Cassia Angustifolia and Cassia Acutifolia,the Cassia senna spectrum stepped from the ancient Arabic sena.
- Basic Botanical Data of Cassia Senna.
- Origin of Senna.
- History and Name Origin:the Arabic sena.
- Cassia Senna Historical or traditional use.
- Phytochemicals and constituents of Cassia Senna.
- Actions and Application of Cassia Senna.
- Caution,Precaution,Pharmacology and Medical use Cassia Senna.
- Cassia Senna:Short description of process and Grade Standard.
- Preparations,Dosage and Administration of Cassia Senna.
- Research Update:Cassia Angustifolia.
Cassia Senna:Short description of process and Grade Standard.:
Senna leaves are tested before and after grinding for Sennosides contents and are extracted with methanol.
The above methanolic extracts are collected and Calcium sennosides are separated by addition of Calcium Salt solution.
The precipitated Calcium sennosides are centrifuged and washed with methanol and dried under vacuum.
The dried Calcium sennosides are ground, tested and packed.
Pharmacopeial grade senna leaf must consist of the dried leaflets of Alexandrian or Tinnevelly senna, or a mixture of both species. It must contain not less than 2.5% of hydroxyanthracene glycosides, calculated as sennoside B. Botanical identification must be confirmed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), macroscopic and microscopic examinations, and organoleptic evaluation. The stomatal index (a calculation of the percentage of stomata~holes in the leaf's skin through which the plant breathes:comprising the number of epidermal cells, including the stomata, each stoma being counted as one cell) for Alexandrian senna is 10~15, usually 12.5 and for Tinnevelly senna it is 14~20, usually 17.5 (BP, 1988; IP, 1996; Ph.Eur.3, 1998; Tu, 1992). The Chinese Pharmacopoeia additionally requires a purity standard of not more than 5.0% rachis (the main axis of the compound leaf) and fruits contained in the senna leaf (JP XII, 1993). The French Pharmacopoeia additionally requires a test for absence of known adulterants, namely Cassia auriculata (Bruneton, 1995; Ph.Fr.X, 1994). The ESCOP monograph requires the material to comply with the European Pharmacopoeia (ESCOP, 1997).
Pharmacopeial grade senna leaf standardized dry extract (Sennae folii extractum siccum normatum) must be manufactured from European Pharmacopoeia (Ph.Eur.) grade Sennae folium in accordance with the Ph.Eur. Extracta monograph. It must contain minimum 5.5% and maximum 8.0% hydroxyanthracene glycosides calculated as sennoside B with reference to the dry extract, with an allowed deviation of 10% (Ph.Eur.3, 1998).
Pharmacopeial grade senna pod must consist of the dried fruit of Alexandrian or Tinnevelly senna, or both. It must contain not less than 3.4% (Alexandrian senna pod) and not less than 2.2% (Tinnevelly senna pod) hydroxyanthracene glycosides, calculated as sennoside B. Botanical identification must be confirmed by TLC, macroscopic and microscopic examinations, and organoleptic evaluation (BP, 1988; IP, 1996; Ph.Eur.3, 1998). The Herbal Medicines Codex, however, requires not less than 2.2% of total anthraquinone glycosides calculated as sennoside A (JHMC, 1993). The ESCOP monographs require the material to comply with the European Pharmacopoeia (ESCOP, 1997).
- 1.Cassia Angustifolia and Cassia Acutifolia,the Cassia senna spectrum stepped from the ancient Arabic sena.
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