Cassia Angustifolia and Cassia Acutifolia,the Cassia senna spectrum stepped from the ancient Arabic sena.
- Basic Botanical Data of Cassia Senna.
- Origin of Senna.
- History and Name Origin:the Arabic sena.
- Cassia Senna Historical or traditional use.
- Phytochemicals and constituents of Cassia Senna.
- Actions and Application of Cassia Senna.
- Caution,Precaution,Pharmacology and Medical use Cassia Senna.
- Cassia Senna:Short description of process and Grade Standard.
- Preparations,Dosage and Administration of Cassia Senna.
- Research Update:Cassia Angustifolia.
Research Update:Cassia Angustifolia.
Quantitative analysis of barakol content in Senna siamea leaves and flowers by TLC-densitometry.:Med Princ Pract. 2007;16(1):47-52.Padumanonda T, Suntornsuk L, Gritsanapan W.
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
OBJECTIVE: To develop a TLC-densitometric method for the determination of barakol content in Senna siamea leaf and flower extracts, and to compare the barakol content in mature leaves, young leaves and young flowers of the plant which are consumed as a vegetable in curry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extraction of pure barakol was performed by boiling the fresh young leaves of S. siamea with 0.5% sulfuric acid followed by chloroform extraction. The extract was further purified and recrystallized from absolute ethanol. Authentic sample of barakol was used for the validation of the TLC-densitometric method. Chromatography was performed on a TLC aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F(254)as a stationary phase and chloroform-methanol (85:15 v/v) as a solvent system. Fifteen percent ethanolic extracts of mature leaves, young leaves and flowers of S. siamea were analyzed and compared for barakol content using the validated TLC-densitometric method. Both the validation and analysis of barakol by TLC-densitometry were carried out at the absorbance mode of 366 nm. RESULTS: Barakol was extracted as pure lemon-yellow crystals from young S. siamea leaves with 0.1% yield. Linearity was found over the range of 200-900 ng/spot (r(2) = 0.997). The developed method gave high precision (%RSD < 0.50) and accuracy (average 101.12%). The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 8 and 50 ng, respectively. Barakol content in young leaves, mature leaves and young flowers were 1.67, 0.78 and 1.43% dry weight, respectively. R(f) value of the barakol in young leaves, young flowers and authentic sample was the same: 0.45 +/- 0.03. CONCLUSION: The TLC-densitometric method was simple, precise and convenient; hence it is an effective procedure for the simultaneous determination of barakol in plant extracts.
Are herbs always good for you? A case of paralytic ileum using a herbal tisane.:Phytother Res. 2007 Jun;21(6):587-8.Sossai P, Nasone C, Cantalamessa F.Department of Medicine, Enrico Mattei Hospital, Matelica, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
We believe that administration of phytotherapics ('herbal' medicines) should be managed by physicians and pharmacists who can monitor any adverse reactions including allergies in patients. This of course implies that physicians and pharmacists require adequate training at the university and post-university level regarding all aspects of medicinal plants.We report here a case of paralytic ileum occurring in an older self-medicated patient who acquired an herbal tisane composed of Cassia angustifolia, as well as other plant products, in an herbal shop, for chronic constipation.
Occurrence of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acid amides in different herbal drugs and their influence on human keratinocytes, on human liver cells and on adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to the human stomach.:Planta Med. 2007 Feb;73(2):142-50. Epub 2007 Feb 13.Hensel A, Deters AM, Müller G, Stark T, Wittschier N, Hofmann T.University of Münster, Institute for Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry, Münster, Germany. email@example.com
Thirty commonly used medicinal plants were screened by a selective and specific LC-MS/MS method for the occurrence of N-phenylpropenoyl- L-amino acid amides, a new homologous class of secondary products. In 15 plants, one or more of the respective derivatives (1 to 12) were found and quantitated. Especially roots from Angelica archangelica, fruits of Cassia angustifolia, C. senna, Coriandrum sativum, leaves from Hedera helix, flowers from Lavandula spec. and from Sambucus nigra contained high amounts (1 to 11 microg/g) of mixtures of the different amides 1 to 12. For functional investigations on potential activity in cellular physiology, two amides with an aliphatic (8) and an aromatic amino acid residue (5) were used. N-(E)-Caffeic acid L-aspartic acid amide (8) and N-(E)-caffeic acid L-tryptophan amide (5) stimulated mitochondrial activity as well as the proliferation rate of human liver cells (HepG2) at 10 microg/mL significantly. When monitoring the influence of selected phase I and II metabolizing enzymes, both compounds did not influence CYP3A4 gene expression, but stimulated CYP1A2 gene expression and inhibited GST expression. Also, the proliferation of human keratinocytes (NHK) was increased up to 150% by both amides 5 and 8; this stimulation was also detectable on the level of gene expression by an up-regulation of the transcription factor STAT6. The aliphatic aspartic compound 8 showed strong antiadhesive properties on the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human stomach tissue.
Increasing Sennoside Yields in Tinnevelly Senna (Cassia angustifolia) I: Effects of Drought, Foliar Nitrogen Spray and Crop Type.:Planta Med. 1998 Jun;64(5):438-42.Ratnayaka H, Meurer-Grimes B, Kincaid D.Department of Biological Sciences, Lehman College and the Graduate School of the City University of New York, New York, U.S.A.
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the promise of Tinnevelly senna, CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA Vahl, as an alternative crop for stressful agroecosystems. Effects of drought, foliar nitrogen application and crop type on sennoside yields were studied with simultaneous measurements of net photosynthesis. Short term drought increased sennoside A + B concentration (% dw). After drought-induced morphological changes had occurred, long term drought did not influence sennoside A + B concentration but severe loss of leaf biomass caused 78% reduction of the sennoside yield per plant. Foliar nitrogen application increased the total sennoside A + B content per plant by 140% when the plants were not water stressed, but in severely droughted plants, no effect of foliar nitrogen application was detected. Although foliar nitrogen application increased sennoside A + B per plant, the sennoside concentration (% dw) decreased. The latter effect was still persistent three months after the nitrogen treatments were discontinued. In a comparison among three crop types of Tinnevelly senna, ratoon plants had the highest sennoside A + B concentration in leaves followed by seedlings and cuttings. However, seedlings produced the highest sennoside A + B yield per plant due to the higher leaf biomass. Except in long term drought, sennoside levels were higher in leaves with lower net photosynthesis, and were increased by treatments that induced physiological stress. Lower net photosynthesis occurred in short term and long term drought, and with deprivation of foliar nitrogen supplement. In contrast, sennoside yields per plant are readily increased by treatments that increase the total leaf biomass. Short term drought, nitrogen stress and ratooning are promising component technologies for field and on-farm investigations with the goal of increasing sennoside yields.
Sennosides A and B production by hairy roots of Senna alata (L.) Roxb.:Z Naturforsch [C]. 2006 May-Jun;61(5-6):367-71.Putalun W, Pimmeuangkao S, De-Eknamkul W, Tanaka H, Shoyama Y.Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand. firstname.lastname@example.org
Hairy roots of Senna alata transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, strain ATCC 15834 were induced and grown in half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Effects of sucrose contents and hormones on the growth and sennosides A, B production were investigated. Hairy roots cultured on hormone-free half-strength MS medium containing 5% sucrose under dark condition mostly stimulated the growth of hairy roots and increased the content of sennosides A and B yielding (169 +/- 4) and (34 +/- 3) microg g(-1) dry wt, respectively.
Senna and the formation of aberrant crypt foci and tumors in rats treated with azoxymethane.:Phytomedicine. 2005 Jun;12(6-7):501-5; discussion 505.Borrelli F, Capasso R, Aviello G, Di Carlo G, Izzo AA, Mascolo N, Capasso F.Department of Experimental Pharmacology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Via D. Montesano 80131 Naples, Italy.
Chronic use of anthraquinone laxatives has been blamed for the induction of habituation and the development of colonic cancer, but there are no definitive studies which have demonstrated this. To evaluate the carcinogenic potential of anthraquinones, the effect of long-term senna pod extract (SE) treatment on either healthy rats or rats treated with an initiating tumor agent (azoxymethane--AOM) has been studied. SE (30 and 60mg/kg), administered for 110 weeks, did not induce the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and tumors in healthy rats. The development of ACF and tumors in rats treated with AOM were significantly reduced by SE (30 and 60 mg/kg). These results suggest that a chronic SE use does not predispose to colon cancer. By contrast, SE might exert an anti-tumoral activity on rat colon carcinogenesis.
Acute liver failure with renal impairment related to the abuse of senna anthraquinone glycosides.:Ann Pharmacother. 2005 Jul-Aug;39(7-8):1353-7. Epub 2005 Jun 14.Vanderperren B, Rizzo M, Angenot L, Haufroid V, Jadoul M, Hantson P.Department of Nephrology, Cliniques Saint-Luc, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of chronic ingestion of very large amounts of senna fruits as an herbal tea, possibly leading to severe hepatotoxicity. CASE SUMMARY: A 52-year-old woman who had ingested, for >3 years, one liter of an herbal tea each day made from a bag containing 70 g of dry senna fruits, developed acute hepatic failure and renal impairment requiring intensive care therapy. The severity of the hepatic failure was reflected by the increase in prothrombin time (international normalized ratio >7) and the development of encephalopathy. Liver transplantation was discussed, but the patient ultimately recovered with supportive therapy. Renal impairment was consistent with proximal tubular acidosis, also with marked polyuria refractory to vasopressin administration. Suprisingly, large amounts of cadmium were transiently recovered in the urine. DISCUSSION: Cassia acutifolia and angustifolia plants are widely used as laxatives. Their chronic abuse may be associated with serious manifestations, including fluid and electrolyte loss, with chronic diarrhea. Severe hepatotoxicity is unusual, but could be explained by the exposure of the liver to unusual amounts of toxic metabolites of anthraquinone glycosides (sennosides). An objective causality assessment suggests that hepatotoxicity was possibly related to senna laxative abuse. Regarding nephrotoxicity, there are no available human data on sennosides, while experimental models suggest that anthraquinone derivatives may also accumulate in the kidneys. The finding of high urinary concentrations of cadmium would suggest contamination of the herbal tea by metals, but this hypothesis could not be verified. CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of large doses of senna laxatives may expose people to the risk of hepatotoxicity.
Sub-acute intoxication by Senna occidentalis seeds in rats.:Food Chem Toxicol. 2005 Apr;43(4):497-503.Barbosa-Ferreira M, Dagli ML, Maiorka PC, Górniak SL.Research Center of Veterinary Toxicology (CEPTOX), Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of S?o Paulo-SP, Brazil.
Senna occidentalis (So) is a weed that grows in pastures along fences and in fields cultivated with cereals such as corn and soybean, and many reports have been showing intoxication with this plant in different animal species. It is also used in many medicinal purposes. The objective of the present study was to better evaluate the toxic effects of prolonged administration of So seeds to rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each, three of them respectively fed rations containing 1%, 2% and 4% So seeds, and the last one (control) fed commercial ration for a period of 2 weeks. Fourteen rats were also used in a pair-feeding (PF) experiment. The rats of the experimental groups showed lethargy, weakness, recumbency, depression and emaciation. Two rats of the 4% group and two of the PF group died during the experiment. Histopathological study showed fiber degenerations in the skeletal (Tibial, pectoral and diaphragm) and cardiac muscles. In the liver parenchyma, was observed vacuolar degeneration and, in the kidney, mild nefrosis in the proximal convoluted tubules. All of these alterations occurred in a dose-dependent fashion. Moderate to severe degeneration and spongiosis in the central nervous system, especially in cerebellum. Electron microscopy revealed mitochondrial lesions in all analyzed tissues.
Stability control of senna leaves and senna extracts.:Planta Med. 2004 May;70(5):432-6.Goppel M, Franz G.Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.
Powdered senna leaves and a commercial methanolic senna leaf extract were investigated for apparent degradation pathways of known constituents. Different defined storage conditions were chosen according to the guidelines of the international conference on harmonization. Analytical fingerprinting was carried out by HPLC with photodiode array detection. Differences in degradation pathways were observed between the powdered herbal drug material and the extract, depending on storage conditions and packaging materials. Within the crude plant material sennosides were shown to be degraded to sennidine monoglycosides, while rhein 8-O-glucoside was hydrolysed to rhein by enzymatic processes. Degradation of the anthranoid compounds was not due to the same pathways in the investigated commercial extracts. Only unspecific alterations of all compounds were observed. Forced decomposition of this herbal drug preparation under high temperature caused oxidative decomposition of the sennosides to rhein 8-O-glucoside. Furthermore flavonoid glycosides decomposition were observed with an apparent increase in the content of flavone aglyca.
Effects of long-term administration of Senna occidentalis seeds in the large bowel of rats.:Pathol Res Pract. 2003;199(11):733-7.Nadal SR, Calore EE, Manzione CR, Puga FR, Perez NM.Emilio Ribas Infectology Institute, S?o Paulo, SP, Brazil.
Plants of the genus Senna that contain anthranoides derivatives are frequently used as cathartics. Radiological studies have demonstrated that patients with chronic constipation who have used stimulant laxative have colonic redundancy and dilatation more frequently than patients who have not. The objective of the present work was to study morphological and histochemical changes of the lower gut after administration of Senna occidentalis seeds for a long period to rats, as observed in skeletal muscle fibers. Fragments of the lower gut of young and adult rats treated with S. occidentalis seeds (2% for 171 days and 3% for 61 days in the diet) were submitted to histological and histochemical analysis and to densitometry. The most important finding was decreased oxidative enzyme activity in smooth muscle cells and in myenteric neurons of the large bowel. As oxidative metabolism is essential for ATP and energy production, these results suggest that the functional intestinal disturbance caused by the chronic use of Senna occidentalis as a laxative can be due to a metabolic effect involving energy production, which would decrease colonic motility and cause functional colonic dilatation, but without any irreversible anatomic chang
Yield of Cassia angustifolia in combination with different tree species in a silvi-herbal trial under hot arid conditions in India.:Bioresour Technol. 2003 Jan;86(2):165-9.Arya R. Arid Forest Research Institute, PO Krishi Mandi, New Pali Road, Jodhpur 342 005, India. email@example.com
A silvi-herbal trial was conducted in the hot arid region of India to study the performance of a shrub (Cassia angustifolia) in combination with different tree species. The study area was frequented by frost. Leaf yield of C. angustifolia under different treatments was estimated. It was found that the shrubs produced a significantly higher yield of leaves in the vicinity of the tree species as compared to the shrubs at a far distance from the trees. This was perhaps because of more protection of crops near the canopy of the plants during frosts. The yield was not much affected by the variation of tree species indicating that the effect of tree-shrub combination was not profound. C. angustifolia as inter-crop provides support to the farming system by way of conferring stability and generating assured income.
In vitro anti-hepatoma activity of fifteen natural medicines from Canada.:Phytother Res. 2002 Aug;16(5):440-4.Lin LT, Liu LT, Chiang LC, Lin CC.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Canada.
Fifteen crude drugs, Stellaria media Cyrill. (Caryophyllaceae), Calendula officinalis L. (Compositae), Achillea millefolium L. (Compositae), Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae), Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae), Satureja hortensis L. (Labiatae), Coptis groenlandica Salisb. (Ranunculaceae), Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Leguminosae), Origanum majorana L. (Labiatae), Centella asiatica L. (Umbelliferae), Caulophyllum thalictroides Mich. (Berberidaceae), Picea rubens Sargent. (Pinaceae), Rhamnus purshiana D.C. (Rhamnaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), which have been used as folk medicine in Canada, were evaluated for their anti-hepatoma activity on five human liver-cancer cell lines, i.e. HepG2/C3A, SK-HEP-1, HA22T/VGH, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5. The samples were examined by in vitro evaluation for their cytotoxicity. The results showed that the effects of crude drugs on hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines were different from those against non hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines. C. groenlandica was observed to be the most effective against the growth of all five cell lines and its chemotherapeutic values will be of interest for further studies.
Complete LC/MS analysis of a Tinnevelli senna pod extract and subsequent isolation and identification of two new benzophenone glucosides.:Planta Med. 2002 Apr;68(4):349-54.Terreaux C, Wang Q, Ioset JR, Ndjoko K, Grimminger W, Hostettmann K.Institut de Pharmacognosie et Phytochimie, Université de Lausanne, BEP, Lausanne, Switzerland.
The hydroalcoholic extract of Tinnevelli senna is widely used as a laxative phytomedicine. In order to improve the knowledge of the chemical composition of this extract, LC/MS and LC/MS(n) studies were performed, allowing the on-line identification of most of the known constituents, i. e., flavonoids, anthraquinones and the typical dianthronic sennosides. However, the identity of four compounds could not be ascertained on-line under the given LC/MS conditions. These substances were isolated and their structures elucidated as kaempferol, the naphthalene derivative tinnevellin 8-glucoside and two new carboxylated benzophenone glucosides.
Screening and identification of proteins mediating senna induced gastrointestinal motility enhancement in mouse colon.:World J Gastroenterol. 2002 Feb;8(1):162-7.Wang X, Zhong YX, Lan M, Zhang ZY, Shi YQ, Lu J, Ding J, Wu KC, Jin JP, Pan BR, Fan DM.Institute of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University,Xi'an 710033,Shaanxi Province,China.
AIM: To isolate the proteins involved in pharmacologic action of senna extract (SE) from mouse gastrointestinal tract and to explore the molecular mechanism of gastrointestinal motility change induced by SE. METHODS: SE was administrated to mice by different routes. Gastrointestinal motility of mice was observed using cathartic, gastrointestinal propellant movement experiments and X-ray analysis. Mouse model for gastrointestinal motility enhancement was established through continuous gastric administration of SE at progressively increased dose. At 3 h and week 3, 4, 6 and 10, morphological changes of gastrointestinal tissues were found under light microscope. Ultrastructural changes of intestinal and colonic tissues at week 6 were observed under transmission electron microscope. The colonic proteomic changes in model mice were examined by two-dimension polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradient isoelectric focusing to screen the differentially expressed proteins, and their molecular masses and isoelectric points were determined. Two N-terminal sequences of the samples were also determined by mass spectrometry. RESULTS: SE (0.3g) caused diarrhea after gastric administration in 1-6h and enhanced gastrointestinal propellant (65.1+/-7.5%; 45.8+/-14.6%, P<0.01) in mice, but intramuscular and hypodermic injection had no cathartic effect. X-ray analysis of gastrointestinal motility demonstrated that gastric administration of SE enhanced gastric evacuation and gastrointestinal transferring function. At 3 h and week 3 and 4 after gastric administration of SE, light microscopic examination revealed no apparent change in gastrointestinal mucosal tissues, but transmission electron microscopic examination revealed inflammatory changes in whole layer of intestinal and colonic wall. Twenty differential proteins were detected in the colonic tissues of the model mice by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and the N-terminal amino acid sequences of two proteins were determined. CONCLUSION: SE causes diarrhea and enhances gastrointestinal motility through digestive tract administration. Long-term gastric administration of SE induces inflammatory changes and cell damage in the whole gastrointestinal tract. The differential proteins screened from the colonic tissues of the model mice might mediate the enhancing effect of SE on gastrointestinal motility.
Use of the SOS-chromotest spot assay as a screening system for detecting genotoxic compounds in crude plant extracts.:Altern Lab Anim. 2002 Jan-Feb;30(1):87-92.Baez DA, Vallejo GZ, Sánchez PC, Valle MB, Chilpa RR, Estrada MJ.Instituto de Química, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, CP 04510, Mexico DF, Mexico.
An SOS-chromotest spot assay was used to detect genotoxic compounds in crude plant extracts. The method allows simultaneous testing of extracts from different species in either a liquid or a solid crystalline form. Extracts from two species of the genus Senna, native to the state of Morelos, Mexico, were assayed. Four genotoxic compounds were isolated, and were identified as quercetin and rutin from S. wislizeni, and 5,7-di- O-methylrutin and 5,7-di-O-methylquercetin from S. skinneri. The SOS-chromotest spot assay proved to be useful for activity- guided fractionation at the beginning of screening for genotoxic compounds in crude plant extracts.
Evaluation of the dissolution behaviour of some commercial herbal drugs and their preparations.:Pharmazie. 2001 Nov;56(11):868-70.Taglioli V, Bilia AR, Ghiara C, Mazzi G, Mercati V, Vincieri FF.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Florence, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
Dissolution rates are routinely performed with synthetic drugs, however, in the field of herbal drugs (HD), their preparations (HDP) and herbal medicinal products (HMP) this crucial property is generally not investigated. According to the European Pharmacopoeia, we have evaluated the dissolution behaviour of capsules containing various herbal drugs (Passira, Senna, Ginkgo) and some of their commercial dried extracts, manufactured with different methods, by analysis of their active components or marker constituents. Adequate dissolution behaviours of the flavonoids of Ginkgo were obtained for all preparations, while for both Passiflora and Senna only the extracts showed complete dissolution of the marker flavones and sennosides, respectively, in the investigated media.
Clinical and experimental study on using Cassia angustifolia extract as enema after abdominal operation.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1998 Sep;18(9):540-2.Wang M, Yan S, Wang J.Qingdao Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shandong 266002.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the curative effect and mechanism of using Cassia angustifolia extract (CAE) in treating gastrointestinal tract dysfunction after abdominal operations. METHODS: Enema administration of CAE (Clyster method) was used. RESULTS: The result of 130 patients was very effective in reducing the rate of gastrointestinal decompression, accelerating the restitution of borborygmi and the time of exhaustion. Animal experiment showed the CAE function is very obvious in enhancing the bowel movement of rats (P < 0.05). It can enhance peristalsis and contraction amplitude of vibration in the isolated ileum of rats (P < 0.05). It can push on the charcoal powder in intestinal tract of mice obviously (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: CAE could regulate disordered function of gastrointestinal tract after abdominal operations.
Origin of sennosides in health teas including Malva leaves.:Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2001 Jun;42(3):202-5.
The aim of this study is to clarify whether sennosides are contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and then to clarify the source of sennosides in health teas including malva leaves. The identification and determination of sennosides were performed with thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The leaf of Malva verticillata L. did not contain sennosides A or B and could be easily distinguished from senna leaf. Our previous report showed that sennosides are contained in weight-reducing herbal teas including malva leaves, and that senna leaf is a herbal component in some teas. Furthermore, in 10 samples of health tea including malva leaves that were bought last year, the smallest amount of sennosides was 6.1 mg/bag, and all health teas including malva leaves contained the leaf and midrib of senna. We suggest that sennosides A and B are not contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and that the sennosides in health teas including malva leaves are not derived from malva leaf but from senna leaf.
Structure of a galactomannan from the seeds of Cassia angustifolia Vahl.:Carbohydr Res. 2001 Jun 15;332(4):439-44.Chaubey M, Kapoor VP.Phytochemistry Division, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, -226 001, Lucknow, India.
Cassia angustifolia Vahl (family: Caesalpiniaceae) is a fast growing and spreading Indian shrub of which seeds, pods and leaves are extensively used for pharmaceutical applications. The seeds have been found to be an alternative source of commercial gums. The structural aspects of the galactomannans have been determined for a better understanding of its properties. The purified seed galactomannan contains mannose:galactose in a ratio of 2.90. The average molecular weight (M(w)) is 9.66x10(4) and the intrinsic viscosity (eta) is 209 mL/g. Methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation and 13C NMR studies confirm that the gum has the basic structure of legume galactomannans with a main chain of (1-->4)-linked beta-D-mannopyranosyl units to which single alpha-(1-->6)-D-linked galactopyranosyl units are attached through block pattern.
Topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Asian medicinal plants used in dermatological disorders.:Fitoterapia. 2001 Mar;72(3):221-9.Cuéllar MJ, Giner RM, Recio MC, Má?ez S, Ríos JL.Departament de Farmacologia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de València, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estellés, s/n. 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain.
The topical anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Cassia angustifolia, Rheum palmatum, Coptis chinensis, Phellodendron amurense and Scutellaria baicalensis, plants used in traditional East Asian medicine against different skin disorders, was studied. Though in different degree, all the extracts significantly inhibited the edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), in both single or multiple application, oxazolone, and arachidonic acid (AA). None of the extracts inhibited in vitro the activity of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) from Naja naja.
Genotoxicity of sennosides on the bone marrow cells of mice.:Food Chem Toxicol. 1998 Nov;36(11):937-40.Mukhopadhyay MJ, Saha A, Dutta A, De B, Mukherjee A.Centre for Advanced Studies on Cell and Chromosome Research, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, India.
Preparations of a number of plants which contain hydroxyanthraquinones as active constituents are used worldwide for their laxative effect. Anthraquinone glycosides of Cassia angustifolia and C. fistula were investigated for their ability to induce a clastogenic effect on the bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice. The endpoints screened were chromosomal aberrations and frequency of aberrant cells. Oral exposure to doses of these anthraquinones and their equivalent amount in leaf and pod extracts did not induce significant numbers of chromosomal aberrations or aberrant cells. The results indicate that anthraquinone sennoside B and rhein are weakly genotoxic.
Volatile Constituents of the Dried Leaves of Cassia angustifolia and C. acutifolia (Sennae Folium).:Planta Med. 1996 Dec;62(6):540-3.Schultze W, Jahn K, Richter R.Institut für Pharmazie, Abteilung Pharmazeutische Biologie, Bundesstr. 43, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany.
The official drug Sennae folium (obtained from CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA and/or C. ACUTIFOLIA) was found to contain small amounts of volatiles (0.047% based on dry weight) which were analyzed in detail by GC and GC/MS. More than 200 compounds could be detected, 122 of them were identified, representing about 90.7% of the peak area of the total mixture. The volatile constituents can be classified into monoterpenoids (8.8% for sample A and 34.6% for B), sesquiterpenoids (4.2% and 4.0%, respectively), phenylpropanoids (4.2%/15.2%), fatty acids and esters (54.3%/14.2%), and miscellaneous compounds (19.3%/22.7%). Apart from hexadecanoic acid which was strong in both samples (36.8%/9.7%), the occurrence of menthol, geranylacetone, and ( E)-anethole is of interest.
The senna drug and its chemistry.:Pharmacology. 1993 Oct;47 Suppl 1:2-6.Franz G.Department of Pharmacy, University of Regensburg, FRG.
Senna consists of the dried leaflets or fruits of Cassia senna (C. acutifolia) known in commerce as Alexandrian senna and of Cassia angustifolia commonly known as Tinnevelly senna. The senna plants are small shrubs of Leguminosae cultivated either in Somalia, the Arabian peninsula and near the Nile river. Tinnevelly senna is obtained from cultivated plants mainly in South India and Pakistan. Owing to the careful way in which the plant is harvested, the leaflets of the drug are usually little broken. Damaged leaves and lower quality products are often used for making galenicals. The senna pods (fruits) are collected during the same period as the leaves, then dried and separated into various qualities. The active principle of Senna was first isolated and characterized by Stoll in 1941. The first two glycosides were identified and attributed to the anthraquinone family. These were found to be dimeric products of aloe emodin and/or rhein which were named sennoside A and sennoside B. They both hydrolyze to give the aglycones sennidin A and B and two molecules of glucose. Later work confirmed these findings and further demonstrated the presence of sennosides C and D. Small quantities of monomeric glycosides and free anthraquinones seem to be present as well. The active constituents of the pods are similar to those of the leaves but present in larger quantities. Two naphthalene glycosides isolated from senna leaves and pods are 6-hydroxymusicin glucoside and tinnevellin glucoside.Both compounds can be utilized to distinguish between the Alexandrian senna and the India senna, since tinnevellin glucoside is only found in the latter and the first only in the C. senna.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Pharmacological study on spleen-stomach warming and analgesic actions of Aconitum carmichaeli Debx.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1992 Apr;17(4):238-41, inside backcover.Zhu Z, Shen Y, Zhang M, Chen G, Ma S.Shaanxi Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Materia Medica, Xian.
This study presents an observation of the anti-inflammatory effect of Aconitum carmichaeli decoction on water-immersion stress induced gastric ulcer in mice and 0.6 mol/L HCl induced gastric ulcer in rats. The observation showed that the decoction was resistant to the castor oil induced and Cassia angustifolia leaf induced experimental diarrhea in mice, and also had marked analgesic action. It is thus suggested that Aconitum carmichaeli is useful clinically as a spleen-stomach warming and analgesic agent in traditional Chinese medicine.
Inactivation of enveloped viruses by anthraquinones extracted from plants.:Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991 Dec;35(12):2463-6.Sydiskis RJ, Owen DG, Lohr JL, Rosler KH, Blomster RN.Department of Microbiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore 21201.
To determine the extent of antiviral activity present in a number of plant extracts, hot glycerin extracts were prepared from Rheum officinale, Aloe barbadensis, Rhamnus frangula, Rhamnus purshianus, and Cassia angustifolia and their virucidal effects were tested against herpes simplex virus type 1. All the plant extracts inactivated the virus. The active components in these plants were separated by thin-layer chromatography and identified as anthraquinones. A purified sample of aloe emodin was prepared from aloin, and its effects on the infectivity of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2, varicella-zoster virus, pseudorabies virus, influenza virus, adenovirus, and rhinovirus were tested by mixing virus with dilutions of aloe emodin for 15 min at 37 degrees C, immediately diluting the sample, and assaying the amount of infectious virus remaining in the sample. The results showed that aloe emodin inactivated all of the viruses tested except adenovirus and rhinovirus. Electron microscopic examination of anthraquinone-treated herpes simplex virus demonstrated that the envelopes were partially disrupted. These results show that anthraquinones extracted from a variety of plants are directly virucidal to enveloped viruses.
Chemical structure and biological activity of water-soluble polysaccharides from Cassia angustifolia leaves.:Planta Med. 1989 Dec;55(6):536-9.Müller BM, Kraus J, Franz G.
The water-soluble polysaccharides from Cassia angustifolia L. leaves were isolated and fractionated. The acidic polysaccharide fraction was separated into two subfractions S1 and S2 consisting of L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, D-galactose, and D-galacturonic acid. Further fractionation of the predominant S1 by GPC gave two fractions S1A and S1B with an average molecular weight of 2 x 10(6) and 1.5 x 10(5) d, respectively. Methylation analysis of S1A showed the presence of 1,4-linked galacturonic acid (31.0%), 1,2-linked rhamnose (14.5%), 1,2,4-linked rhamnose (15.8%), 1,3,6-linked galactose (15.3%), smaller amounts of 1,3-linked arabinose, 1.5-linked arabinose, and terminal galactose and arabinose residues. Mild acid hydrolysis of S1A indicated that the backbone consists of 1,4-linked galacturonic acid and 1,2-linked rhamnose residues in the ratio of 1:1. Every second rhamnose is connected via C-4 to arabinogalactan sidechains. The antitumor activity of the polysaccharide fractions was tested against the solid Sarcoma-180 in CD1 mice. Only S1A exhibited a significant antitumor activity with an inhibition rate of 51%.
Cathartic activity of Cassia species.:Pak J Pharm Sci. 1989 Jul;2(2):37-45.Ahmed S, Qureshi S, Kapadia Z, Badar Y.Pharmaceutical Division, P.C.S.LR. Laboratories, Karachi-39, Pakistan.
Cathartic activity of the three Cassia species i.e. Cassia angustifolia, C. fistula and C. holosericea has been assessed by Lou's method. Comparative study revealed that C. angustifolia is more active as compared to C. fistula and C. holosericea. Furthermore, the comparative study of their Sennoside content also supports the above finding, as they bear some correlation between Cathartic activity and Sennoside contents. The legumes of all the three species were found to be mere active as compared to leaves in their Cathartic activity.
Structure of a Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from the Seeds of Cassia angustifolia.:Planta Med. 1986 Aug;52(4):308-10.Alam N, Gupta PC.Department of Chemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, India.
A water-soluble galactomannan consisting of D-galactose and D-mannose in the molar ratio 3:2 has been isolated from the seeds of CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA. Hydrolytic fission of the methylated polysaccharide resulted in three methylated sugars: (a) 2, 3-di- O-methyl- D-mannose, (b) 2, 3, 4-tri- O-methyl- D-galactose, and (c) 2, 3, 4, 6-tetra- O-methyl- D-galactose in the molar ratio 2:1:2. Partial acid hydrolysis of the polysaceharide afforded five oligosaccharides: (a) epimelibiose, (b) galactobiosylmannose, (c) mannobiose, (d) mannotriose, and (e) galactobiose. Periodate oxidation of the polysaceharide indicated 59.7% end group while methylation gave 60%. Sodium borohydride reduction of the periodate oxidised polysaceharide and subsequent hydrolysis revealed the presence of (1-->4) and (1-->6)-glycosidic bonds. Thus, the main chain of the galactomannan was found to consist of (1-->4)-linked mannoypyranosyl units having beta-glycosidic bonds while (1-->6)-linked alpha-glycosidically bonded galactopyranosyl units form the branching points.
Isolation of a new aloe-emodin dianthrone diglucoside from senna and its potentiating effect on the purgative activity of sennoside A in mice.:J Pharm Pharmacol. 1985 Oct;37(10):703-6.Nakajima K, Yamauchi K, Kuwano S.
Two aloe-emodin dianthrone diglucosides (I and II) were isolated from the leaves of Cassia angustifolia Vahl by successive column chromatography with Amberlite XAD-2, silica gel, Polyamide C-200 and Sephadex LH-20. The stereostructures of I and II were elucidated as trans and meso isomers at 10-10', respectively, from the patterns of the ultraviolet absorption spectra and circular dichroism curves. This is the first report of isolation of diglucoside I from senna. Despite the lack of purgative activity, diglucoside I exerts a potentiating effect of about 1.3 times on the purgative activity of sennoside A in mice when even 15% is included in the mixture. The difference between I and a third active glycoside based on aloe-emodin is also discussed.
Naphthalene Glycosides in Cassia senna and Cassia angustifolia.:Planta Med. 1981 Sep;43(9):11-7.Lemli J, Toppet S, Cuveele J, Janssen G.Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, K. U. Leuven, Belgium.
From leaves and pods of CASSIA SENNA L. and C. ANGUSTIFOLIA V AHL. were isolated the naphthalene glycosides 6-hydroxymusizin glycoside and the new tinnevellin glycoside. The structures were established mainly by spectroscopic methods ( (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, MS).
- 1.Cassia Angustifolia and Cassia Acutifolia,the Cassia senna spectrum stepped from the ancient Arabic sena.
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