Gentian root.Gentiana Lutea.Chinese Gentian.
- Botanical Data of Radix Gentianae.
- Description of Gentian:Narrative and Names of Gentian,Collection of Gentian,Actions and indication of Gentian.
- Active constituents of Gentian.Radix Gentianae.Gentian root.
- Properties of Gentian.Radix Gentianae.Gentian root.
- Medicinal Action and application of Gentian.Radix Gentianae.Gentian root.
- Therapeutics and Pharmacology of Gentian.Radix Gentianae.Gentian root.
- Suggestion and Administration of Gentian.Radix Gentianae.Gentian root.
- Application case study:Inner Purity Formulation with Gentian.
- How Search engine think about Gentian.
- Research Update:Gentian.
- Photo Gallery of Gentiana.
Research Update:Gentian.Radix Gentianae.Gentian root.:
Effects of gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarine, secoiridoids from gentian (Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra), on cultured chicken embryonic fibroblasts.:
Wound healing properties of Gentian (Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra) extract and its main constituents, gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarine (compounds 1-3, respectively) were evaluated by comparison with dexpanthenol on cultured chicken embryonic fibroblasts. The extract was also analyzed by HPLC to quantify its constituents. Chicken embryonic fibroblasts from fertilized eggs were incubated with the plant extract and its constituents, compounds 1-3. Using microscopy, mitotic ability, morphological changes and collagen production in the cultured fibroblasts were evaluated as parameters. Wound healing activity of Gentian seems to be mainly due to the increase in the stimulation of collagen production and the mitotic activity by compounds 2 and 3, respectively (p < 0.005 in all cases). All three compounds also exhibited cytoprotective effects, which may cause a synergism in terms of wound healing activity of Gentian. The findings demonstrated the wound healing activity of Gentian, which has previously been based only on ethnomedical data.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors from Gentiana lutea.:
Three monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors were isolated from Gentiana lutea. Their structures were elucidated to be 3-3''linked-(2'-hydroxy-4-O-isoprenylchalcone)-(2'''-hydroxy-4''-O-isoprenyldihydrochalcone) (1), 2-methoxy-3-(1,1'-dimethylallyl)-6a,10a-dihydrobenzo(1,2-c)chroman-6-one and 5-hydroxyflavanone. These compounds, and the hydrolysis product of 1, displayed competitive inhibitory properties against MAO-B which was more effective than MAO-A.
Studies on the constituents of Gentiana species. II. A new triterpenoid, and (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-gentiolactones from Gentiana lutea.:
A new triterpenoid, 12-ursene-3beta, 11alpha-diol 3-O-palmitate (1), has been isolated from the rhizomes and roots of Gentiana lutea, together with the artificial diene derivative, 9 (11), 12-ursadien-3beta-ol 3-O-palmitate (1a) and five known compounds (3-7). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis. In addition, (+/-)-gentiolactone [(+/-)-2], isolated from this plant, was successfully separated into its enantiomers [(+)-2, (-)-2] for the first time, and the absolute configurations at C-9 of (+)-2, (-)-2 were assigned as S and R, respectively, from the optical rotations and the circular dichroism (CD) spectral data.
Iridoids from seeds of Gentiana lutea.:
In the seeds of Gentiana lutea L. there were also detected, in addition to the known sweroside and getiopicroside, loganic acid 3 and trifloroside 4 that is present as main glycosidic component. The structures of 3 and 4 were established by spectroscopic studies.
New triterpenoids from Gentiana lutea.:
Three new triterpenoids, 2,3-seco-3-oxours-12-en-2-oic acid, 2,3-seco-3-oxoolean-12-en-2-oic acid, and betulin 3-O-palmitate, have been isolated from the rhizomes and roots of Gentiana lutea, together with five known ones. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectral and chemical methods.
Effects of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra on the central nervous system in mice.:
A methanolic extact of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots has been investigated for its possible effects on the central nervous system of mice. At doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg (i.p.), the methanol extract of Gentiana roots caused a significant increase in the swimming endurance test and exhibited slight analgesic activity, but no lethality in mice suggesting some activity on the central nervous system. However, there was no indication of sedation or muscular fatigue at the doses employed. HPLC analysis showed that three secoiridoid compounds, gentiopicroside, swertiamarine and sweroside were present and may have been responsible for the CNS effects of the methanol extract of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots.
Chemical composition and seasonal variations in the amount of secondary compounds in Gentiana lutea leaves and flowers.:
The chemical investigation of MeOH extracts of Gentiana lutea leaves and flowers showed that xanthones were one of the dominant class of compounds. Secoiridoids and flavonoids were also recorded. The amount of secondary metabolites varied depending on development stage. In the phase of flowering, leaves are rich with compounds possessing C-glycoside structures while O-glycoside structures accumulate mainly before flowering.
Metabolism of gentiopicroside (gentiopicrin) by human intestinal bacteria.:
As a part of our studies on the metabolism of crude drug components by intestinal bacteria, gentiopicroside (a secoiridoid glucoside isolated from Gentiana lutea), was anaerobically incubated with various defined strains of human intestinal bacteria. Many species had ability to transform it to a series of metabolites. Among them, Veillonella parvula ss parvula produced five metabolites, which were identified as erythrocentaurin, gentiopicral, 5-hydroxymethylisochroman-1-one,5-hydroxymethylisochromen-1- one and trans-5,6-dihydro-5-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-1H,3H-pyrano[3,4-c]pyra n-1-one.
Antiproliferative activity of root extract from gentian plant (Gentiana triflora) on cultured and implanted tumor cells.:
We describe a novel pharmacological activity of the gentian root, an ingredient of Chinese medicines. Root extract from Gentiana triflora triggered cell death of human Daudi cells in culture. In addition, daily administration of the extract to mice inhibited growth of implanted solid tumors. Extract treatment of cultured cells resulted in the appearance of shranken, fragmented, or condensed cell and nuclear morphologies, and in chromosomal DNA degradation. But, the extract-treated cells did not show DNA fragmentation, which exhibits a nucleosome ladder, suggesting that extract-triggered cell death is not mediated through a typical apoptotic pathway.
Isolation of iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides and comparative study on Radix gentianae and related adulterants by HPLC analysis.:
HPLC profile guided study led to the isolation of an acylated secoiridoid glycoside, named gentiotrifloroside (1), together with six known compounds, i.e., loganic acid (2), 6-O-beta-d-glucopyranosylgentiopicroside (3), swertiamarin (4), gentiopicroside (5), sweroside (6) and 2 -(o,m-dihydroxybenzyl)-sweroside (7) from Gentiana triflora and Gentiana rigescens. The structure of 1 was deduced from one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic experiments. Compounds 1-7 were used successfully as chemical markers for the comparison of the four species of Gentiana used as Radix gentianae. Additionally, differentiation of Gentiana species mentioned and those used as adulterants was evaluated. The close similarity of chemical composition among the four genuine Gentiana species explain their popular usage as R. gentianae in Chinese medicine. We have also shown that the variation of chemical composition in R. gentianae and related adulterants agree well with their botanical phylogeny.
Influence of gentian leaf blight on the output and quality of Chinese gentian:
Objective: To study the influecnce of gentian leaf blight on the output and quality of rough gentian. Method: The same grade seedlings were transplanted, disease of every plant was investigated in autumn and the output of gentian was determined. HPLC was applied to determine the content of gentiopicroside and swertiamarin. Result: The output decreased with the aggravation of the disease, and the decrease was obvious when the index of disease was above 60. The content of gentiopicroside and swertiamarin began to drop when the index of disease was above 70. CONCLUSION: The loss of output and the drop of quality are relatively heavy when the disease is serious. The loss of income is not obvious when the index of disease is under 60.
Quality assessment of the traditional Chinese medicine gentian by chemical pattern recognition:
Methanol extracts of 38 samples of the traditional Chinese medicine gentian of different origin were prepared. Data reflecting their chemical constituents as a whole were obtained by HPLC. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia (1990) specified four species of the getiana as authentic. Some samples from the authentic and non-authentic gentian were used as the training set of pattern recognition. Chemical features of the gentian samples were selected from among the matching data of HPLC by the SIMCA program. Finally, the selected chemical features were displayed as stars in a semicircular polar coordinate system, resulting in a constellation graph. Quality assessment of the traditional Chinese medicine gentian was accomplished by recognizing the position and path of the stars in the constellation graph. The clusters of the gentian samples in the constellation graph obtained from the HPLC features were consistent with and complement to their plant taxonomy. The vivid graph demonstrated that pattern recognition via chemical constellation promises well a reliable method for assessing traditional Chinese medicines.
Studies on the chemical constituents in root of Gentiana macrophylla from Shaanxi:
Objective: To in vestigate the constituents in root of Gentiana macrophylla. Method: Various column chromatographic techniques were used for isolation and purification of the principles. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data (UV, IR, MS, 1H-, 13C-NMR etc.) and identified by comparing with standard substance. Result: Eight compounds were identified. Four compounds isolated from the chloroform fraction are: 5-carboxyl-3,4-dihydrogen-1H-2-benzopyran-1-one (1), erythrocentauric acid (2), roburic acid (3), oleanolic acid (4). Water fraction gave four known secoiridoid glucosides. They were: gentiopicroside (5), swertiamarine (6), sweroside (7), 6'-O-beta-D-glucosylgentiopicroside (8). Conclusion: 1 is a novel compound. It was named as erythrocentauric acid. 2 was isolated from genus Gentiana and 8 was isolated from G. macrophylla for the first time.
Determination of gentiopicroside in different morphological types of cultivated Gentiana manshurica population:
Objective: To study the correlation between morphological variation and gentiopicroside content in cultivated Gentiana manshurica roots and to investigate the feasibility of breeding new varieties of high effective constituent content. Method: Gentiopicroside was determined in 5 morphological types of cultivated G. manshurica roots by HPLC, which are normal (or wild) type, white-flowered type, thick-rooted type, broad-leaved type I and broad-leaved type II. Result: Among different types gentiopicroside content is the highest in the roots of thick-rooted type, the contents decrease as following order: normal type, broad-leaved type I white-flowered type and broad-leaved type II, and the gentiopicroside contents in the same type root system are a positive correlation with root ages, as 3-years-age roots > 2-years-age roots > 1-year-age varied with roots. Conclusion: The contents of effective constituent vary with the morphological variation in cultivated G. manshurica. It is feasible to breed a new variety with high effective constituent with the morphological character as a selecting index.
Determination and comparision of gentiopicroside of various parts of five species of genus Gentiana collected from Xinjiang by TLCS:
Objective: To study gentiopicroside's determination and comparison of various parts of herb by TLCS and make it impossible to uncover resource of Gentian in Xinjiang area. Method: Gentiopicroside's determination and comparison of various parts of herb in Gentiana Plants were carried out by TLCS. Result: The average recovery rate was 98.66% (RSD = 1.33%, n = 5). The Contents were stable. The results kept a high degree of comparable with HPLC ones. Conclusion: This method was good-steady, high-accurate, simple, convenient, sensitive, reproducible.
Simultaneous determination of five bitter secoiridoid glycosides in nine Chinese Gentiana species used as the Chinese drug "long dan" by high performance liquid chromatography:
A new and rapid analytical method for the simultaneous determination of five bitter secoiridoid glycosides (gentiopicroside, GTP; swertiamarin, SWT; sweroside, SWO; amarogentin, AMG; amaroswerin, AMS) in the Chinese drug "Long Dan", roots of Gentiana manshurica and 8 allied species by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed. The HPLC system consisting of an apparatus from Shimadzu (model LC-4A), with a UV-detector (SPD-2AS), a data processor (Chromatopac C-R2AX), a column oven (CTO-2AS), and a Zorbax ODS column (25 cm x 4.6 mm ID) was used. Using MeOH--H2O as the mobile phase, the linear concentration-program of methanol was [time (min):C (MeOH)]: [0:20]----[6:20]----[6.01:40]----[23:stop]. The temperature of column oven was 40 degrees C. The bitter secoiridoid glycosides eluted were detected at a wavelength of 254 nm and the analysis was successfully carried out within 23 minutes. This method is sensitive, rapid, accurate and has good reproducibility. Recoveries of each secoiridoid glycoside were 100.0-101.5% with coefficients of variation 0-2.5% (n = 3). The contents of five bitter secoiridoid glycosides in the roots of G. manshurica and eight allied species indigenous to China were determined and reported.
- 1.Gentian root.Gentiana Lutea.Chinese Gentian.
♥The article and literature was edited by herbalist of MDidea Extracts Professional.It runs a range of online descriptions about the titled herb and related phytochemicals,including comprehensive information related,summarized updating discoveries from findings of herbalists and clinical scientists from this field.The electronic data information published at our official website www.mdidea.com and www.mdidea.net,we tried best to update it to latest and exact as possible.
♣ last edit date: