Activity and Effects of Zizyphus Spinosa Seed.
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Activity and Effects of Zizyphus Spinosa Seed.
1). Constituents of Zizyphus spinosa seed.
Following the elucidation of jujubosides A1 and C and acetyljujuboside B, novel protojujubogenin type triterpene bisdesmosides,protojujubosides A,B,and B1,were isolated from Zizyphi Spinosi Semen (the pharmaceutical name), the seeds of Zizyphus jujuba (also called Zizyphus vulgaris var. spinosa Bunge) var. spinosa Hu (the botanical name). The structures of protojujubosides A, B, and B1 were determined on the basis of chemical and physiochemical evidence, which included the conversion of protojujubosides to known jujubosides using enzymatic hydrolysis. Protojujubosides A and jujubosides A, B, and C were found to show potent immunological adjuvant activity.
Zizyphus spinosa seeds (A.K.A. semen Zizyphus vulgaris var. spinosa Bunge) were extracted with methanol and six compounds were isolated from this extract. There were four triterpenoid saponins including jujubosides A and B, phenolic and ferulic acids. A new flavonoid compound (4"-beta-D-glycopyranosyl swetisin) was discovered and named 'zivulgarin'.
2). Sedative and hypnotic activity of Zizyphus spinosa seed.
Flavonoids and saponins from Zizyphus spinosa (Chinese 'suan zao ren') seeds were tested for sedative activity. All compounds tested showed activity in potentiating hexobarital induced hypnosis as well as reducung ladder climbing and caffeine induced hyperactivity. Swertisin was the most potent and was tested for type of action. It was found that these compounds produced sleep but were not anticonvulsant or muscle relaxant.Shin, Woo and Lee: Sedative action of flavonoids and saponins from the seeds of Zizyphus vulgaris var. spinosa Bunge.
Alkaloids from Zizyphus spinosa seeds were examined for sedative activity. Compounds included sanjoinine, zizyphusine and nuciferine (a compound also found in the Chinese herb lotus- Nelumbo nucifera). Both sanjoinine A and nuciferine prolonged the sleeping time produced by hexobarbital. When the sanjoinine A was heated it was found to produce an isomer with even greater sedative activity. This may support the traditional practice of roasting or boiling the seeds before use.
The alkaloids sanjoinine A, nuciferine and their cogeners were found to have sedative activity. Upon heat treatment sanjoinine A produced sanjoinine Ah1, which had greater activity. This may support the traditional practice of roasting or boiling the seeds before use.
3). Radioprotective activity of Zizyphus spinosa seed.
The traditional herb formula Kuei pi tang (Gui pi tang) was found to increase endogenous spleen colony formation and jejunal crypt cell survival. Low and high doses of gamma irrradiation were given and there was significant protection with less cell death occuring as a result. Further study of the ingredients in Kuei pi tang determined that several herbs likely had radioprotective effects, including Zizyphus spinosa seeds. The authors note that although the mechanisms of action remain to be elucidated, the formula is suggested for protection due to it's being a relatively non-toxic natural product.Kim et. al.: The radioprotective effect of Kuei pi tang as a prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicine in mice.
A Chinese patent was filed for a medicine to treat and prevent the damage from electromagnetic radiation. The ingredients were several herbs and minerals including Zizyphus spinosa seeds, Calcium and Zinc. The medicine was prepared as a decoction (boiled tea) but it was suggested that the ingredients could be added to food as well.
4). Protection from anoxia (lack of oxygen) and reoxygenation damage.
The heart cells of rats were deprived of oxygen and then reoxygenated. This was done both with and without Zizyphus spinosa seed saponins. In the group given the Zizyphus spinosa seed saponins more intracellular malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were active and there was less membrane fluidity, all signs of better protection and recovery. This study proved that Zizyphus spinosa seed saponins protect against lipid peroxidation induced by anoxia and reoxygenation.
Neonatal heart cells of rats were deprived of oxygen and glucose or treated with the drugs chlorpromazine ad mitomycin. Increases of the production of lactate dehydogenase were measured. Pretreatment with Zizyphus spinosa seed saponins showed a reduction or elimination of these ill effects due to oxygen/glucose deprivation of drug administration. The authors conclude that Zizyphus spinosa seed saponins are an effective protective drug for myocardial cells.
5).Effects on the central nervous system.
Suan Zao Ren has significant sedative and hypnotic effects. Suan Zao Ren oil emulsion and Suan Zao Ren total flavone are shown to inhibit autonomous activities in mice. Combined use of Suan Zao Ren oil emulsion and pentobarbital on mice can lengthen the subjects' sleep time. Similarly, combined use of Suan Zao Ren total flavone and pentobarbital inhibits the central nervous system, and can counteract benzedrine-induced central excitation. Suan Zao Ren's central inhibitory effect appears to be dosage-dependent.
6).Protective effects on cardiac cells.
Experiments show that at 33mg/ml, total zizyphus saponin can significantly decrease cardiac cells' release of lactic dehydrogenase induced by deoxyglucose, chloropromazine, or mytomycin C.
Administered i.g. at 1.40 ml/kg or 0.35 ml/kg, Suan Zao Ren oil can lengthen the survival time of cancerous mice by a factor of 50%. It can inhibit weight increase in the late stages of cancerous mice's lives.
Experiments show that administered to mice at 0.1g/kg for 16 consecutive days, Suan Zao Ren can enhance the subjects' humoral and cell-mediated immune functions. Furthermore, Suan Zao Ren has a protective effect against radiation damage in mice.Administered to mice at 5g/kg for 20 consecutive days, alcohol-based extract of Suan Zao Ren can counteract cyclophosphamide-induced suppression of delayed hypersensitivity reaction in mice.
9).Lowering blood lipid level and counteracting platelet aggregation.
Administered to male quails of modeled high cholesterol levels, both Suan Zao oil at 2.5ml/kg and Suan Zao extract at 20g/kg can significantly decrease the subjects' levels of total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. It can also significantly decrease the liver's fatty degeneration. denaturation of liver lipid. Administered i.g. at 2.5ml/kg per day for 5 consecutive days, Suan Zao oil can significantly inhibit blood platelet aggregation in rats.
Suan Zao Ren has a protective effect against endotoxin-induced decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) in feverish mice.
11).Protective effects against ischemic cerebral damages.
Total zizyphus saponin can decrease the content of water and MDA in ischemic cerebral tissues. It increases the activity of superoxide dismutase, creatine phophatase, and lactic dehydrogenase in cerebral tissues, decreases the content of lactic acid, and ameliorates damage to nerve cells.
- 1.The Spine Date Seed or Chinese Sleeping Elixir,What is Semen Ziziphi Spinosa?
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