Ginger Action and Uses.Ginger Extract.Gingerols.
- Basic Botanical data of Ginger.
- Description and Phytochemical Constituents of Ginger.
- Origin and Narrative History of of Ginger.
- Medicinal Action and Uses of Ginger.
- Functions and applications of Ginger.
- More reference materials and state of Ginger application.
- Additional Research of Ginger.
- Dosage and Administration of Ginger.
- Culture and Practice of Ginger Tea.
- The essence of ginger.
- How Search Engine think about Ginger.
- Research Update:Ginger and Its Constituents.
Dosage and Administration of Ginger.:
Pediatric:Ginger should not be used by children under 2 years of age.
Ginger may be used by children over 2 years of age to treat nausea, digestive cramping, and headaches. Adjust the recommended adult dose to account for the child's weight. Most herbal dosages for adults are calculated on the basis of a 150 lb (70 kg) adult. Therefore, if the child weighs 50 lb (20 to 25 kg), the appropriate dose of ginger for this child would be 1/3 of the adult dosage.
Most people take 2 - 4 grams of the dried rhizome powder two to three times per day or a tincture of 1.5 - 3 ml three times daily. For treatment of nausea, people try single doses of approximately 250 mg every two to three hours, for a total of 1 gram per day. For prevention of motion sickness, many people start taking ginger tablets, capsules, or liquid herbal extract two days before the planned trip.
To lessen the possibility of side effects, no more than 4000 mg (4 grams) of powdered ginger or 10,000 mg (10 grams) of fresh ginger should be taken orally per day.
Ginger for medical use is available in a wide variety of dosage forms that include fresh ginger, dried powder (usually in capsules containing 500 mg or 1000 mg), and liquids such as extracts, tinctures, and syrups. Extracts are concentrated liquid preparations usually made by soaking chopped or mashed plant parts in a liquid such as alcohol, and then straining out the solid parts. Tinctures are less concentrated than extracts, but they are prepared in similar ways. Due to its sharp, tangy taste, ginger may be sweetened with sugar to make a syrup that may be more acceptable to children.
Ginger tea is made by simmering approximately 500 mg of fresh, grated ginger or approximately1000 mg of dried ginger in about 5 ounces of boiling water for about 10 minutes. The solid particles are then removed from the tea before drinking it. Ginger tea is often sweetened or flavored with other sweet spices such as cinnamon.
Decoction -For chills and phlegmy colds, use 1 - 2 slices to a cup of water and simmer for 10 minutes. A pinch of cinnamon can be added.
Tincture -Use 2 -10 drops per dose as a warming circulatory stimulant; also for flatulence, indigestion, and nausea.
Capsules -Take 1 - 2 x 200 mg capsules before a journey for travel sickness. Use up to 1 g doses for morning sickness in pregnancy.
Decoction -The Chinese use dried ginger in combination with other herbs as a restorative for yang or spleen energies, for abdominal fullness, nausea, and excess phlegm.
Massage Oil-Add 5-10 drops ginger oil to 25 ml almond oil for rheumatism or lumbago. Combines well with juniper or eucalyptus oil.
Oil-use 1-2 drops on a sugar lump or in half a teaspoon of honey for flatulence, menstrual cramps, nausea, or stomach upsets.
Although dosing varies, some common recommendations for powdered ginger are: Motion sickness 1000 mg (one gram) up to 4 hours before travel
For nausea, gas, or indigestion: 2 to 4 grams of fresh root daily (0.25 to 1.0 g of powdered root) or 1.5 to 3.0 mL (30 to 90 drops) tincture daily. To prevent vomiting, take 1 gram of powdered ginger (1/2 tsp) or its equivalent every four hours as needed, or 2 ginger capsules (1 gram) three times daily. You may also chew a ? oz piece of fresh ginger.
To relieve arthritis pain: Take fresh ginger juice, extract, or tea, 2 to 4 grams daily; rub ginger oil into painful joint; or place fresh root in a warm poultice or compress and apply to painful areas.
For cold and flu symptoms, sore throat, headache and menstrual cramps: Steep 2 tbsp of freshly shredded ginger in boiled water, two to three times daily, or place a drop of ginger oil or a few slices of fresh rhizome in steaming water and inhale.
Nausea after surgery:1000 mg one gram)one hour before surgery
Nausea from chemotherapy:2000 mg to 4000 mg ( 2grams to 4 grams)per day
Nausea of pregnancy:500 mg to 1500 mg (0.5 gram to 1.5 grams) up to four times a day
Indigestion: 2 to 4 grams a day
Motion sickness: 1 gram 30 minutes before travel; for continuing symptoms, 0.5 to 1 gram every 4 hours.
To prevent vomiting: 0.5 to 2 grams daily
Arthritis: 1 to 2 grams daily
Pregnancy: For nausea associated with pregnancy, women can take up to 1 gram daily, but should not use ginger for extended period of time.
Indicated for: Arthritis, fevers, headaches, and toothaches, lowers blood cholesterol and blood-pressure and aids in preventing internal blood clots. Coughs or bronchitis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, improves the complexion, eases tendonitis. There is some evidence to suggest that it helps to combat skin, ovarian, colon and breast cancer.
When should I be careful taking it?
Individuals with diabetes should avoid using large amounts of ginger because it may lower blood sugar levels, potentially resulting in hypoglycemia (blood sugar that is too low). Signs that blood sugar may be too low include shakiness, sweating, confusion, distorted speech, and loss of muscle control. If not corrected, low blood sugar can lead to seizures, unconsciousness, and even death.
Ginger is also thought to promote the flow of bile, which can worsen gallstones, so individuals who have gallstones should not use it.
Although ginger is generally considered to be safe during pregnancy, one case of a miscarriage has been reported in a woman who was using ginger to relieve nausea. Whether the miscarriage was related to the use of ginger is unknown. In laboratory studies, one component of ginger has appeared to cause birth defects in babies born to animals given very large doses of ginger during pregnancy. No similar results have been reported in humans, and equivalent amounts of ginger for humans would be nearly impossible to ingest. To avoid any possible problems, ginger should only be used with the supervision of a health professional for pregnancy-induced nausea.
Because very little is known about the possible effects of large amounts of ginger for infants and very young children, women who are breast-feeding and children less than 2 years of age should avoid taking it as a supplement. The amounts of ginger ordinarily used to flavor foods are thought to be within acceptable limits for all age groups, however.
The use of herbs is a time-honored approach to strengthening the body and treating disease. Herbs, however, contain active substances that can trigger side effects and interact with other herbs, supplements, or medications. For these reasons, herbs should be taken with care, under the supervision of a practitioner knowledgeable in the field of botanical medicine.
The American Herbal Products Association (AHPA) gives fresh ginger root a class 1 safety rating, indicating that it is a safe herb with a wide dosage range. Side effects associated with ginger are rare, but if taken in excessive doses the herb may cause mild heartburn. The AHPA gives dried ginger root a class 2b rating, indicating that it should not be used during pregnancy.
People with gallstones should consult a physician before taking ginger.
Avoid taking in acute inflammatory conditions. Although there is some evidence that ginger may actually be helpful in gastritis and peptic ulcertation, care is needed in these conditions as any spice may excaccerbate the problem. Avoid when pregnant or trying to get pregnant (large doses may have abortifacient effects). Avoid therapeutic doses if taking anti-coagulant therapy such as warfarin and seek advice if taking medication for heart problems. High blood pressure should always be monitored by a healthcare professional. Do not use if suffering from Gall stones.
Possible side effects:
Ingesting ginger occasionally in the amounts used to flavor foods has not been associated with side effects. Taking amounts over about 2000 mg (2 grams) of fresh ginger or about 3000 mg (3 grams) of powdered ginger per day on a continual basis may result in side effects more often than lower or less frequent doses. Side effects may be more common with uncooked, fresh ginger than with other forms of ginger.
Major Side Effects:Very large overdoses of ginger in laboratory animals have been associated with changes in heart rhythm and central nervous system symptoms such as dizziness and weakness. No reports of similar side effects in humans have been published.
Less Severe Side Effects:Side effects most often reported by individuals taking supplemental ginger include: Burning or tingling in the mouth;Diarrhea;Heartburn,etc.
Using ginger occasionally in foods has not been associated with interactions. However, when taken continually, supplemental amounts exceeding 2000 mg (2 grams) of fresh ginger or 3000 mg (3 grams) of powdered ginger per day may have a small risk of interactions.
Interactions with Prescription Drugs:
In studies of laboratory animals, extremely high doses of ginger have been associated with a small increase in the time blood needs to clot. At least one case of an increased international normalized ratio (INR) and nosebleed has been reported in a human taking both an anticoagulant and an unknown amount of supplemental ginger. Therefore, the possibility exists that high continual doses of ginger taken with an antiplatelet or anticoagulant drug, could increase the effect of the drug and that uncontrolled bleeding could occur.
Antiplatelet drugs include Plavix and Ticlid. Anticoagulants include heparin and warfarin.
Because ginger may have a lowering effect on blood sugar, taking large amounts of ginger for extended periods of time may increase the effectiveness of medications used for the treatment of diabetes. If you are using insulin or taking medications for diabetes, talk to your doctor or pharmacist before taking supplemental ginger.
Due to an unpredictable effect on blood pressure, prolonged daily use of powdered ginger over about 4000 mg (4 grams) or fresh ginger over about 10,000 mg (10 grams) may interfere with the effects of drugs that lower blood pressure. Some blood pressure-lowering drugs are:
ACE inhibitors such as captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, and Monopril
Beta blockers such as atenolol, metoprolol, and propranolol
Calcium channel blockers such as nifedipine, Norvasc, and verapamil
Diuretics such as Dyazide, furosemide, and hydrochlorothiazide
The effectiveness of drugs used to treat heart conditions may also be altered by large amounts of ginger taken for extended periods of time. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist before taking ginger if you take drugs for any heart condition.
Ginger is believed to affect the production of acid in the stomach. Therefore, it may interfere with the effectiveness of sucralfate (Carafate), Histamine-2 (H-2) receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors.
H-2 receptor blockers include: cimetidine (Tagamet);famotidine (Pepcid);nizatidine (Axid);ranitidine (Zantac)
Proton pump inhibitors include: esomeprazole (Nexium);lansoprazole (Prevacid);omeprazole (Prilosec);pantoprazole (Protonix)
Although ginger may interfere with blood clotting, there have been no scientific or case reports of interactions between ginger and blood-thinning medications. However, people taking these medications with ginger should be monitored closely by a healthcare practitioner for risk of bleeding.
Ginger may reduce the toxic side effects of cyclophosphamide (a medication used to treat a variety of cancers). More research is needed in this area.
Interactions with Non-prescription Drugs:
In theory, ginger can slow down the ability of blood to clot. Aspirin can also delay clotting, so high doses of ginger should not be taken at the same time as aspirin.
The possibility that ginger can affect the production of stomach acid could interfere with the effectiveness of antacids and over-the-counter medications such as Pepcid AC, Prilosec OTC, and Zantac AR.
Interactions with Herbal Products:
Theoretically, if large doses of ginger are used with other herbs that affect blood clotting, bleeding may occur. The most common herbal products that might inhibit blood clotting are:
Danshen;Devil's Claw,Garlic,Ginkgo,Ginseng;Horse Chestnut;Papain;Red Clover;Saw Palmetto,etc.Some interactions between herbal products and medications can be more severe than others.
Toxicity and Safety of Ginger:
Acute Toxicity of Ginger Oil:LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent death.Mice.Abdominal injection.1.23 ml/kg.LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent death.Mice.Gastric Perfusion. 3.45ml/kg.
Reference:Zhang Zhu Xin, et al. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1988;19(9):407-409.
Acute Toxicity of Shogaol:LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent death.Mice.IV injection.50.9mg/kg;LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent death.Mice.Abdominal Injection.109mg/kg;LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent death.Mice.Gastric Perfusion.687mg/kg.
Acute Toxicity of Gingerol:LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent death.Mice.IV injection.25.5mg/kg;LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent death.Mice.Abdominal Injection.581mg/kg;LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent death.Mice.Gastric Perfusion.250mg/kg.
Reference:Chi Tian Zheng Shu, et al. Foreign Medicine, vol. of TCM. 1981;(2):53.
Crude drug toxicity:LD50 (mice/water extract of dried ginger): 33500 mg/kg.Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 37 (1), 37-83 (1983)
- 1.Ginger Action and Uses.Ginger Extract.Gingerols.
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