Silymarin.Milk Thistle and applications.
- Botanical Basic Data of Milk Thistle.
- Phytochemicals of milk thistle.
- History of Silymarin and foundation.
- Modern Application and function of Silymarin and silybin.
- Dosage and Administration.
- Milk Thistle:Pharmacology.
- The Awesome Power of the Milk Thistle.
- How Search engine think about Milk Thistle.
- Research Update of Silybum Marianum.Silymarin
- Photo Gallery of Silybum marianum.
Phytochemicals of milk thistle.:
Primary chemical constituents of Milk Thistle include flavolignans (silymarin), tyramine, histamine, gamma linoleic acid, essential oil, mucilage, and bitter principle. The dried fruit of Milk Thistle contains the flavonoid complex known as silymarin - the constituent responsible for the medical benefits of the plant.
The principal extract of milk thistle, silymarin (4% to 6% in ripe fruit), is composed of several polyphenolic tlavonolignans. The major component (60%) is silybin (also known as silibinin or silybinin), and it is also the most biologically active; other components include silichristin (also known as silychristin, silycristine or silicristin), a metabolic stimulant, and silydianin. Silymarin is found in highest concentrations in the fruit of the plant. Other constituents are flavonoids, a fixed oil (16% to 18%), betaine, trimethylglycine and amines.
SiIymarin - German research from the 1970s onward has focused on silymarin, a substance contained in the seeds. This exerts a highly protective effect on the liver, maintaining its function and preventing damage from compounds that are normally highly toxic. It has been shown that severe liver breakdown, resulting from ingesting carbon tetrachloride or death cap mushrooms, may be prevented if silymarin is taken immediately before, or within 48 hours. In Germany, silymarin has been used successfully to treat hepatitis and liver cirrhosis.
Silymarin is a potent hepatoprotecive drug having established place in hepatology practice. Silymarin is a flavonol-lignan mixture obtained from seeds of Silybum marianum. Silymarin is a mixture of silybin, isosilybin, silychristin and silydianin.
Natures powerful extract for liver protection. This standardized extract from the milk thistle plant has powerful antioxidant and liver-protecting properties. Each 175 mg capsule contains 140 milligrams of the active ingredient which is a standardized 80% flavonolignans extract. Silymarin Extract is helpful in reducing exposure from chronic environmental toxins.
Chemistry and Pharmacology:
Milk thistle seed contains 1.5~3% flavone lignans, collectively referred to as silymarin;20~30% fixed oil,of which approximately 60% is linoleic acid, approximately 30% is oleic acid, and approximately 9% is palmitic acid; 25~30% protein; 0.038% tocopherol; 0.63% sterols, including cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol; and some mucilage. The three principle components of silymarin are the flavanolignans silybin, silychristin, and silidianin.
Silymarin acts as an antagonist in many experimental liver-damage models:phalloidin and amanitin(deathcap toxins), lanthanides, carbon tetrachloride, galactosamine, thioacetamide, and the hepatotoxic virus FV3 of cold-blooded vertebrates.
The therapeutic activity of silymarin is based on two sites or mechanisms of action:
(a) It alters the structure of the outer cell membrane of the hepatocytes in such a way as to prevent penetration of the liver toxin into the interior of the cell.
(b) It stimulates the action of nucleolar polymerase A, resulting in an increase in ribosomal protein synthesis, and thus stimulates the regenerative ability of the liver and the formation of new hepatocytes.
Milk thistle extract provides hepatocellular protection by stabilizing hepatic cell membranes.Other actions include interruption of enterohepatic recirculation of toxins, stimulation of protein synthesis and regeneration of damaged hepatocytes, as well as antioxidant activity.
Recent research on silibinin and silichristin to promote faster regeneration of diseased liver tissue has focused on the ability of silibinin to stimulate the activity of the DNA-dependent RNA-polymerase I, causing an increase in rRNA synthesis and an accelerated formation of intact ribosomes. This results in a general increase in the rate of synthesis of all cellular proteins. In vivo and in vitro molecular modeling experiments indicate that silibinin may imitate a steroid hormone by binding specifically to polymerase I, thus stimulating enzyme activity.
Mechanism of Action:
The antihepatotoxic effect of Silymarin is associated with the competitive interaction with the receptors of the relevant toxins in the hepatocyte membrane, and with a more general action of protective nature (Vogel 1975).
So, the hepatoprotective action of Silymarin is manifested by a consolidation of the membranes and the functions of the cell structures. Thus, a specific protective and curative effect on the liver protective function in this way.
The biflavonoids are assumed to possess a vitamin-C-sparing effect. They have an anti-inflammatory action and improve the synthesis of proteins and glycoproteins, as well as the peroxidation of lipids in the liver. Clinically, the above effects are translated into improved signs and symptoms, and lowered values of the transaminases, g-globulines and blood bilirubin.
- Silymarin.Milk Thistle and applications.
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