAc) soluble fraction (III) from DJW inhibited platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo assays. The extracts of DJW and eleven herbs from which it is derived, except for Panax ginseng Meyer, Angelica sinensis (OLIV.) DIELS and Schisandra chinensis Baill., inhibited AA-induced blood platelet aggregation to various extents. The effects observed with total DJW was synergistic over-additive rather that additive since the sum of single contributions was lower than the effect of the total extract. Fraction III was specially protected against the lethality of PAF, while verapamil did not afford any protection. Exogenously applied arachidonic acid (AA) (100 microM) led to a 89% platelet aggregation, the release of 14 pmol of ATP, and the formation of either 225 pg of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) or 45 pg of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), each parameter being related to 10(6) platelets. An application of DJW 5 min before AA, dose-dependently diminished aggregation, ATP-re lease, and the synthesis of TXA2 and PGE2, with IC(50) values of 70, 87, 65 and 72 microg/ml, respectively. The similarity of the IC(50) values suggests the inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) by DJW as the primary target, thus suppressing the generation of TXA2, which induces platelet aggregation and the exocytosis of ATP by its binding on TXA2-receptors. These results indicate that DJW shows anti-thrombotic action on human platelets and inhibits the action of PAF in vivo by an antagonistic effect on PAF. Therefore, it may be useful in treating disorders caused by PAF.

   A novel experimental model of acute hypertriglyceridemia induced by schisandrin B.:Eur J Pharmacol. 2006; 537(1-3):200-4 (ISSN: 0014-2999).Pan SY; Dong H; Han YF; Li WY; Zhao XY; Ko KM.Department of Pharmacology, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100102, China. si-yuan-pan@163.com

 Mice were intragastrically treated with single doses (0.05-0.8 g/kg) of schisandrin B (a dibenzocyclooctadiene derivative isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis). Twenty-four hours after schisandrin B administration, the serum triglyceride level was increased by 10-235% in a dose-dependent manner. However, the serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol level was significantly decreased by 28% at a dose of 0.8 g/kg. When given once daily (0.01-0.2 g/kg) for 4 days, schisandrin B also dose-dependently elevated the serum triglyceride level (17-134%). Kinetics parameters estimated by Scott's plot analysis of schisandrin B-induced changes in serum and hepatic triglyceride levels were determined: serum-E(max) (maximal effect)=6 mmol/L (384% increase, P<0.001); K(D) (affinity)=0.59 mmol/kg; pD(2) (an index of affinity)=6.62; liver-E(max)=21 micromol/g (68% increase, P<0.001); K(D)=0.37 mmol/kg; pD(2)=6.83. The efficacy of schisandrin B in increasing the triglyceride level was 5.6-fold higher in serum than in liver tissue. Fenofibrate (0.2g/kg) treatment, when in combination with schisandrin B (0.2g/kg), for 4 days significantly reduced the schisandrin B-induced increase in serum triglyceride level (by 81%, P<0.001). Hepatic triglyceride level was also decreased (by 100%, P<0.001) by co-treatment with fenofibrate. Our results suggest that schisandrin B treatment can be used to establish a mouse model of acute hypertrigylceridemia.

   Gomisin A alters substrate interaction and reverses P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in HepG2-DR cells.:Biochem Pharmacol. 2006; 72(7):824-37 (ISSN: 0006-2952).Wan CK; Zhu GY; Shen XL; Chattopadhyay A; Dey S; Fong WF.Bioactive Products Research Group, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong S A R, China.

 Through an extensive herbal drug screening program, we found that gomisin A, a dibenzocyclooctadiene compound isolated from Schisandra chinensis, reversed multidrug resistance (MDR) in Pgp-overexpressing HepG2-DR cells. Gomisin A was relatively non-toxic but without altering Pgp expression, it restored the cytotoxic actions of anticancer drugs such as vinblastine and doxorubicin that are Pgp substrates but may act by different mechanisms. Several lines of evidence suggest that gomisin A alters Pgp-substrate interaction but itself is neither a Pgp substrate nor competitive inhibitor. (1) First unlike Pgp substrates gomisin A inhibited the basal Pgp-associated ATPase (Pgp-ATPase) activity. (2) The cytotoxicity of gomisin A was not affected by Pgp competitive inhibitors such as verapamil. (3) Gomisin A acted as an uncompetitive inhibitor for Pgp-ATPase activity stimulated by the transport substrates verapamil and progesterone. (4) On the inhibition of rhodamine-123 efflux the effects of gomisin A and the competitive inhibitor verapamil were additive, so were the effects of gomisin A and the ATPase inhibitor vanadate. (5) Binding of transport substrates with Pgp would result in a Pgp conformational change favoring UIC-2 antibody reactivity but gomisin A impeded UIC-2 binding. (6) Photocrosslinking of Pgp with its transport substrate [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin was inhibited by gomisin A in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together our results suggest that gomisin A may bind to Pgp simultaneously with substrates and alters Pgp-substrate interaction.
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   Relationship between components changes and efficacy of Shengmaisan VII. Chemical dynamic change of schisandrin in Shengmaisan.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006; 31(12):1010-2 (ISSN: 1001-5302).Yue L; Zhu DN; Yan YQ; Yu BY.Department of Chinese Prescription, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210038, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To study the change of schisandrin in Shengmaisan (SMS) and decomposed group. METHOD: The HPLC-UV was used to determine schisandrin in SMS and decomposed group. RESULT: To extract Schisandra chinensis with ginseng, ophiopogon, general ginsenoside or ginsenoside Rg1 could promote the content of schisandrin. CONCLUSION: Saponin is propitious to extracting the schisandrin.

   CKBM stimulates MAPKs but inhibits LPS-induced IFN-gamma in lymphocytes.:Phytother Res. 2006; 20(9):725-31 (ISSN: 0951-418X).Chan AS; Yip EC; Yung LY; Pang H; Luk SC; Pang SF; Wong YH.Department of Biochemistry, the Molecular Neuroscience Center, and the Biotechnology Research Institute, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

 CKBM is an herbal formula composed of five Chinese medicinal herbs (Panax ginseng, Schisandra chinensis, Fructus crataegi, Ziziphus jujuba and Glycine max) supplemented with processed Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has been demonstrated that CKBM is capable of triggering the release of IL-6 and TNFalpha from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In this report, T-lymphocytic Sup-T1 cells and B-lymphocytic Ramos cells were utilized as cellular models to investigate how CKBM regulates intracellular signaling as well as the production of cytokines. CKBM stimulated the three major subgroups of mitogen-activated protein kinase (i.e. ERK, JNK and p38) in Sup-T1 cells, but only triggered the activation of ERK and p38 in Ramos cells. The induction of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activations varied with the duration of treatment, as well as with the dosage of CKBM. In terms of cytokine production, treatment of CKBM alone did not trigger the release of IL-1beta and IFNgamma, but it suppressed the LPS-induced IFNgamma production from both Sup-T1 cells and Ramos cells. In view of the therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicines in inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, the results suggest that CKBM may exhibit its immuno-modulatory effects by regulating intracellular signaling as well as cytokine production in different lymphocytic cell types.

   Role of component herbs in antioxidant activity of shengmai san--a traditional Chinese medicine formula preventing cerebral oxidative damage in rat.:Am J Chin Med. 2003; 31(4):509-21 (ISSN: 0192-415X)

 Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an attractive model for studying antioxidant-based composite therapy. We previously reported that Shengmai San (SMS), a TCM formulation for treating cardiac disorders, inhibited cerebral oxidative damage in rats when evaluated by both glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity loss and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) formation after forebrain ischemia-reperfusion. In the present study, we further examined the preventive effect of SMS and related decoctions composed of three component herbs (Panax ginseng, Ophiopogon japonicus and Schisandra chinensis) against oxidative brain injury to rationalize the complex formulation of SMS. Schisandra chinensis itself and decoctions containing it all inhibited TBARS formation in vivo. In contrast, Ophiopogon japonicus itself and formulations containing it had little effect on TBARS formation. GPX activity loss in vivo, on the other hand, was completely prevented only by SMS and Ophiopogon japonicus itself. A comparison of the in vitro antioxidant potential of SMS and related decoctions and in vivo effectiveness in preventing cerebral oxidative damage revealed that all the in vitro antioxidant indices examined here essentially correlated well with inhibition of TBARS formation in vivo. DPPH quenching and crocin bleaching activities showed particularly good correlation, and then, superoxide scavenging activity followed. However, none of them correlated with the inhibition of GPX activity loss in vivo. The role of each component herb is also discussed for the SMS effect.

   Effects of herbal preparation Equiguard on hormone-responsive and hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma cells: mechanistic studies.:Int J Oncol. 2002; 20(4):681-9 (ISSN: 1019-6439).Hsieh TC; Lu X; Guo J; Xiong W; Kunicki J; Darzynkiewicz Z; Wu JM.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Brander Cancer Research Institute, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA.

 The Equiguard is a dietary supplement comprised of standardized extracts from nine herbs, respectively, Herba epimedium brevicornum Maxim (stem and leaves), Radix morindae officinalis (root), Fructus rosa laevigatae michx (fruit), Rubus chingii Hu (fruit), Schisandra chinensis (Turz.) Baill (fruit), Ligustrum lucidum Ait (fruit), Cuscuta chinensis Lam (seed), Psoralea corylifolia L. (fruit), and Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge (root). This proprietary product, formulated according to Chinese traditional medicinal concepts, is aimed at restoring harmony in the of the kidney, an organ which Chinese medicinal principles consider to be vital for invigorating as well as maintaining balance of the entire urological system. As the prostate is an integral component of the urological system, we performed in vitro studies to test the effects of ethanol extracts of Equiguard to modulate prostate growth and gene expression. These studies used prostate cancer cells mimicking the androgen-dependent (AD) and androgen-independent (AI) states of prostate carcinogenesis. Results show that Equiguard significantly reduced cancer cell growth, induced apoptosis, suppressed expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and lowered intracellular and secreted prostate specific antigen (PSA), and almost completely abolished colony forming abilities of prostate cancer cells. These data support the interpretation that this herbal formulation contains ingredients that collectively may be efficacious in preventing or treating AD and AI prostate carcinoma. The anti-prostatic activities of Equiguard may stem from its complex composition capable of targeting multiple signal transduction/metabolic pathways, to effectively correct, counteract or circumvent the impaired or dysfunctional mechanisms accompanying different stages of prostate carcinogenesis.

   The effect of elton, leveton, fitoton and adapton on the work capacity of experimental animals.:Eksp Klin Farmakol. 1998; 61(3):61-3 (ISSN: 0869-2092).Azizov AP; Se?-fulla RD.Department of Biologically Active Substances, All-Russian Research Institute of Physical Culture, Mowcow, Russia.

 The test with running on a treadbane showed a 56% increase of working capacity in the control group of male albino mice on the 20th day of training. Oral administration of elton, leveton, phytoton, and adapton, as well as Leuzea and Rhodiola extracts and Schisandra chinensis tincture caused a statistically significant increase in the time of running on the treadbane of animals by the 10th day of medication. The increase in the working capacity of the animals was more marked by the 20th day. In the test of swimming "to the limit" adapton, phytoton, leveton, and elton increased to a greater extent the working capacity of male albino rats in diminishing succession (from 213 to 168%). Schisandra tincture and Rhodiola and Leuzea extracts also increased the swimming time of the animals by 135-159%.
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   Effect of plant matrix and fluid ethanol concentration on supercritical fluid extraction efficiency of schisandrin derivatives.:J Chromatogr Sci. 1999; 37(12):457-61 (ISSN: 0021-9665).Kim Y; Choi YH; Chin YW; Jang YP; Kim YC; Kim J; Kim JY; Joung SN; Noh MJ; Yoo KP.College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Korea.

 An investigation of the effect of plant matrix on the supercritical fluid extraction efficiency of five schisandrin derivatives is reported, exhibiting a great difference with respect to extraction efficiency depending on the matrix. Pure supercritical CO2 at 60 degrees C and 34.0 MPa cannot fully recover schisandrin derivatives from the leaves as much as from the other matrices. Only 36.9% of these compounds are extracted from leaves of Schisandra chinensis by supercritical CO2 in comparison with organic solvent extraction. However, more than 80% of schisandrin derivatives are obtained from both stem and fruit parts. Ethanol addition also shows a different effect depending on plant matrix; that is, CO2 modified with 10% ethanol could enhance the yield of schisandrin derivatives from leaves by four times when compared with that of pure CO2, but it has little effect on both stems and fruits.

   Effects of danshen and shengmaiye on glomerulosclerosis by adriamycin in rats.:Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 1999; 24(4):332-4 (ISSN: 1000-5625).Peng Y; Liu F; Luo J; Liu B.Department of Internal Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital, Hunan Medical University, Changsha 410011.

 OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of danshen(Salvia plectranthoides Griff.) and shengmaiye (Panax ginseng C. A. Mey, Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl and Schisandra chinensis Baill) on glomerulosclerosis induced by adriamycin in SD rats. METHODS: Left kidney of the animals was removed and after 7 days, adriamycin(6 mg.kg-1) was injected through tail vein, so as to establish an animal disease model. Then danshen or shengmaiye was injected to peritoneal cavity of the rats. All rats were killed by the end of the 8th week. Hemoglobin, BUN, cholesterol and protein in urea within 24 hours(ur Pro/24 h) were detected. IV collagen(IV col.) and laminin(LN) of renal cortex were determined by ELISA. The quantitation of IV col and LN in glomerular mesangial area was analyzed by computer pictures. RESULTS: Compared with model-danshen group(Group III), model-shenmaiye group(Group IV) and normal control group(Group I), BUN, cholesterol(Ch) and ur Pro/24 h were increased obviously and hemoglobin(Hb) was decreased in model control group(Group II). The values of BUN, Ch and Ur Pro were lower in Group III and Group IV than those in Group II and higher than those in Group I (P < 0.05). The quantitation of IV col and LN within renal cortex and mesangial area was less in Group III and Group IV than that in Group II and more than that in Group I (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Dansheng and shengmaiye may play an important role in the treatment of glomerulosclerosis in rats.

   Active-oxygen scavenging activity of traditional nourishing-tonic herbal medicines and active constituents of Rhodiola sacra.:J Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 67(1):111-9 (ISSN: 0378-8741).

 The active-oxygen scavenging activity of 70 traditional herbal medicines used in China and Japan as nourishing tonics were evaluated by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique, in order to evaluate their effectiveness for anti-aging and to search for new active-oxygen scavengers from natural resources. Most of the 70 herbal medicines showed scavenging activity with various intensities. Areca catechu (methanol extract), Dendrobium plicatile (methanol extract), Juglans regia (water extract), Paeonia lactiflora (methanol extract), Psychotria serpens (water and methanol extracts), Rhodiola sacra (water and methanol extracts) and Uncaria rhynchophylla (water extract) especially showed strong scavenging activity against superoxide anion radical (*O2-), while J. regia (water and methanol extracts), Morus alba (water extract) and Schisandra chinensis (water extract) revealed strong scavenging activity against hydroxyl radical (HO*). In addition, the active-oxygen scavenging activities of 19 compounds isolated from R. sacra were also examined, and hydroquinone (1), caffeic acid (3), protocatechuic acid (6), gallic acid (7), (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (8), 3-O-galloylepigallocatechin-(4beta-->8)-epigallocatechin+ ++ 3-O-gallate (10), heterodendrin (17) and gallic acid 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (19) were found to show mild or strong inhibitory activity against superoxide anion radical (*O2-), while 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2), 3, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4), 6-8 and 19 inhibited hydroxyl radical (OH*). These active-oxygen scavengers may contribute, to different extents, to their anti-aging action.

   Herbal preparations as a source of hepatoprotective agents.:Drug News Perspect. 2001; 14(6):353-63 (ISSN: 0214-0934).Ram VJ.Medicinal Chemistry Division, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

 Mono- and polyherbal preparations with potent antihepatotoxic activity in various liver disorders, made from traditionally used herbs with proven efficacy, have been described. More than 700 mono- and polyherbal preparations in the form of decoction, tincture, tablets and capsules from more than 100 plants are in clinical use. Some of the herbs--such as Silybum marianum, Picrorhiza kurroa, Andrographis paniculata and Glycyrrhizae radix--are very common in most of the polyherbal preparations. This review covers the preparations of widely used herbs such as S. marianum, Schisandra chinensis, Phyllanthus amarus, P. kurroa, A. paniculata, G. radix, Lycium chinense and Cochlospermum tinctorium as hepatoprotectants and includes the mode of action of these preparations. Some polyherbal preparations such as Livex, HD-03, Hepatomed and Hepatoguard with proven efficacy are also described in this review.

   Schisandrin B protects against tacrine- and bis(7)-tacrine-induced hepatotoxicity and enhances cognitive function in mice.:Planta Med. 2002; 68(3):217-20 (ISSN: 0032-0943).Pan SY; Han YF; Carlier PR; Pang YP; Mak DH; Lam BY; Ko KM.Department of Biochemistry, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, China.

 Intragastric administration (100-200 micromol/kg) of tacrine (THA) or bis(7)-THA could cause an acute and dose-dependent increase in plasma alanine aminotransferases activity in mice at 6 h after the drug administration. The increase in plasma enzyme activity was associated with an increase in hepatic malondialdehyde level, an indirect index of oxidative tissue damage. Pretreating mice with schisandrin B (Sch B), an active dibenzocyclooctadiene derivative isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, at a daily dose of 0.125-0.5 mmol/kg for 3 days protected against the THA/bis(7)-THA induced hepatic oxidative damage in a dose-dependent manner. Sch B treatment (0.025-0.5 mmol/kg/day x 5) also enhanced the passive avoidance-response in mice as assessed by the step-through task experiment. The ensemble of results suggests that Sch B may be useful for reducing the potential hepatotoxicity of THA/bis(7)-THA in anti-Alzheimer's therapy.
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   Differential effect of schisandrin B and dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate (DDB) on hepatic mitochondrial glutathione redox status in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated mice.:Mol Cell Biochem. 2000; 205(1-2):111-4 (ISSN: 0300-8177).Ip SP; Yiu HY; Ko KM.Department of Biochemistry, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, PR China.

 The effects of schisandrin B (Sch B), a dibenzocyclooctadiene derivative isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, and dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate (DDB), a synthetic intermediate of schisandrin C (also a dibenzocyclooctadiene derivative), on hepatic mitochondrial glutathione redox status in control and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-intoxicated mice were examined. Treating mice with Sch B or DDB at a daily oral dose of 1 mmol/kg for 3 d did not produce any significant alterations in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and sorbital dehydrogenase (SDH) activities. CCl4 treatment caused drastic increases in both plasma ALT and SDH activities in mice. Pretreating mice with Sch B or DDB at the same dosage regimen significantly suppressed the CCl4-induced increase in plasma ALT activity, with the inhibitory effect of Sch B being much more potent. Sch B, but not DDB, pretreatment could also decrease the plasma SDH activity in CCl4-intoxicated mice. The lowering of plasma SDH activity, indicative of hepatoprotection against CCl4 toxicity, by Sch B pretreatment was associated with an enhancement in hepatic mitochondrial glutathione redox status as well as an increase in mitochondrial glutathione reductase (mtGRD) activity in both non-CCl4 and CCl4-treated mice. DDB pretreatment, though enhancing both hepatic mitochondrial glutathione redox status and mtGRD activity in control animals, did not produce any beneficial effect in CCl4-treated mice. The difference in hepatoprotective action against CCl4 toxicity between Sch B and DDB may therefore be related to their ability to maintain hepatic mitochondrial glutathione redox status under oxidative stress condition.

   Schisandrin B protects against menadione-induced hepatotoxicity by enhancing DT-diaphorase activity.:Mol Cell Biochem. 2000; 208(1-2):151-5 (ISSN: 0300-8177).Ip SP; Yiu HY; Ko KM.Department of Biochemistry, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, P.R. China.

 Pretreating mice with schisandrin B (Sch B), a dibenzocyclooctadiene derivative isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, at a daily dose of 1 mmol/kg for 3 days protected against menadione-induced hepatic oxidative damage in mice, as evidenced by decreases in plasma alanine aminotransferase activity (78%) and hepatic malondialdehyde level (70%), when compared with the menadione intoxicated control. In order to define the biochemical mechanism involved in the hepatoprotection afforded by Sch B pretreatment, we examined the activity of DT-diaphorase (DTD) in hepatocytes isolated from Sch B pretreated rats. Hepatocytes isolated from Sch B pretreated (a daily dose of 1 mmol/kg for 3 days) rats showed a significant increase (25%) in DTD activity. The increase in DTD activity was associated with the enhanced rate of menadione elimination in the hepatocyte culture. The ensemble of results suggests that the ability of Sch B pretreatment to enhance hepatocellular DTD activity may at least in part be attributed to the protection against menadione hepatotoxicity.

   Aqueous extract of Schizandra chinensis fruit causes endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation of isolated rat thoracic aorta.:Phytomedicine. 2006; 13(9-10):651-7 (ISSN: 0944-7113).Rhyu MR; Kim EY; Yoon BK; Lee YJ; Chen SN.Food Function Research Division, Korea Food Research Institute, Gyeonggi-Do 463-420, Korea. mrrhyu@kfri.re.kr

 An aqueous extract of Schizandra chinensis fruit (ScEx) has long been used to promote the vascular health of postmenopausal women in Korea. This study investigated the ability of ScEx to relax rat aorta constricted with norepinephrine (NE) and the mechanism(s) of such relaxation. ScEx induced partial, endothelium-dependent relaxation. In particular, the relaxation induced by lower concentrations of ScEx (0.1 and 0.3 mg/ml) was largely endothelium-dependent, and was essentially abolished by NG-nitro-L-arginine, methylene blue, 1H-[1,2,3] oxadiazole [4,4-a] quinoxalin-1-one, indomethacin, or ICI 182,780. The results indicate that the response to ScEx involves enhancement of the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP system, and that it occurs via estrogen receptors. The magnitude of the inhibition with these treatments decreased with increasing ScEx concentration, however, indicating that other vasorelaxation mechanisms are involved, which depend on the ScEx concentration. Calcium concentration-dependent contraction curves in high potassium depolarization medium were shifted significantly to the right and downward after incubation with ScEx (0.3 and 1.0 mg/ml), implying that ScEx is also involved in inhibition of the extracellular calcium influx to vascular smooth muscle. These data demonstrate that ScEx caused both endothelium-dependent and -independent vasorelaxation, which may contribute to understanding the cardiovascular protective effect of ScEx..

   Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, pilot clinical trial of ImmunoGuard--a standardized fixed combination of Andrographis paniculata Nees, with Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim, Schizandra chinensis Bail. and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extracts in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever.:Phytomedicine. 2003; 10(4):271-85 (ISSN: 0944-7113).Amaryan G; Astvatsatryan V; Gabrielyan E; Panossian A; Panosyan V; Wikman G.Republican Children's FMF Center, Yerevan State Medical University, Yerevan, Armenia.

 Double blind, randomized, placebo controlled pilot study of ImmunoGuard--a standardized fixed combination of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim., Schizandra chinensis Bail., and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. special extracts standardized for the content of Andrographolide (4 mg/tablet), Eleuteroside E, Schisandrins and Glycyrrhizin, was carried out in two parallel groups of patients. The study was conducted in 24 (3-15 years of both genders) patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF), 14 were treated with tablets of series A (verum) and 10 patients received series B product (placebo). The study medication was taken three times of four tablets daily for 1 month. Daily dose of the andrographolide--48 mg. The primary outcome measures in physician's evaluation were related to duration, frequency and severity of attacks in FMF patients (attacks characteristics score). The patient's self-evaluation was based mainly on symptoms--abdominal, chest pains, temperature, arthritis, myalgia, erysipelas-like erythema. All of 3 features (duration, frequency, severity of attacks) showed significant improvement in the verum group as compared with the placebo. In both clinical and self evaluation the severity of attacks was found to show the most significant improvement in the verum group. Both the clinical and laboratory results of the present phase II (pilot) clinical study suggest that ImmunoGuard is a safe and efficacious herbal drug for the management of patients with FMF.

   Studies on extraction process of Fructus Schisandrae chinensis and Fructus Ligustri lucidi in gandening tablet.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004; 29(8):743-5 (ISSN: 1001-5302).Pan WJ; Xiao XH; Xiao X; Yuan HL; Zhao YL.Department of Pharmacy, 302 Hospital of People's Liberation Army, Beijing 100039, China. panwujiu@hotmail.com

 OBJECTIVE: To optimize the combined extraction methods of Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi. METHOD: The extraction effects of three processes (SFE CO2, alcohol-extraction, water-extraction) were compared by the contents of deoxyschizandrin, the dried extraction yield and production feasibility. RESULT: The method of alcohol-extraction was the best of the three methods, and the extraction conditions were optimized by orthogonal design as follows: sixfold 90% alcohol for two times and each for one hour. CONCLUSION: The extraction method is steady and feasible, which can be used for reference for the extraction process of Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi.
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   ESP-102, a standardized combined extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis and Schizandra chinensis, significantly improved scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.:Life Sci. 2005; 76(15):1691-705 (ISSN: 0024-3205).Kang SY; Lee KY; Koo KA; Yoon JS; Lim SW; Kim YC; Sung SH.College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.

 We assessed the effects of oral treatments of ESP-102, a standardized combined extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis and Schizandra chinensis, on learning and memory deficit. The cognition-enhancing effect of ESP-102 was investigated in scopolamine-induced (1 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) amnesic mice with both passive avoidance and Morris water maze performance tests. Acute oral treatment (single administration prior to scopolamine treatment) of mice with ESP-102 (doses in the range of 10 to 100 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the passive avoidance performance test. Another noteworthy result included the fact that prolonged oral daily treatments of mice with much lower amounts of ESP-102 (1 and 10 mg/kg body weight) for ten days reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits. In the Morris water maze performance test, both acute and prolonged oral treatments with ESP-102 (single administration of 100 mg/kg body weight or prolonged daily administration of 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight for ten days, respectively, significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory deficits as indicated by the formation of long-term and/or short-term spatial memory. In addition, we investigated the effects of ESP-102 on neurotoxicity induced by amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta25-35) or glutamate in primary cultured cortical neurons of rats. Pretreatment of cultures with ESP-102 (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mug/ml) significantly protected neurons from neurotoxicity induced by either glutamate or Abeta25-35. These results suggest that ESP-102 may have some protective characteristics against neuronal cell death and cognitive impairments often observed in Alzheimer's disease, stroke, ischemic injury and other neurodegenerative diseases

   Extracts from Schizandra chinensis fruit activate estrogen receptors: a possible clue to its effects on nitric oxide-mediated vasorelaxation.:Biol Pharm Bull. 2004; 27(7):1066-9 (ISSN: 0918-6158).Lee YJ; Cho JY; Kim JH; Park WK; Kim DK; Rhyu MR.College of Engineering, Institute of Biotechnology, Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Sejong University, Seoul, Korea.

 Schizandra chinensis fruit has long been used for the treatment of cardiovascular symptoms associated especially with menopausal symptoms in Korea. To provide a scientific rationale for such uses, we have investigated the vasorelaxant effects of Schizandra chinensis fruit on the vasomotor tone of the rat thoracic aorta in an organ bath. The crude extracts of Schizandra chinensis fruit (SC-Ex) elicited a transient relaxing response in the endothelium-intact rat aorta contracted with norepinephrine. This relaxant effect was abolished by removal of the endothelium, and also by pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. We then examined whether this vasodilatory effect occurs through estrogen receptor by reporter assays. SC-Ex activated the estrogen-responsive luciferase gene in COS cells transiently transfected with estrogen receptor and reporter plasmids. The activation was maintained in the butanol-soluble fraction and further increased in the successively fractionated C(18) cartridge-adsorbed fraction (SC-ADF). Reporter gene activation by SC-ADF was inhibited by the specific estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780, indicating that the effect is estrogen receptor dependent. However, SC-ADF failed to activate the androgen receptor in COS cells transfected with the corresponding receptor and reporter plasmids. These data show that extracts of Schizandra chinensis fruit act as a weak phytoestrogen.

   The changes of three endogenous hormones during flower bud differentiation of Schisandga chinensis.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006; 31(1):24-6 (ISSN: 1001-5302).Ai J; Wang YP; Li CY; Guo XW; Li AM.College of Horticulture, Shenyang Agricultural University, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To reveal the relation between endogenous hormones and the flower bud differentiation in Schisandga chinensis. METHOD: Top buds of extremely short branch and axillary buds of long branch in the same plant of S. chinensis were used as material and the contents of endogenous hormones were measured during different periods of the flower bud differentiation with HPLC. RESULT: The result showed that flower bud differentiation and the formation of female flower were inhibited by high concentration of GA3 and were promoted by high concentration of ABA or ZT. Low ratio of GA3/ABA has the same result. CONCLUSION: There was a correlation between endogenous hormones and the flower bud differentiation of S. chinensis.

   Stimulating effect of adaptogens: an overview with particular reference to their efficacy following single dose administration.:Phytother Res. 2005; 19(10):819-38 (ISSN: 0951-418X).Panossian A; Wagner H.Swedish Herbal Institute, Viktor Rydbergsgatan 10, SE-411 32 Gothenburg, Sweden. ap@shi.se

 Plant adaptogens are compounds that increase the ability of an organism to adapt to environmental factors and to avoid damage from such factors. The beneficial effects of multi-dose administration of adaptogens are mainly associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a part of the stress-system that is believed to play a primary role in the reactions of the body to repeated stress and adaptation. In contrast, the single dose application of adaptogens is important in situations that require a rapid response to tension or to a stressful situation. In this case, the effects of the adaptogens are associated with another part of the stress-system, namely, the sympatho-adrenal-system (SAS), that provides a rapid response mechanism mainly to control the acute reaction of the organism to a stressor. This review focuses primarily on the SAS-mediated stimulating effects of single doses of adaptogens derived from Rhodiola rosea, Schizandra chinensis and Eleutherococcus senticosus. The use of these drugs typically generates no side effects, unlike traditional stimulants that possess addiction, tolerance and abuse potential, produce a negative effect on sleep structure, and cause rebound hypersomnolence or 'come down' effects. Furthermore, single administration of these adaptogens effectively increases mental performance and physical working capacity in humans. R. rosea is the most active of the three plant adaptogens producing, within 30 min of administration, a stimulating effect that continues for at least 4-6 h. The active principles of the three plants that exhibit single dose stimulating effects are glycosides of phenylpropane- and phenylethane-based phenolic compounds such as salidroside, rosavin, syringin and triandrin, the latter being the most active.

   Effect of a combination of extract from several plants on cell-mediated and humoral immunity of patients with advanced ovarian cancer.:Phytother Res. 2006; 20(5):424-5 (ISSN: 0951-418X).Kormosh N; Laktionov K; Antoshechkina M.NN Blokhin Cancer Research Center of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation. nkormosh@hotmail.com

 The influence of a plant preparation AdMax (Nulab Inc., Clearwater, FL, USA) on immunity in ovarian cancer patients was studied. The preparation is a combination of dried ethanol/water extracts from roots of Leuzea carthamoides, Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus senticosus and fruits of Schizandra chinensis. Twenty eight patients with stage III-IV epithelial ovarian cancer were treated once with 75 mg/m(2) cisplatin and 600 mg/m(2) cyclophosphamide. Peripheral blood was collected 4 weeks after the chemotherapy. Subclasses of T, B and NK lymphocytes were tested for in the blood samples: CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7, CD8, CD11B, CD16, CD20, CD25, CD38, CD45RA, CD50, CD71 and CD95. Immunoglobulin G, A and M concentrations were also determined. Changes were observed in the following T cell subclasses: CD3, CD4, CD5 and CD8. In patients who took AdMax (270 mg a day) for 4 weeks following the chemotherapy, the mean numbers of the four T cell subclasses were increased in comparison with the mean numbers of the T cell subclasses in patients who did not take AdMax. In patients who took AdMax, the mean amounts of IgG and IgM were also increased. The obtained results suggest that the combination of extracts from adaptogenic plants may boost the suppressed immunity in ovarian cancer patients who are subject to chemotherapy.
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   Determination of Lignans in the fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Trucz.) Baill. and S. Sphenanthern Rehd. et Wils. using HPLC and their chromatograms.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1989; 14(10):611-4, 639-40 (ISSN: 1001-5302).Tong YY; Song WZ

 The lignans contained in the fruits of Schisandra chinensis and S. sphenanthern were determined by HPLC. Their chromatograms are different. 7 samples of S. chinensis from 6 habitats contain the same lignans, but in different quantity, while 16 samples of S. sphensnthern contain lignans different both in quality and quantity.

   Determination of the active ingredients in Chinese drug wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis) by TLC-densitometry:Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1990; 25(1):49-53 (ISSN: 0513-4870).Wang K; Tong YY; Song WZ.Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing.

 A method of TLC densitometry was developed to determine the active ingredients (Wuweizisu A, B, C; Wuweizichun A, B; Wuweizi ester and schisanhenol) in Schisandra kernels. The samples were extracted with hexane (3 X 5 ml) for 8, 4 and 4 h respectively. The hexane extract was evaporated to dryness and then dissolved in 1 ml of methanol. Standard solutions and sample solutions were spotted on a silica gel GF254 plate, and developed with toluene-ethyl acetate (9:1) for 18 cm (for Wuweizisu A, B, C) and with toluene-ethyl acetate (4:6) for 18 cm (for Wuweizichun A, B, Wuweizi ester and schisanhenol). On examining the chromatogram under UV light the ingredients appeared as dark spots. A Shimadzu TLC model 910 was used for scanning at lambda s 260 nm and lambda R 350 nm by reflection mode. Linear calibration curves were obtained for the 7 constituents in the range of 1-5 micrograms. The average recoveries of the 7 constituents were 92.4-101.6%; the variation coefficients were 1.62-5.28%. The spots were stable for more than 24 h. This method is sufficiently simple, rapid and accurate for routine analysis.

   Studies on the active principles of Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils. The structures of schisantherin A, B, C, D, E, and the related compounds.:Sci Sin. 1978; 21(4):483-502 (ISSN: 0250-7870).Liu CS; Fang SD; Huang MF; Kao YL; Hsu JS

 Deoxyschisandrin (VIII) and five new lignans, named schisantherin A, B, C, D, and E, were isolated from the active fraction of the fruits of Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils. Their configurations and conformations were established by exhaustive spectral analysis as well as chemical degradations as shown in Ia, Ib; IIa, IIb; IIIa, IIIb; IVa, IVb, and Va, Vb respectively, and their absolute configurations at biphenyl, at C6, C7, and C8 were all assigned to be S form. The position of the methylenedioxyl group in the structures of gamma-schisandrin and Wuweizisu C (as described in the literature), isolated from Schisandra chinensis, must be corrected as shown in VI and VII respectively. In pharmacologica studies and preliminary clinical trials, schisantherin A, B, C, and D showed good effect in lowering the serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase level of the patients suffering from chronic virus hepatitis. Schisantherin E and deoxyschisandrin were not effective.

   Anti-oxidant activity of dibenzocyclooctene lignans isolated from Schisandraceae.:Planta Med. 1992; 58(4):311-3 (ISSN: 0032-0943).Lu H; Liu GT.Department of Pharmacology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing.

 The anti-oxidant activity of nine dibenzocyclooctene lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis, S. rubriflora, and Kadsura longipedunculata, respectively, was studied. Seven of the 9 lignans (1 mM) inhibited iron/cysteine-induced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA, formation) of rat liver microsomes as well as superoxide anion production in the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. The actions of the 7 lignans were much more potent than vitamin E at the same concentration of 1 mM. Among the lignans, schisanhenol was the most active one. This compound also prevented the decrease of membrane fluidity of liver microsomes induced by iron/cysteine. The results indicated that seven of the lignans such as schisanhenol have anti-oxidant activities.

   Gomisin A inhibits tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin.:Oncology. 1992; 49(1):68-71 (ISSN: 0030-2414)

 Gomisin A, isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis, is one of the dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans. Application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, 1 microgram/ear), a tumor-promoting agent, to the ears of mice induces inflammation. Among seven dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans assayed, gomisin A, gomisin J, and wuweizisu C inhibited the inflammatory activity induced by TPA in mice. The ED50 of these compounds for TPA-induced inflammation was 1.4-4.4 mumol. Gomisin A, with an ED50 of 1.4 mumol, showed the strongest inhibitory effect. Furthermore, at 5 mumol/mouse, it markedly suppressed the promotion effect of TPA (2.5 micrograms/mouse) on skin tumor formation in mice following initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (50 micrograms/mouse). It is assumed that the inhibition of tumor promotion by gomisin A is due to its anti-inflammatory activity.
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   Effect of a lignan-enriched fructus schisandrae extract on hepatic glutathione status in rats: protection against carbon tetrachloride toxicity.:Planta Med. 1995; 61(2):134-7 (ISSN: 0032-0943).Ko KM; Ip SP; Poon MK; Wu SS; Che CT; Ng KH; Kong YC.Department of Biochemistry, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon.

 The effect of a lignan-enriched extract of the fruits of Schisandra chinensis (FS) on hepatic glutathione (GSH) status was examined in both control and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated rats. FS treatment caused a dose-dependent enhancement in hepatic GSH status, as evidenced by significant increases in hepatic GSH level and activities of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate and glutathione reductase (GRD), as well as a decreased susceptibility of hepatic tissue homogenates to in vitro peroxide-induced GSH depletion. The beneficial effect of FS treatment on hepatic GSH status became more evident after CCl4 challenge. Pretreating rats with FS extract at increasing daily doses ranged from 0.2 to 3.2 g/kg for 3 days caused a dose-dependent protection against the CCl4-induced impairment in hepatic GSH status. The enhancement in hepatic GSH status was associated with corresponding decreases in tissue malondialdehyde levels and plasma alanine aminotransferases activities, indicating a significant reduction in the extent of oxidative hepatocellular damage. Our results indicate that the molecular mechanism of hepatoprotection afforded by FS pretreatment may involve the facilitation of GSH regeneration via the GRD-catalyzed and NADPH-mediated reaction.

   Schisandrol A from Schisandra chinensis Reverses P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Multidrug Resistance by Affecting Pgp-Substrate Complexes.:Planta Med. 2007 Feb 22;Fong WF, Wan CK, Zhu GY, Chattopadhyay A, Dey S, Zhao Z, Shen XL.School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, P. R. China.[PMID: 17318783]

 Recent studies have shown that dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans may reverse P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (Pgp-MDR) in cancer cells; however, the mechanism of action remains unknown. Through screening of herbs, we found that schisandrol A (SCH) isolated from Fructus Schisandrae (the dried fruit of SCHISANDRA CHINENSIS (Turcz.) Baill.) sensitized Pgp-MDR HepG2-DR cells by interfering with the function of Pgp-substrate complexes. In Pgp-MDR cells, SCH enhanced the cytotoxicity of cancer drugs that are Pgp substrates and restored vinblastine-induced G (2)/M arrest without lowering Pgp expression. SCH increased cellular retention of Pgp substrates such as rhodamine 123. In Pgp-overexpressing membrane preparations, SCH stimulated basal Pgp-ATPase thus showing some substrate-like function. However, SCH was not a competitive inhibitor for verapamil or progesterone and decreased their K (m). In the presence of substrates, SCH decreased the reactivity between Pgp and the monoclonal antibody UIC-2 which is normally increased with active substrate-Pgp complexes. The labeling of active Pgp transport sites by [ (125)I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin was partially blocked by SCH. SCH did not affect the activity of the mutant Pgp F983A suggesting that SCH acted differently than the thioxanthene type of Pgp allosteric inhibitors. Our results suggest that SCH acts by affecting the normal formation and functioning of the Pgp-substrate complexes. [ (125)I]IAAP:[ (125)I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin MDR:multidrug resistance Pgp:P-glycoprotein PI:propidium iodide Rh-123:rhodamine 123 SCH:schisandrol A SRB:sulforhodamine B.

   Aqueous extract of Schizandra chinensis fruit causes endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation of isolated rat thoracic aorta.:Phytomedicine. 2006 Nov;13(9-10):651-7. Epub 2006 May 15.Rhyu MR, Kim EY, Yoon BK, Lee YJ, Chen SN.Food Function Research Division, Korea Food Research Institute, Gyeonggi-Do 463-420, Korea. mrrhyu@kfri.re.kr.[PMID:16704926]

 An aqueous extract of Schizandra chinensis fruit (ScEx) has long been used to promote the vascular health of postmenopausal women in Korea. This study investigated the ability of ScEx to relax rat aorta constricted with norepinephrine (NE) and the mechanism(s) of such relaxation. ScEx induced partial, endothelium-dependent relaxation. In particular, the relaxation induced by lower concentrations of ScEx (0.1 and 0.3 mg/ml) was largely endothelium-dependent, and was essentially abolished by NG-nitro-L-arginine, methylene blue, 1H-[1,2,3] oxadiazole [4,4-a] quinoxalin-1-one, indomethacin, or ICI 182,780. The results indicate that the response to ScEx involves enhancement of the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP system, and that it occurs via estrogen receptors. The magnitude of the inhibition with these treatments decreased with increasing ScEx concentration, however, indicating that other vasorelaxation mechanisms are involved, which depend on the ScEx concentration. Calcium concentration-dependent contraction curves in high potassium depolarization medium were shifted significantly to the right and downward after incubation with ScEx (0.3 and 1.0 mg/ml), implying that ScEx is also involved in inhibition of the extracellular calcium influx to vascular smooth muscle. These data demonstrate that ScEx caused both endothelium-dependent and -independent vasorelaxation, which may contribute to understanding the cardiovascular protective effect of ScEx.

   Schisandrene, a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan from Schisandra chinensis: structure-antioxidant activity relationships of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans.:J Nat Prod. 2006 Mar;69(3):356-9.Choi YW, Takamatsu S, Khan SI, Srinivas PV, Ferreira D, Zhao J, Khan IA.National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Mississippi, 38677, USA.[PMID: 16562834]

 Phytochemical investigation of the fruits of Schisandra chinensis led to the isolation of 13 lignans including schisandrene (13), a new lignan based on a dibenzocyclooctadiene backbone with an exocyclic double bond. Its structure and absolute configuration were established using NMR, MS, and CD data. Antioxidant activity of the lignans was evaluated using a DCFH-DA cellular-based assay. The structure-activity relationships of the dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans showed that the exocyclic methylene functionality was essential for antioxidant activity, with the benzoyloxy group probably enhancing such effects.

   Effect of Ligustrum lucidum and Schisandra chinensis on the egg production, antioxidant status and immunity of laying hens during heat stress.:Arch Anim Nutr. 2005 Dec;59(6):439-47.Ma D, Shan A, Chen Z, Du J, Song K, Li J, Xu Q.Institute of Animal Nutrition, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.[PMID:16429829]

 The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of two plants belonging to Chinese herbal medicines, Ligustrum lucidum (LL) and Schisandra chinensis (SC), on the laying performance, antioxidant status and immunity of hens during heat stress. The results showed that diets supplement with 1% of either LL or SC had beneficial effects on egg production and FCR of hens during heat stress (p < 0.05), compared with the control group. Either LL or SC significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of heart, liver, sera and egg yolk. In addition, glutathione reductase (GR) activity of tissues and sera of the birds was significantly elevated by supplementation LL or SC. Furthermore, LL or SC supplementation significantly elevated lymphoblastogenese of the birds and the antibody values against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The results suggest that diets supplement with 1% of either LL or SC may enhance egg production, immune function, and antioxidant status of hens during heat stress.
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   Stimulating effect of adaptogens: an overview with particular reference to their efficacy following single dose administration.:Phytother Res. 2005 Oct;19(10):819-38.Panossian A, Wagner H. Swedish Herbal Institute, Viktor Rydbergsgatan 10, SE-411 32 Gothenburg, Sweden. ap@shi.se.[PMID:16261511]

 Plant adaptogens are compounds that increase the ability of an organism to adapt to environmental factors and to avoid damage from such factors. The beneficial effects of multi-dose administration of adaptogens are mainly associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a part of the stress-system that is believed to play a primary role in the reactions of the body to repeated stress and adaptation. In contrast, the single dose application of adaptogens is important in situations that require a rapid response to tension or to a stressful situation. In this case, the effects of the adaptogens are associated with another part of the stress-system, namely, the sympatho-adrenal-system (SAS), that provides a rapid response mechanism mainly to control the acute reaction of the organism to a stressor. This review focuses primarily on the SAS-mediated stimulating effects of single doses of adaptogens derived from Rhodiola rosea, Schizandra chinensis and Eleutherococcus senticosus. The use of these drugs typically generates no side effects, unlike traditional stimulants that possess addiction, tolerance and abuse potential, produce a negative effect on sleep structure, and cause rebound hypersomnolence or 'come down' effects. Furthermore, single administration of these adaptogens effectively increases mental performance and physical working capacity in humans. R. rosea is the most active of the three plant adaptogens producing, within 30 min of administration, a stimulating effect that continues for at least 4-6 h. The active principles of the three plants that exhibit single dose stimulating effects are glycosides of phenylpropane- and phenylethane-based phenolic compounds such as salidroside, rosavin, syringin and triandrin, the latter being the most active.

   Dibenzocyclooctadiene lingnans: a class of novel inhibitors of P-glycoprotein.:Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2006 Jul;58(1):99-106. Epub 2005 Oct 18.Pan Q, Lu Q, Zhang K, Hu X. The Cancer Institute, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.[PMID:16231181]

 PURPOSE: To determine if five dibenzocyclooctadiene lingnans, a class of naturally occurring compounds from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill, have the activities to reverse P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated multidrug resistance (MDR). METHODS: The IC(50)s of four MDR cell lines (K562/Adr, MCF-7/Adr, KBv200, and Bcap37/Adr) toward daunorubicin, vincristine, and paclitaxel in the presence or absence of one of the dibenzocyclooctadiene lingnans were determined by a FACscan assay. The intracellular daunorubicin accumulation in the four MDR cell lines was determined by incubation of cells with daunorubicin (2 microg/ml) in the presence or absence of one of the dibenzocyclooctadiene lingnans by a FACscan assay. The interaction of the five dibenzocyclooctadiene lingnans with P-gp was assayed by their inhibition of (3)H-azidopine photoaffinity labeling of P-gp. RESULTS: Among the five lingnans, while schisandrin A and B, and schisantherin A demonstrated strong and comparable activities to reverse the drug resistance and the intracellular drug accumulation in four MDR cell lines, schisandrol A and B showed very limited activities. The poor activities of schisandrol A and B are possibly caused by the hydroxyl groups on the cyclooctadiene ring, because the activities of the molecules resumed when the hydroxyl group was esterified to form a benzoate. Further studies demonstrated that these compounds physically interacted with P-gp. CONCLUSION: Schisandrin A and B, and schisantherin A are potent P-gp inhibitor and is of potential for future clinical application.

   Dibenzo[a,c]cyclooctadiene lignans of the genus Schisandra: importance, isolation and determination.:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2004 Dec 5;812(1-2):357-71.Opletal L, Sovova H, Bartlova M.Department of Pharmaceutical Botany and Ecology, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University in Prague, Heyrovskeho 1203, CZ-50005 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.[PMID: 15556508]

 The drug Wuweizi (dried fruits of Schisandra chinensis or S. sphenantherd) is one of important medicinal means used in the Oriental medicine. The lignans of dibenzo[a,c]cyklooctadiene type are major constituents, a volatile oil with mono- and ses-quiterpens, an oil, organic acids and small amounts of additional compounds are also present. The content of major lignans (schizandrin, deoxyschizandrin, gomisin A, gomisin N, gamma-schizandrin, wuweizisu C) in commercially available drugs ranges usually between 3 and 5%. The present paper biefly comments the isolation and biological activity of the lignans and is especially concerned with analytical methods (TLC and HPLC) for the determination of the drug fingerprint and methods for the determination of constituents in drugs, mixtures and biological materials. HPLC methods using RP-silica bonded phases and diluted methanol, acetonitrile (or a mixture of both), are most important for these purposes. Electromigration methods are less suitable and the importance of hyphenation procedures is practically negligible.

   Phytotherapeutic aspects of diseases of the circulatory system. 8. Chinese magnolia (Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.): production of the drugs and their evaluation, therapeutic and dietary preparations.:Ceska Slov Farm. 2001 Sep;50(5):219-24.Opletal L, Krenkova M, Havlickova P.Katedra farmaceuticke botaniky a ekologie Farmaceuticke fakulty Univerzity Karlovy, Hradec Kralove. opletal@faf.cuni.cz.[PMID: 11579687]

 Extracts from the fruits (seeds) of Schisandra chinensis L. and pure isolated substances are one of the components of medicinal preparations designed for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, liver diseases, diseases of the CNS related to the old age, as a supplement in the treatment of neoplasms, diabetes, etc. They are also used for the production of nutraceuticals (soft drinks and health foods), preparations for oral hygiene and for the care for the skin and hair. The review discusses complex analytical methods used for the determination of the content of substances and the phenomena of population ecology in relation with drug production.

   Phytotherapeutic aspects of diseases of the circulatory system. 7. Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.): its composition and biological activity.:Ceska Slov Farm. 2001 Jul;50(4):173-80.Opletal L, Krenkova M, Havlickova P.Katedra farmaceuticke botaniky a ekologie, Farmaceuticke fakulty, Univerzity Karlovy, Hradec Kralove. opletal@faf.cuni.cz.[PMID:11475889]

 Schisandra chinensis (TURCZ.) BAILL., originally a Japanese-Manchurian endemite, yields a vegetable drug (Schisandrae fructus) with a number of very utilizable therapeutic effects. The paper reports the results of phytochemical and pharmacological-toxicological studies approximately from the year 1990 carried out both with the drug and, in particular, the principal isolated lignans of the dibenzo[a,c]cyclooctadiene type. The results confirm the validity of the historical use of the drug, in particular as a hepatoprotective, adaptogenic, and antioxidative agent. It is obvious that a very positive therapeutic effect based on the use of a complex mixture of its principal constituents because their biological effects are complementary and potentiate each other. At the same time, some lignans (e.g. gomisin A, gomisin N) are interesting as new prospective medicines.
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   Modern Research Update of Schisandra:

 Magnolia vine fruit mainly contains volatile oils, organic acids, tannin, vitamins, saccharides, resins, lignans, etc. The volatile oil of the seed contains schizandrin as its major ingredient, and lignans are believed to be active constituents.
 Lignans have a pronounced protective action on the liver. In one clinical trial there was a 76% success rate in treating patients with hepatitis, no side effects were noticed.
 It can stimulate the centres at every level of the nervous system and also affects the stimulation and inhibition courses of the cerebral cortex, to cause them to reach equilibrium. Tests have shown that low doses of the fruit are said to stimulate the central nervous system whilst large doses depress it.
 It can stimulate the respiratory system and it has antitussive (suppresses cough) and expectorant effects.
 It can also reduce blood pressure, normalize the functioning of the gall-bladder, reduce serum transaminase and protect liver cells. It has an adaptagen-like action like ginseng and it can strengthen the resistance of the body against non-specific irritation.
 This herb can inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, pneumobacillus, enteric salmonella, Bacillus pyocyaneus, etc.
 Magnolia vine fruit has long been used in the traditional medicines of Russia and China for a wide variety of conditions including asthma, coughs, and other respiratory ailments, diarrhea, insomnia, impotence, and kidney problems. Hunters and athletes have used it in the belief that it will increase endurance and combat fatigue under physical stress.
 Animal studies suggest schisandra may protect the liver from toxic damage, improve liver function, and stimulate liver cell regrowth. These findings led to its use in human trials for treating hepatitis. In a Chinese study of 189 people with hepatitis B, those given magnolia vine fruit reportedly improved more rapidly than those given vitamins and liver extracts.
 Other animal studies of magnolia vine fruit have found possible anticancer properties.
 Finally, preliminary studies in animals and humans suggest that magnolia vine fruit or its extracts might increase stamina and speed and improve mental concentration.

   
 Schizandra Chinesis Dry Berry Schisandrins Schizandrin A Schizandrin B Photo Picture Image

   Identification and Characterization of Potent CYP3A4 Inhibitors in Schisandra Fruit Extract:
 Schisandra fruit, a Schisandraceae family herb, is used as a component in Kampo medicines (developed from Chinese medicines, but established in Japan). It can act as a sedative and antitussive, improve hepatic function, and give a general tonic effect. An extract of Schisandra fruit has been shown with a potent inhibitory effect on human liver microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity mediated by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). The present study was conducted to identify Schisandra fruit components having inhibitory effects on CYP3A4 by surveying the effect on human liver microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity. Known components of Schisandra fruit, gomisins B, C, G, and N and gamma-shizandrin, showed inhibitory effects on N-demethylation activity. Among these components, gomisin C displayed the most potent and competitive inhibitory effect. These results indicate that gomisin C is a mechanism-based inhibitor that not only competitively inhibits but irreversibly inactivates CYP3A4.

   Liquid chromatographic analysis of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of Schisandra chinensis:
 Six major lignans (schizandrin, gomisin A, deoxyschizandrin, y-schizandrin, gomisin N, wuweizisu C) in the caulomas and leaves of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., and cinnamic acid in the leaves of the plant, were quantitatively analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography in reversed-phase mode with UV detection.

   Evaluation of the protective effects of Schisandra chinensis on Phase I drug metabolism using a CCl4 intoxication model:
 To evaluate the potential activity of Schisandra chinensis in restoring hepatic drug metabolism in CCl4 damaged liver, antipyrine was employed as a probe for the possible effects of the herb on Phase I oxidative metabolism in rats. Schisandra lignan fraction (160 mg/kg) was given orally to male Sprague-Dawley rats (220-240 g) 30 min or 6 h before CCl4 intoxication (4 ml/kg, s.c.). Following a single oral dose of antipyrine (80 mg/kg) to the rats with damaged liver, the pharmacokinetics of antipyrine in whole blood were determined and levels of liver enzymes, e.g. SGPT, SGOT, and cytochrome P450 were measured. Pharmacokinetic parameters for antipyrine were estimated using noncompartmental analysis. Results indicated that CCl4 significantly increased the elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of antipyrine from 2.59 +/- 1.04 to 11.25 +/- 3.91 h (P < 0.001) and decreased its clearance (CL) from 65.94 to 10.84 ml/h as compared to control. Pretreatment with the Schisandra lignan fraction 30 min or 6 h before intoxication significantly (P < 0.001) improved antipyrine elimination by reducing its t(1/2) to 3.30 +/- 0.52 and 3.58 +/- 1.05 h, respectively. The corresponding improvements observed for CL, i.e. 49.06 +/- 21.75 ml/h (P < 0.01); 21.10 +/- 10.42 ml/h (P < 0.05), were also substantial. Moreover, normalization of SGPT, SGOT and P450 levels was observed with the two Schisandra pretreatment schedules. In conclusion, Schisandra lignans exhibited strong protective effect on Phase I oxidative metabolism in the liver damaged by CCl4. Furthermore, pretreatment of Schisandra 30 min before intoxication showed a more pronounced effect than that of the 6 h pretreatment. The current pharmacokinetic approach allowed the protective effects of Schisandra on oxidative drug metabolism in damaged liver to be systemically examined and will certainly help in the evaluation of hepato-protectants obtained from natural sources.
 Schizandra Chinesis Berry Schisandrins SchizandrinA SchizandrinB Photo Picture Image

   Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra chinensis protect primary cultures of rat cortical cells from glutamate-induced toxicity:
 A methanolic extract of dried Schisandra fruit (Schisandra chinensis Baill.; Schisandraceae) significantly attenuated the neurotoxicity induced by L-glutamate in primary cultures of rat cortical cells. Five dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans (deoxyschisandrin, gomisin N, gomisin A, schisandrin, and wuweizisu C) were isolated from the methanolic extract; their protective effects against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity were then evaluated. Among the five lignans, deoxyschisandrin, gomisin N, and wuweizisu C significantly attenuated glutamate-induced neurotoxicity as measured by
  1). an inhibition in the increase of intracellular [Ca(2+)];
  2). an improvement in the glutathione defense system, the level of glutathione, and the activity of glutathione peroxidase; and
  3). an inhibition in the formation of cellular peroxide.
 These results suggest that dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra chinensis may possess therapeutic potential against oxidative neuronal damage induced by excitotoxin.

   Natural occurrence of cancer-preventive geranylgeranoic acid in medicinal herbs:
 Geranylgeranoic acid (GGA; all-trans 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenoic acid) has been shown to induce apoptosis in a human hepatoma-derived cell line, HuH-7. We aimed not only to confirm the apoptogenic properties of GGA and its derivatives, but also to search for natural GGA in medicinal herbs. GGA induced apoptosis in human hepatoma-derived cell lines, HuH-7, PLC/PRF-5, and mouse transformed hepatocyte-derived cell line, MLE-10, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but failed to induce cell death in human hepatoblastoma-derived HepG-2 and mouse primary hepatocytes in the same condition. Besides GGA, 4,5-didehydro GGA, 14,15-dihydro GGA, and 2,3-dihydro GGA were also active to induce cell death in HuH-7 cells, while 4,5-didehydro-10,11, 14,15-tetrahydro GGA, 4,5,8,9-tetrahydro GGA, farnesoic acid, and geranylgeraniol were inert.
 By using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, we found natural GGA as a negative ion of m/z 303.4 in a Chinese herb, schisandra chinensis, and schisandra GGA was identified by derivatization with both mild methylation and catalytic hydrogenation. Some other GGAs hydrogenated in the different degrees, including phytanic acid (perhydro GGA), were also found in s. chinensis. GGA and phytanic acid were detected in 24 out of 25 herbs tested. The present study is the first report of natural GGA in medicinal herbs.

   Inhibit tumor growth:
 Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Bail can inhibit tumor growth. This effect may be correlated with apoptosis and the activation of immunocytes, but not depend on killing tumor cells directly. In addition, high concentration Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Bail combined with cyclophosphamide can promote the capacity on anti-tumor in S180-bearing mice.
 Gomisin A, isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis, is one of the dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans. Application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, 1 microgram/ear), a tumor-promoting agent, to the ears of mice induces inflammation. Among seven dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans assayed, gomisin A, gomisin J, and wuweizisu C inhibited the inflammatory activity induced by TPA in mice. The ED50 of these compounds for TPA-induced inflammation was 1.4-4.4 mumol. Gomisin A, with an ED50 of 1.4 mumol, showed the strongest inhibitory effect. Furthermore, at 5 mumol/mouse, it markedly suppressed the promotion effect of TPA (2.5 micrograms/mouse) on skin tumor formation in mice following initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (50 micrograms/mouse). It is assumed that the inhibition of tumor promotion by gomisin A is due to its anti-inflammatory activity.
 Schizandra Chinesis Flower Schisandrins SchizandrinA SchizandrinB Photo Picture Image

   Pharmacological properties:
 Schisandra properties are closely connected with lignanes. Lignanes have a wide spectrum of pharmacological action. It stimulates the central nervous system, shows an antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobe, antifungoid and anticancer effect. Lignanes have toning up and adaptogen properties. Stimulating effect of Schisandra is similar to action of ginseng preparations, but not such strong. Stimulating effect appears in 30-40 min and is lasting for 5-6 hours.
 The major constituents in schisandra are lignans (schizandrin, deoxyschizandrin, gomisins, and pregomisin) found in the seeds of the fruit. Modern Chinese research suggests these lignans have a protective effect on the liver and an immunomodulating effect. Two human trials completed in China (one double-blind and the other preliminary) have shown that schisandra may help people with chronic viral hepatitis . Schisandra lignans appear to protect the liver by activating the enzymes in liver cells that produce glutathione , an important antioxidant substance.
 Schisandra fruit may also have an adaptogenic action, much like the herb Asian ginseng , but with weaker effects. Laboratory work suggests that schisandra may improve work performance, build strength, and help to reduce fatigue.
 Schizandra Chinesis Berry Schisandrins SchizandrinA SchizandrinB Photo Picture Image

   Study on optimization of microwave assisted extraction process:
   Objective To study the microwave assisted extraction process of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz)Baill.Methods Using the orthogonal design,the optimization process of microave-assisted extraction for total de-oxyschizandrin and schisandrin B in Schisandra chinensis(Turcz).Baill was gained by continuous microwave radiation.Results omeparameters,such as microwave power,radiation time,solvent concentration and solvent consumption had interactions to the extraction of active ingredients in Schisandra chinensis(Turcz)Baill.The best optimization process was obtained as following:600W as the microwave power,20min as radiation time,95%ethanol as solvent and1:6as the proportion of solid to liquid.Conclusion The established models were proved to be reasonable by the verified experiment.
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Reference:
  • What is Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill. extracts? What is Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils. extracts?

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Available Product
  • Name:Schizandra Berry Extract
  • Serie No:S-023.
  • Specifications:Schisandrins 1%2%9%HPLC.9%UV.
  • INCI Name:SCHIZANDRA CHINENSIS EXTRACT
  • EINECS/ELINCS No.:N/A
  • CAS:223748-53-6
  • Chem/IUPAC Name:Schizandra Chinensis Extract is an extract of the fruit of Schizandra chinensis,Schisandraceae
  • Other Names:Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill Extract,Bei WuweiZi Extract. Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils Extract.Nan Wuweizi Extract.Fructus Schisandrae Extract.Schizandra Fruit Extract.

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Schizandra Berry Extract Schisandrins,Schizandrin A,Deoxyschisandrin.Schizandrin B,Deoxygomisin A.Schisandra Chinensis Baill

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