Eucommia bark,Duzhong and its Applicable Uses.
- Basic Botanical Data of Eucommia Bark.
- What is eucommia bark? What is it used for?.
- Eucommia Bark Varieties and Grading.
- Phytochemicals and Constituents of Eucommia Bark.
- Pharmacology:Eucommia Bark.
- Eucommia Bark Indications and Combinations.
- Primary Combinations of Eucommia Bark.
- Eucommia Bark Dosage and Administration.
- Scientific Data and Mechanism:Eucommia Bark Hypotensive Effects.
- Research update:Eucommia bark.
Research update:Eucommia bark.:
Novel phytoandrogens and lipidic augmenters from Eucommia ulmoides.:BMC Complement Altern Med. 2007 Jan 29;7:3.Ong VY, Tan BK.Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, 119260, Singapore. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Plants containing compounds such as the isoflavonoids, with female hormone-like effects that bind to human estrogen receptors, are known. But none has been previously shown to have corresponding male hormone-like effects that interact with the human androgen receptor. Here, we report that the tree bark (cortex) of the Gutta-Percha tree Eucommia ulmoides possesses bimodal phytoandrogenic and hormone potentiating effects by lipidic components. METHODS: The extracts of E. ulmoides were tested using in-vitro reporter gene bioassays and in-vivo animal studies. Key compounds responsible for the steroidogenic effects were isolated and identified using solid phase extraction (SPE), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), electron spray ionisation-mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). RESULTS: The following bioactivities of E. ulmoides were found: (1) a phenomenal tripartite synergism exists between the sex steroid receptors (androgen and estrogen receptors), their cognate steroidal ligands and lipidic augmenters isolated from E. ulmoides, (2) phytoandrogenic activity of E. ulmoides was mediated by plant triterpenoids binding cognately to the androgen receptor (AR) ligand binding domain. CONCLUSION: In addition to well-known phytoestrogens, the existence of phytoandrogens is reported in this study. Furthermore, a form of tripartite synergism between sex steroid receptors, sex hormones and plant-derived lipids is described for the first time. This could have contrasting clinical applications for hypogonadal- and hyperlipidaemic-related disorders.
Content comparison of pinoresinol diglucoside in original and reborn bark of Eucommia ulmoides.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2006 Aug;29(8):792-4. Chinese.Feng SM, Gan ZJ, Zhai XF, Fu PF, Sun WJ.Biology and Medicine Key Laboratory of Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reborn barks quality, antihypertensive effective component of pinoresnol diglucoside (PDG) in three times reborn barks were determined. METHODS: A YWG C18 column (10 microm, 250 x 4.6 mm) was used with a mobile phase of methanol-water (30:75) and flow rate of 1.0 (ml/min). The detective wave-length was set at 277nm and the column temperature at room temperature. RESULTS: PDG in the first reborn barks are slightly higher than the original ones, and in the second reborn barks are similar with the barks before girdling (the fist reborn barks), but in the third reborn barks, PDG are much lower than the barks before girdling (the second reborn barks). CONCLUSION: In order to ensure reborn barks quality, we suggest that the girdling bark regeneration can be made two times, the time between the first and the second girdling is not less than five years. PDG in the third reborn barks should be enhanced.
Study on technology of extracting geniposidic acid from Eucommia ulmiodes and its application.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Mar;29(3):229-31, 277. Chinese.Peng MJ, Zhou CS, Lei QF, Chen LS.Institute of New Technology Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: To study the optimum technology of extracting bioactive component named geniposidic acid in Eucommia Ulmiodes by orthogonal test. METHOD: An orthogonal test table L16(4(5)) was used with the factors of extracting time, temperature, times, ethanol consistency and the ratio of solid to liquid. The content of geniposideic acid was determined by RP-HPLC. RESULT: The optimum technology was: temperature 50 degrees C, time 1 h, once, consistency 80%, and the ratio of solid and liquid 1:12. Under the condition, the best material of Eucommia Ulmiodes for extracting geniposidic acid was chosen. CONCLUSION: The technology can provide some theoretic advice for industry.
Application of ultrasonic technique for extracting chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmodies Oliv. (E. ulmodies).:Ultrason Sonochem. 2005 Mar;12(4):295-300.Li H, Chen B, Yao S.State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biological Sensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, PR China.
An ultrasonic method for the extraction of chlorogenic acid from fresh leaves of Eucommia ulmodies Oliv. was investigated and optimized. The influence of four extraction variables on extraction efficiency of chlorogenic acid was investigated. The optimum extraction conditions found were: 70% aqueous methanol; solvent: sample ratio=20:1 (v/w); extraction time 3 x 30 min. The recovery of chlorogenic acid was studied (HPLC) and the reproducibility of the extraction method was determined. The optimized ultrasonic extraction conditions were applied to extract chlorogenic acid from fresh leaves, fresh bark and dried bark of E. ulmodies and four traditional Chinese medicines. The application of sonication method was shown to be highly efficient in the extraction of chlorogenic acid from E. ulmodies and other Chinese medicines compared with classical methods.
Studies on chemical constituents from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2004 May;27(5):341-3. Chinese.Sun Y, Dong J, Wu S.Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The First Military Medical University, Guangzhou 510515.
OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. METHODS: The chemical constituents were isolated and repeatedly purified on silica gel column. They were identified and structurally elucidated by means of physio-chemical constants and spectral analysis. RESULTS: Seven compounds were obtained. They were (-)epicatechin (I), catechin (II), n-octacosanoic acid (III), tetracosanoic-2, 3-dihydroxypropylester (IV), rutin (V), chlorogenic acid (VI), and caffeic acid (VII), respectively. CONCLUSION: Four compounds (II, III, IV, V) were isolated from bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv for the first time.
Crystal structure of a novel antifungal protein distinct with five disulfide bridges from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver at an atomic resolution.:J Struct Biol. 2004 Oct;148(1):86-97.Xiang Y, Huang RH, Liu XZ, Zhang Y, Wang DC.Center for Structural and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, People's Republic of China
EAFP2 is a novel antifungal protein isolated from the bark of the tree Eucommia ulmoides Oliver. It consists of 41 residues and is characterized with a five-disulfide motif and the inhibitory effects on the growth of both cell wall chitin-containing and chitin-free fungi. The crystal structure of EAFP2 at an atomic resolution of 0.84 A has been determined by using Shake-and-Bake direct methods with the program SnB. The phases obtained were of sufficient quality to permit the initial model built automatically and the structural refinement carried out using anisotropic displacement parameters resulted in a final crystallographic R factor of 6.8%. In the resulting structural model, all non-hydrogen protein atoms including an unusual pyroglutamyl acid residue at the N-terminal can fit to the articulated electron densities with one centre and more than 65% of the hydrogen atoms in the protein can be observed as individual peaks in the difference map. The general fold of EAFP2 is composed of a 3(10) helix (Cys3-Arg6), an alpha-helix (Ala27-Cys31) and a three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet (Cys16-Ser18, Cys23-Ser25, and Cys35-Cys37) and cross-linked by five disulfide bridges. The tertiary structure of EAFP2 can be divided into two structural sectors, A and B. Sector A composed of residues 11-30 adopts a conformation similar to the chitin-binding domain in the hevein-like proteins and features a hydrophobic surface embraced a chitin-binding site (Tyr20, 22, 29, and Ser18). The distinct disulfide bridge Cys7-Cys37 connects the N-terminal ten residues with the C-terminal segment 35-41 to form the sector B, which features a cationic surface distributing all four positively charged residues, Arg6, 9, 36, and 40. Based on these structural features, the possible structural basis of the functional properties of EAFP2 is discussed.
Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effects of the aqueous extracts of the Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. leaf and bark: implications on their antihypertensive action.:Vascul Pharmacol. 2003 Dec;40(5):229-35.Kwan CY, Chen CX, Deyama T, Nishibe S.HSC-4N40, Department of, Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5. email@example.com
The vascular effects of three extract preparations from the Chinese medicinal herb, Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., which is historically an active ingredient commonly used in antihypertensive herbal prescriptions in China, were investigated with isometric contraction using isolated rat aortic and dog carotid rings. Both aqueous extracts isolated from eucommia leaf (L) and bark (B) concentration dependently caused endothelium-dependent relaxation in vessels precontracted with 1 microM phenylephrine (PE), but the methanol extract of the leaf (M) had no effect. Vessels precontracted with KCl and de-endothelialized vessels precontracted with PE were not affected by B or L. The endothelium-dependent relaxation evoked by B and L was either abolished or substantially inhibited by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and methylene blue (MB), indicating the involvement of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase pathway in the vasorelaxant action of B and L. The relaxation to the aqueous extract of eucommia bark was not inhibited with 1 microM atropine, but was inhibited by 3-5 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 3 mM 4-aminopyridine. This suggests that the endothelium-dependent, NO-mediated relaxation evoked by the aqueous eucommia extracts was not mediated via the activation of endothelium muscarinic receptors and may involve the activation of K+ -channels. Results in this study have provided the first evidence on the in vitro vasorelaxant action of E. ulmoides Oliv. that forms the pharmacological basis for its well-documented antihypertensive action.
Endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation induced by Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. bark extract is mediated by NO and EDHF in small vessels.:Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2004 Feb;369(2):206-11. Epub 2003 Dec 13.Kwan CY, Zhang WB, Deyama T, Nishibe S.HSC-4N40, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, L8N 3Z5, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
The vasorelaxant effects of the aqueous extract prepared from the bark of the Chinese medicinal herb, Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (also referred to as Tu-Chung or Du-Zhong), which is a common active ingredient in traditional antihypertensive herbal prescriptions in China, have recently been characterized in rat aorta and dog carotid artery. The vasorelaxant effect of eucommia bark extract on these large elastic arteries was found to be entirely endothelium-dependent and nitric oxide (NO)-mediated. Since smaller muscular arteries play a more dominant role in the change of peripheral resistance and thus the regulation of blood pressure, we have now compared the relaxant effects of eucommia bark extract using aorta and the proximal as well as the distal ends of the superior mesenteric arteries from the rat, with a specific objective to investigate whether smaller muscular arteries also elicit endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation (EDVR) in response to eucommia bark extract. We have also determined whether the EDVR, if indeed occurring in the mesenteric arteries, is mediated entirely by NO, or whether it also involves endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). We found that all three types of vessel preparations elicit EDVR in response to the eucommia bark extract concentration-dependently in a similar manner to the relaxant responses to carbachol (CCh). Although the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME totally abolished the EDVR in aorta, it only partial abolished EDVR in mesenteric arteries isolated from each end, the distal end being more resistant to L-NAME. However, the residual L-NAME-resistant relaxation of the rat mesenteric arteries could be further inhibited by preincubation of the vessels with the combination of L-NAME and 15-20 mM KCl (KCl itself at this low concentration caused little or no contraction). Therefore, the EDVR induced by the eucommia extract and CCh in aorta is mediated entirely by NO, and that in mesenteric arteries by NO as well as EDHF, with the EDHF component (inhibited by KCl) larger in the smaller distal end of the rat mesenteric artery. Results of our study offer a plausible mechanistic basis for the vasorelaxing action of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., which may account for its well-documented antihypertensive action.
Relationship between endogenous indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid changes and bark recovery in Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. after girdling.:J Exp Bot. 2003 Aug;54(389):1899-907.Mwange KN, Hou HW, Cui KM.Peking University, College of Life Sciences, Dept of Plant Molecular and Developmental Biology, Beijing 100871, PR China.
Eucommia ulmoides (Eucommiaceae), a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, is often subjected to severe manual peeling of its bark. If the girdled trunk is well protected from desiccation, new bark forms within 1 month. It has been proposed that phytohormones play a key role in this process. Research has been conducted to determine the distribution of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) during the bark recovery, using high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC) and fluoro-immuno-localization techniques. Results showed that, from 2 d after girdling, the IAA content in the recovering bark (RB) increased markedly while that of ABA decreased. The opposite pattern was observed during progressive re-establishment of the tissues. Immuno-localization showed that most of the IAA was located in the RB tissue layers undergoing cell division, dedifferentiation and (re)differentiation, such as xylary rays, immature xylem, phellogen and cambial regions. This study also provides evidence that IAA and ABA are involved in the bark reconstitution.
Biotransformation of pinoresinol diglucoside to mammalian lignans by human intestinal microflora, and isolation of Enterococcus faecalis strain PDG-1 responsible for the transformation of (+)-pinoresinol to (+)-lariciresinol.:Chem Pharm Bull. 2003 May;51(5):508-15.
By anaerobic incubation of pinoresinol diglucoside (1) from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides with a fecal suspension of humans, eleven metabolites were formed, and their structures were identified as (+)-pinoresinol (2), (+)-lariciresinol (3), 3'-demethyl-(+)-lariciresinol (4), (-)-secoisolariciresinol (5), (-)-3-(3", 4"-dihydroxybenzyl)-2-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxybenzyl)butane-1, 4-diol (6), 2-(3', 4'-dihydroxybenzyl)-3-(3", 4"-dihydroxybenzyl)butane-1, 4-diol (7), 3-(3"-hydroxybenzyl)-2-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxybenzyl)butane-1, 4-diol (8), 2-(3', 4'-dihydroxybenzyl)-3-(3"-hydroxybenzyl)butane-1, 4-diol (9), (-)-enterodiol (10), (-)-(2R, 3R)-3-(3", 4"-dihydroxybenzyl)-2-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxybenzyl)butyrolactone (11), (-)-(2R, 3R)-2-(3', 4'-dihydroxybenzyl)-3-(3", 4"-dihydroxybenzyl)butyrolactone (12), (-)-(2R, 3R)-3-(3"-hydroxybenzyl)-2-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxybenzyl)butyrolactone (13), 2-(3', 4'-dihydroxybenzyl)-3-(3"-hydroxybenzyl)butyrolactone (14), 2-(3'-hydroxybenzyl)-3-(3", 4"-dihydroxybenzyl)butyrolactone (15) and (-)-(2R, 3R)-enterolactone (16) by various spectroscopic means, including two dimensional (2D)-NMR, mass spectrometry and circular dichroism. A possible metabolic pathway was proposed on the basis of their structures and time course experiments monitored by thin-layer chromatography. Furthermore, a bacterial strain responsible for the transformation of (+)-pinoresinol to (+)-lariciresinol was isolated from a human fecal suspension and identified as Enterococcus faecalis strain PDG-1.
Primary structural determination of N-terminally blocked peptides from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv by mass spectrometric analysis.:Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2003;17(9):903-8.Huang RH, Zhang Y, Wang DC.Center for Molecular Biology, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, PR China.
Sequencing of N-terminally blocked proteins/peptides is a challenge since these molecules inhibit processing by Edman degradation. By using high accuracy Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) tandem mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS), the primary structures of two novel N-terminally blocked antifungal peptides (EAFP1 and EAFP2), purified from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv, have been determined. The results show that the high mass accuracy provided by FTICR mass spectrometry is effective to determine the N-terminally blocking group, and can simplify the task of spectral interpretation and improve the precision of sequence determination. The combination of MALDI-TOFMS with carboxyl peptidase Y digestion was used to determine the C-terminal 36- and 27-residue sequences of EAFP1 and EAFP2, respectively, to provide the sequence linkage information for tryptic fragments. Compared with traditional peptide chemistry the advantage of mass spectrometric techniques is their simplicity, speed and sensitivity.
Rapid and simultaneous analysis of some bioactive components in Eucommia ulmoides by capillary electrophoresis.:J Chromatogr A. 2003 Mar 14;989(2):303-10.Cheung HY, Lai WP, Cheung MS, Leung FM, Hood DJ, Fong WF.Research Group for Bioactive Product, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Hong Kong SAR, China. email@example.com
A micellar electrokinetic chromatography method was established for the qualitative and quantitative determination of three groups of bioactive components, iridoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds, in Eucommia ulmoides. Of the eleven bioactive components being studied, ten were successfully separated in 50 mM boric acid buffer at pH 9.5, with 50 mM sodium dodecylsulfate and 4% 1-butanol, at a voltage of 20 kV, temperature of 20 degrees C and injection under high pressure at 138 kPa for 5 s in a fused-silica capillary with peak detection at 214 nm. A high reproducibility and good linearity was obtained. The relative standard deviations of the migration times in eight injections of the standards ranged from 0.64 to 1.88% and those of the corrected peak area ranged from 2.79 to 6.62%. A good linearity, with correlation coefficients in the range of 0.995-1.000, was obtained in the calibration curves of each standard from 1 to 50 ppm. The amount of these bioactive components in the bark and leaves of Eucommia ulmoides were determined.
In-situ chemical analyses of trans-polyisoprene by histochemical staining and Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in a rubber-producing plant, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver.:Planta. 2002 Oct;215(6):934-9. Epub 2002 Jul 25.
The localization of polyisoprene in young stem tissues of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver was investigated by histochemical staining and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy. The fibrous structures were stained with Oil Red O. FT-IR microspectroscopic analysis proved that the fibrous structures were trans-polyisoprene. Granular structures stained with the dye, and characteristic absorptions at 2,960 cm(-1) and 1,430 cm(-1) in FT-IR suggested that trans-polyisoprene accumulated in the vicinity of the cambium layer. We have thus successfully shown for the first time the localization of trans-polyisoprene in plant tissues, and our histological investigation allowed us to presume the main sites of biosynthesis and accumulation of trans-rubber. Furthermore, a new technical approach, the preparation of sections using an electronic freezing unit and the in situ analysis of polyisoprene using FT-IR microspectroscopy, is demonstrated to be a promising method for determining the accumulation of polyisoprene as well as other metabolites.
Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a novel antifungal protein with five disulfide bridges from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver.:Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2002 Oct;58(Pt 10 Pt 2):1838-40.Xiang Y, Huang RH, Liu W, Li GP, Liu XZ, Wang DC.Center for Molecular Biology, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, People's Republic of China.
Two antifungal proteins, named Eucommia antifungal peptides 1 and 2 (EAFP1 and EAFP2), have been purified from the bark of the tree E. ulmoides Oliver and show a relatively broad spectrum of antifungal activity against several agriculturally important plant pathogens. One of these small proteins (EAFP2) has been crystallized. The crystal belongs to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 19.01, b = 23.16, c = 30.69 A, beta = 98.54 degrees. 1.0 A resolution data were collected from an EAFP2 crystal and have been used to obtain phase information directly by an ab initio method.
A new monoterpene from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides.:J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2002 Sep;4(3):201-4.Hua HM, Yin HQ, Li BQ, Hu B, Pei YH.Department of Natural Products, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, China.
A new monoterpene, eucommidiol (1), was isolated from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (Eucommiaceae), together with a known compound 1,4a,5,7a-tetrahydro-7-hydroxymethyl-cyclopenta[c]pyran-4-carboxylic methyl ester. The structure of 1 was characterized as 6,6a-di(hydroxymethyl)-3,3a,4,6a-tetrahydro-2H-cyclopenta[b]furan-2-one on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence including 2DNMR studies.
Two novel antifungal peptides distinct with a five-disulfide motif from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.:FEBS Lett. 2002 Jun 19;521(1-3):87-90.Huang RH, Xiang Y, Liu XZ, Zhang Y, Hu Z, Wang DC.Center for Molecular Biology, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
Two antifungal peptides, named EAFP1 and EAFP2, have been purified from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Each of the sequences consists of 41 residues with a N-terminal blockage by pyroglutamic acid determined by automated Edman degradation in combination with the tandem mass spectroscopy and the C-terminal ladder sequencing analysis. The primary structurs all contain 10 cysteines, which are cross-linked to form five disulfide bridges with a pairing pattern (C1-C5, C2-C9, C3-C6, C4-C7, C8-C10). This is the first finding of a plant antifungal peptide with a five-disulfide motif. EAFP1 and EAFP2 show characteristics of hevein domain and exhibit chitin-binding properties similar to the previously identified hevein-like peptides. They exhibit relatively broad spectra of antifungal activities against eight pathogenic fungi from cotton, wheat, potato, tomato and tobacco. The inhibition activity of EAFP1 and EAFP2 can be effective on both chitin-containing and chitin-free fungi. The values of IC(50) range from 35 to 155 microg/ml for EAFP1 and 18 to 109 microg/ml for EAFP2. Their antifungal effects are strongly antagonized by calcium ions.
Constituents and pharmacological effects of Eucommia and Siberian ginseng.:Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001 Dec;22(12):1057-70. Review.
The bark and leaves of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv (Eucommiaceae) and "Siberian ginseng" prepared from the root bark or stem bark of Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim (Acanthopanax senticosus Harms) have been used as tonic and anti-stress drug. The extracts of Eucommia showed anti-hypertensive, anti-complementary, anti-oxidative, and anti-gastric ulcer effects, and promoting collagen synthesis, accelating granuloma formation, and other pharmacological effects. The Siberian ginseng exhibited anti-fatigue, anti-stress, immuno-enhancing effect, CNS activity, and anti-depressive effect. By now, 40, 28, and 10 compounds have been isolated from Eucommia ulmoides bark, Eucommia ulmoides leaves, and Siberian ginseng, respectively, and their structures were elucidated. Their pharmacological activities were mainly due to lignans and iridoid glycosides.
The occurrence of geometric polyprenol isomers in the rubber-producing plant, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver.:Lipids. 2001 Jul;36(7):727-32.
The chain length and geometric isomerism of polyprenols from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver were analyzed using supercritical fluid chromatography. After intensive effort to establish separation conditions for geometric isomers, a phenyl-bonded silica gel-packed column was found that cleanly separated poly-trans and -cis prenols. The presence of long-chain poly-trans prenols (>9 mers) was confirmed for the first time in plants. Trans isomers were found in the leaf, seed coat, and root, but not in the bark and seed. Poly-trans prenols in this plant may act as intermediates for trans-polyisoprene biosynthesis.
A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of pinoresinol diglucopyranoside in Eucommia Ulmoides Oliv.:Se Pu. 1998 Mar;16(2):161-3. Chinese.Qi X, Zhang S.Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070.
A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of (+)-pinoresinol-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in the bark of Eucommia Ulmoides was established. The air-dried bark of E. Ulmoides was ground into powder and extracted continuously with methanol. The extract was evaporated under reduced pressure, then suspended in water. This suspension being subjected to column chromatography was eluted successively with water, 30%, 50% and 90% aqueous solution of ethanol. The 30% EtOH eluate was concentrated and then injected into HPLC system. The conditions of HPLC were: YWG-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d. 10 microns); 28%(V/V) methanol mobile phase and UV detector at 232 nm. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.068 microgram-0.68 microgram of(+)-pinoresinol-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside with correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The coefficient of variation and average recovery were 0.50%-0.74% (n = 5) and 99.22% (n = 3) respectively.
Integrated approach in Sichuan.:China Popul Today. 1996 Feb;13(1):4-5.Gao M.
PIP: Sichuan province, which recently initiated an integrated approach to family planning, is described as the most populous province in China. Current population is about 110 million, and the average net increase is about 1.1 million annually. The rate of natural increase in about 10/1000. The province has a low level of socioeconomic development. Per capita income in 1993 was under 800 yuan. There is a large surplus of rural agricultural workers who migrated to urban areas seeking work. The Deputy Governor initiated a directive for encouraging all relevant departments to pool resources and help poor family planning acceptors. The proposal was for helping 10 poor family planning acceptors per township, 100 per county, 1000 per prefecture, and 10,000 per province. Officially, the integrated program was instituted in January 1995. In Xiaoquan town, Deyang City, the government was prepared to help 70 one-child households get rid of poverty and become well-off quickly. The local town cooperative was convinced to provide a loan of 2.5 million yuan for building a stock farm. Other units pitched in to build the farm and provide animals. The 70 farmers were employed in working the farm. Each earned about 1450 yuan per year. In Bajiao Township of Shifang County of Deyang City, poor family planning acceptors were employed in developing the production of the tuber of elevated gastrodia and the bark of eucommia. Funding and skill training were provided by the Bureau of Forestry of Deyang City. In Mingshan Town of Minghsan County, the government chief and family planning director helped family planning acceptors improve their skills in marketing watermelons. Family planning acceptors in Zhugengzhen Town of Leshan City were encouraged by town government to relax and wait out the temporary decline in pork prices. Acceptors later made a large profit from their sales. An outcome of these integrated programs has been "warm acceptance" from farmers and acceptors.
Anticomplementary activity of the constituents of Eucommia ulmoides bark.:J Ethnopharmacol. 1988 Jul-Aug;23(2-3):159-64.
A study was made on the anticomplementary activity of the lignoid and iridoid derivatives isolated from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides as well as the enzymatic hydrolysis products of the isolated iridoid glucosides.
Regeneration of re-covered bark in Eucommia ulmoides.:Sci Sin [B]. 1983 Jan;26(1):33-40.Li ZG, Cui KM, Yuan ZD, Liu SJ.
The girdled trunk of Eucommia ulmoides, sometimes could not regenerate a new bark due to ringed surface necrosis. But, if an extension of 10cm of the bark on each end of the necrotic part was removed in time and re-covered with new bark taken from another tree, the re-covered bark and the newly girdled part could heal together one week after. Opposite to the necrotic surface the loose part of the re-covered bark regenerated callus from the phloem ray cells. If the re-covered part was very close to the necrotic surface, no callus was regenerated. However, many scattered tracheid-like elements derived from phloem were found. And then groups of cells including several tracheid-like elements were discernible. There was a ring of meristematic cells around that group of cells. Finally these meristems gradually became normal and had usual activities of vascular cambium.
- 1.Eucommia bark,Duzhong and its Applicable Uses.
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