Carrot,Daucus carota,Origin and Archeology of Carrot,Modern Researches.
- Basic Botanical Data of Carrot.
- Brief History of Carrot.
- The Beginnings of Carrot.
- Origin and Archeology of Carrot.
- Pigment Power in Carrot Colour.
- Different coloured carrots.
- Carrot Phytochemicals and it's benefit.
- Functions,Applications of Carrot.
- Tips of Carrots Benefit our bodies.
- Carrot Health Benefits.
- Alternative Medicinal Uses,Medicinal Use,Action of Carrot.
- Dosage and Administration of Carrot.
- Cautions on Use of Carrot.
- Modern Researches of Carrot.
- Research Update:Carrot or Daucus carota.
Research Update:Carrot or Daucus carota.:
Differential effects of hexaconazole and paclobutrazol on biomass, electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant potential of Daucus carota L.:Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2007 Jun 14;Gopi R, Jaleel CA, Sairam R, Lakshmanan GM, Gomathinayagam M, Panneerselvam R.Stress Physiology Lab, Department of Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608002, Tamil Nadu, India.
The application of triazole fungicides is a common practice in the cultivation of carrot (Daucus carota L.) plants. It is there for seems important to test the changes that are occurring in this food crop under triazoles, the non-traditional plant growth regulators, treatments in order to identify the extent to which it tolerate the fungicide application and thereby make it an economical food crop. A field experiment was conducted to find out the effects of two triazole fungicides (hexaconazole (HEX) and paclobutrazol (PBZ) at 20mgl(-1)plant(-1)) on the biomass, yield, electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant potential of carrot. The treatments were given to plants on 15, 30 and 45 days after sowing (DAS). The plants were uprooted for analyses of growth and biochemical parameters on 60 DAS. It was found that both HEX and PBZ have significant effects on the growth and biochemical parameters of this plant. Among the triazoles used, PBZ performed best in terms of anthocyanin, protein, amino acid, proline, starch and sugar, contents whereas HEX enhanced carotenoids, fresh weight, dry weight and biomass. There was no significant variation in chlorophyll ('a' and 'b') contents between the two triazole treated plants, but HEX and PBZ proved best when compared to untreated control plants. HEX and PBZ increased alpha- and beta-amylases enzymes activities to a significant level. Out of these two triazoles, PBZ performed best in increasing the starch hydrolyzing enzymes activities. The non-enzymatic antioxidant, reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzyme ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were increased under fungicide applications. The data suggests that, the application of triazole fungicides may be a useful tool to increase the tuber quality as well as quantity in carrot plants, apart from their fungicidal properties.
Determination of polyacetylenes in carrot roots (Daucus carota L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection.:J Sep Sci. 2007 Mar;30(4):483-90.Christensen LP, Kreutzmann S.Department of Food Science, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Research Centre Aarslev, Denmark. firstname.lastname@example.org
A new high-performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detection was developed for the separation and simultaneous determination of the carrot polyacetylenes falcarindiol (FaDOH), falcarindiol 3-acetate (FaDOAc) and falcarinol (FaOH) in carrot root extracts. The optimal chromatographic conditions were achieved on a C18 column with a linear gradient elution of water and acetonitrile as mobile phases, at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. All calibration curves of the three carrot polyacetylenes showed good linear regression (R2 > 0.998) within the test ranges. The developed method showed good precision for quantification of all polyacetylenes with overall intraday and interday variation of less than 3.3% and with average recovery rates of 99.2, 96.8 and 99.7% for FaDOH, FaDOAc and FaOH, respectively. The LOD (S/N = 3) and LOQ (S/N = 10) were less than 0.19 and 0.42 microg/mL, respectively, for all analytes. The established method was successfully used to determine the spatial distribution of FaDOH, FaDOAc and FaOH in six carrot genotypes (Bolero, Independent, Line 1, Mello Yello, Purple Haze and Tornado) by analysing peeled carrots and the corresponding peels for these polyacetylenes.
Efficacy of eight larvicidal botanical extracts from Khaya senegalensis and Daucus carota against Culex annulirostris.:J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2006 Sep;22(3):433-6.Shaalan EA, Canyon DV, Younes MW, Abdel-Wahab H, Mansour AH.Zoology Department, Aswan Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Egypt.
The failure to discover a significant new class of insecticides has led many researchers back to biodiscovery studies in the search for new and economically viable alternatives. After a preliminary screening of botanical extracts using descending series of concentrations (1,000, 500, 100, 50, and 5 mg/liter), 8 extracts from 2 potential botanical agents, Khaya senegalensis (Desrousseaux) and Daucus carota L., were tested against 4th instars of Culex annulirostris (Skuse) following the standard World Health Organization insecticide susceptibility methodology. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values for K. senegalensis against Cx. annulirostris using acetone, ethanol, hexane, and methanol extracts were 20.12, 5.1, 5.08, and 7.62 mg/liter, respectively. The LC50 values for D. carota against Cx. annulirostris using acetone, ethanol, hexane, and methanol extracts were 236.00, 36.59, 77.19, and 241.8 mg/liter, respectively. Extracts from K. senegalensis were more potent than those from D. carota against Cx. annulirostris and hexane and ethanol were the best solvents to extract essential oils from both plant species, respectively. In potency, K. senegalensis was similar to azadirachtin, but fractionation and compound isolation of the hexane extract in particular may reveal a potent phytochemical that could be compared to synthetic mosquitocides.
Carrot (Daucus carota L.).:Methods Mol Biol. 2006;344:3-12.Wally O, Jayaraman J, Punja ZK.Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.
Plants are susceptible to infection by a broad range of fungal pathogens. Many horticulturally important crop species lack adequate genetic resistance to disease. Studies on potential mechanisms of disease resistance in plants have revealed the importance of a range of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins with antifungal activity in reducing colonization of plant tissues by pathogens. We are evaluating a range of PR-proteins, through heterologous expression in transgenic carrot tissues, for their effects on fungal disease development. The protocols for carrot transformation with a thaumatin-like protein are described. In addition, the use of herbicide resistance as a selectable marker in carrot transformation is illustrated. In this protocol, petiole segments from carrot seedlings are exposed to Agrobacterium for 10-30 min and co-cultivated for 3 d, after which herbicide selection is imposed until embryogenic calli are produced after 8-12 wk. The transfer of the embryogenic calli to hormone-free medium yields transgenic plantlets. This genetic transformation protocol has supported the generation of transgenic carrot plants with defined T-DNA inserts at the rate of between 1 and 3 Southern positive independent events out of 100.
Daucus carota L. mediated bioreduction of prochiral ketones.:Org Biomol Chem. 2006 Jun 21;4(12):2348-53. Epub 2006 May 18.Blanchard N, van de Weghe P.Chimie Organique Thérapeutique, CNRS UMR 7015, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Mulhouse, Mulhouse, France. email@example.com
Stereoselective reductions of ketones to secondary alcohols are of the utmost importance in organic synthesis. Very high selectivities are observed with traditional reducing agents, mainly based on boron or transition metals, complexed with chiral ligands. Bioreductions mediated by intact cells from cut plants, vegetables and fruits are attractive alternatives and could facilitate transition towards a more biobased economy. This emerging area highlights the recent results obtained in the aqueous bioreduction of prochiral ketones using carrot roots. The applications of this methodology to asymmetric protonation, dynamic kinetic resolution and the synthesis of biologically relevant targets are presented.
Tissue-specific accumulation of carotenoids in carrot roots.:Planta. 2006 Oct;224(5):1028-37. Epub 2006 May 13.Baranska M, Baranski R, Schulz H, Nothnagel T.Federal Centre for Breeding Research on Cultivated Plants (BAZ), Institute of Plant Analysis, Neuer Weg 22-23, 06484 Quedlinburg, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
Raman spectroscopy can be used for sensitive detection of carotenoids in living tissue and Raman mapping provides further information about their spatial distribution in the measured plant sample. In this work, the relative content and distribution of the main carrot (Daucus carota L.) root carotenoids, alpha-, beta-carotene, lutein and lycopene were assessed using near-infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. The pigments were measured simultaneously in situ in root sections without any preliminary sample preparation. The Raman spectra obtained from carrots of different origin and root colour had intensive bands of carotenoids that could be assigned to beta-carotene (1,520 cm(-1)), lycopene (1,510 cm(-1)) and alpha-carotene/lutein (1,527 cm(-1)). The Raman mapping technique revealed detailed information regarding the relative content and distribution of these carotenoids. The level of beta-carotene was heterogeneous across root sections of orange, yellow, red and purple roots, and in the secondary phloem increased gradually from periderm towards the core, but declined fast in cells close to the vascular cambium. alpha-carotene/lutein were deposited in younger cells with a higher rate than beta-carotene while lycopene in red carrots accumulated throughout the whole secondary phloem at the same level. The results indicate developmental regulation of carotenoid genes in carrot root and that Raman spectroscopy can supply essential information on carotenogenesis useful for molecular investigations on gene expression and regulation.
Master: a novel family of PIF/Harbinger-like transposable elements identified in carrot (Daucus carota L.).:Mol Genet Genomics. 2006 May;275(5):450-9. Epub 2006 Feb 16.Grzebelus D, Yau YY, Simon PW.Department of Genetics, Plant Breeding and Seed Science, Agricultural University of Krakow, 31-425, Krakow, Poland.
Members of a novel Master family of class II transposons were identified in the carrot genome. Two elements, 2.5 kb long DcMaster1 and 4.4 kb long DcMaster-a, are characterized by 22 bp imperfect terminal inverted repeats and by 3 bp target site duplications. GenBank search revealed that related elements are also present in Medicago truncatula, including a 5.1 kb element MtMaster-a. Both DcMaster-a and MtMaster-a contain open reading frames encoding for putative transposases with the complete DDE domain typical for plant class II transposable elements belonging to PIF/Harbinger superfamily, where the Master elements form a distinct group. Less than 10 copies of the DcMaster element containing the DDE domain are present in genomes of carrot and other Apiaceae, but more copies with internal deletions or insertions may occur. DcMaster elements were associated with putative coding regions in 8 of 14 identified insertion sites. PCR amplification of carrot genomic DNA using a primer complementary to TIRs of DcMaster gave products < 400 bp in size. We speculate that these may all represent a MITE-like family of transposable elements that we named Krak, present in the carrot genome in at least 3,600 copies.
Occupational asthma due to carrot in a cook.:Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2005 Sep-Oct;33(5):288-90.Moreno-Ancillo A, Gil-Adrados AC, Domínguez-Noche C, Cosmes PM, Pineda F.Allergy Unit, Hospital Virgen del Puerto, Plasencia, Caceres, Spain. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Few previous reports of carrot-induced asthma have been confirmed by objective tests. Hypersensitivity to carrot is frequently associated with allergy to Apiaceae spices and sensitization to birch and mugwort pollens. CLINICAL CASE: A 40-year-old cook woman was seen with sneezing, rhinorrhea, contact urticaria and wheezing within few minutes of handling or cutting raw carrots. She needed to leave out of the kitchen while the other cooks cut raw carrots. METHODS AND RESULTS: Skin tests were positive to carrot, celery, aniseed and fennel. Rubbing test with fresh carrot was positive. Specific IgE to carrot was 4.44 kU/L. Determinations of specific IgE to mugwort, grass and birch pollens were negative. Inhalative provocation test, performed as a handling test, was positive. The IgE-immunoblotting showed two bands in carrot extract: a band with apparent molecular weight of 30 kd and other band of 18 kd. This band of 18 kd was Dau c 1. The band of 30 kd could correspond a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase. Dau c 1 did not appear to be the unique allergen in this case. Additional allergens may induce the sensitization. Primary sensitization due to airborne allergens of foods and the lack of pollen allergy in this patient are notorious events.
In situ simultaneous analysis of polyacetylenes, carotenoids and polysaccharides in carrot roots.:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Aug 24;53(17):6565-71.Baranska M, Schulz H, Baranski R, Nothnagel T, Christensen LP.Federal Centre for Breeding Research on Cultivated Plants, Institute of Plant Analysis, Neuer Weg 22-23, D-06484 Quedlinburg, Germany.
This paper presents an approach to simultaneously analyze polyacetylenes, carotenoids, and polysaccharides in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots by means of Raman spectroscopy. The components were measured in situ in the plant tissue without any preliminary sample preparation. The analysis is based on the intensive and characteristic key bands observed in the Raman spectrum of carrot root. The molecular structures of the main carrot polyacetylenes, falcarinol and falcarindiol, are similar, but their Raman spectra exhibit specific differences demonstrated by the shift of their -C[triple bond]C- mode from 2258 to 2252 cm(-)(1), respectively. Carotenoids can be identified by -C=C- stretching vibrations (about 1520 and 1155 cm(-)(1)) of the conjugated system of their polyene chain, whereas the characteristic Raman band at 478 cm(-)(1) indicates the skeletal vibration mode of starch molecule. The other polysaccharide, pectin, can be identified by the characteristic band at 854 cm(-)(1), which is due to the -C-O-C- skeletal mode of alpha-anomer carbohydrates. The Raman mapping technique applied here has revealed detailed information regarding the relative distribution of polyacetylenes, carotenoids, starch, and pectin in the investigated plant tissues. The distribution of these components varies among various carrot cultivars, and especially a significant difference can be seen between cultivated carrot and the wild relative D. carota ssp. maritimus.
The assessment of biological activities associated with the major constituents of the methanol extract of 'wild carrot' (Daucus carota L) seeds.:J Herb Pharmacother. 2005;5(1):61-72.Kumarasamy Y, Nahar L, Byres M, Delazar A, Sarker SD.Phytopharmaceutical Research Lab, Aberdeen, Scotland AB10 1FR, UK.
Daucus carota L. (Family: Apiaceae alt. Umbelliferae), commonly known as 'wild carrot' or 'Queen Anne's-lace,' is an ecologically invasive erect biennial naturalized to Scotland. The ethnobotanical uses of this species include applications in the treatment of cough, diarrhea, dysentery, cancer, malaria and tumors, and as an antiseptic, abortifacient, aphrodisiac, carminative, stimulant, stomachic and tonic. The major constituents isolated from the methanol extract of D. carota seeds by reversed-phase preparative high performance chromatography were luteolin, luteolin 3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and luteolin 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, three flavones. The constituents were assessed for their antibacterial and free radical scavenging activities, as well as toxicity towards brine shrimp. Among these three flavones, luteolin showed the highest degree of free radical scavenging activity (RC50 = 4.3 x 10(-4) mg/mL) in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Both luteolin and its 4'-O-glucoside demonstrated bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration [MIC] = 5.0 x 10(-2) - 1.0 x 10(-1) mg/mL). Luteolin also demonstrated antibactericidal activity against Bacillus cereus and Citrobacter freundii (MIC = 5.0 x 10(-2) mg/mL). Luteolin 3'-O-glucoside showed bactericidal activity against Bacillus cereus and Lactobacillus plantarum (MIC = 2.5 x 10(-1) mg/mL and 5 x 10(-1) mg/ mL, respectively). In the brine shrimp lethality assay, the LD50 value of luteolin was 5.3 x 10(-2) mg/mL, and that of its 3'-O-glucoside and 4'-O-glucoside were > 1.0 mg/mL.
Crotonic acid as a bioactive factor in carrot seeds (Daucus carota L.).:Phytochemistry. 2005 Jun;66(12):1485-91.Jasicka-Misiak I, Wieczorek PP, Kafarski P.Institute of Chemistry, University of Opole, Oleska 48, 45-052 Opole, Poland. firstname.lastname@example.org
Water extracts from the carrot seed (Daucus carota L.) var. Perfekcja exhibit plant growth inhibitory properties against cress, cucumber, onion and carrot in a dose-dependant manner. This property results from the action of low-and high-molecular components of the extract. The low-molecular component was identified as crotonic acid ((E)-2-butenoic acid). Its presence was also confirmed in other late varieties of carrot. The determined strong herbicidal properties of crotonic acid and its availability after release to soil combined with its high level in seeds suggest that it might be considered as an allelopathic and autotoxic factor in the seeds.
Polyacetylenes from the Apiaceae vegetables carrot, celery, fennel, parsley, and parsnip and their cytotoxic activities.:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Apr 6;53(7):2518-23.Zidorn C, J?hrer K, Ganzera M, Schubert B, Sigmund EM, Mader J, Greil R, Ellmerer EP, Stuppner H.Abteilung Pharmakognosie, Institut für Pharmazie der Universit?t Innsbruck, Josef-Moeller-Haus, Innrain 52, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Christian.H.Zidorn@uibk.ac.uk
A dichloromethane extract of root celery yielded falcarinol, falcarindiol, panaxydiol, and the new polyacetylene 8-O-methylfalcarindiol. The structure of the new compound was established by one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) NMR, mass spectrometry, and optical rotation data. Nonpolar extracts of roots and bulbs of carrots, celery, fennel, parsley, and parsnip were investigated for their content of polyacetylenes by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). All five species contained polyacetylenes, although carrots and fennel only in minor amounts. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the four polyacetylenes against five different cell lines was evaluated by the annexin V-PI assay. Falcarinol proved to be the most active compound with a pronounced toxicity against acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line CEM-C7H2, with an IC(50) of 3.5 micromol/L. The possible chemopreventive impact of the presented findings is discussed briefly.
Drought-inducible-but ABA-independent-thaumatin-like protein from carrot (Daucus carota L.).:Plant Cell Rep. 2005 Aug;24(6):366-73. Epub 2005 Mar 24.Jung YC, Lee HJ, Yum SS, Soh WY, Cho DY, Auh CK, Lee TK, Soh HC, Kim YS, Lee SC.Department of Genetic Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746, Korea.
Drought treatment induces the accumulation of dcTLP, which is similar in structure to the thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) found in the embryogenic calli, seedlings, and mature plants of carrot (Daucus carota). We isolated a full-length dcTLP cDNA clone from carrot and characterized the 5' upstream sequences. The coding region of dcTLP consisted of 645 nucleotides; the theoretical pI value was 4.9, and its molecular weight was approximately 22 kDa. The production of dcTLP transcripts in the seedlings increased dramatically with dehydration treatment but was not affected by abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid, or jasmonic acid. The expression patterns of dcTLP mRNA at different developmental stages and in response to a variety of signal molecules was analyzed using reverse transcriptase-PCR and promoter analysis with fused genes of 0.5-kb 5' upstream sequences in which beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter genes (gus) were established. The induction of dcTLP was found to be highly specific to drought stress in the embryogenic calli, seedlings, and mature plants. Our results suggest that this new isoform of TLP that has been isolated from carrot is a drought-specific, ABA-independent, non-organ-specific, and non-developmental-stage-specific protein.
Image analysis and in vivo imaging as tools for investigation of productivity dynamics in anthocyanin-producing cell cultures of Daucus carota.:New Phytol. 2005 Apr;166(1):339-52.Ceoldo S, Levi M, Marconi AM, Baldan G, Giarola M, Guzzo F.Università di Verona, Dipartimento Scientifico e Tecnologico, Strada le Grazie 15 Cà Vignal, I-37134 Verona.
An anthocyanin-producing suspension culture of Daucus carota (L.) cv. Flakkese was used as model system to study secondary metabolite production in cell culture at the individual cell level. An approach was set up in which growth and production of anthocyanins were investigated using a combination of biochemical analysis, image (colour) analysis and in vivo imaging. This novel approach was used to segment the culture in different subpopulations and dissect the productive process in the cell culture grown under two different conditions, known to differ mainly for oxygen supply and mixing intensity (volume of 50 ml or 20 ml in 250 ml flasks). The 20 ml batch cultures gave a higher content and yield of anthocyanins, which depended on a complex balance between events that positively or negatively affected anthocyanin production. A model is proposed in which the different ability of cells to respond to environmental stimuli and stress depends on the different amount of anthocyanins accumulated within cells.
Biosynthesis of mono- and sesquiterpenes in carrot roots and leaves (Daucus carota L.): metabolic cross talk of cytosolic mevalonate and plastidial methylerythritol phosphate pathways.:Phytochemistry. 2005 Feb;66(3):305-11.Hampel D, Mosandl A, Wüst M.Institut für Lebensmittelchemie, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universit?t, Marie-Curie-Strasse 9, D-60439 Frankfurt/Main, Germany.
The biosynthesis of the monoterpenes terpinolene and myrcene and the sesquiterpene beta-caryophyllene in roots and leaves of two carrot varieties (Daucus carota L. cultivars Bolero and Kazan) were investigated by in vivo feeding experiments with [5,5-2H2]-mevalonic acid lactone (d2-MVL) and [5,5-2H2]-1-deoxy-D-xylulose (d2-DOX). The volatiles of the tissues were extracted by stir bar sorptive extraction and analyzed using thermal desorption-multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The experiments demonstrate independent de novo-biosynthesis of terpenoids in carrot roots and in carrot leaves. In both plant tissues monoterpenes are biosynthesized exclusively via the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose/2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathway, whereas sesquiterpenes are generated by the classical mevalonic acid pathway as well as by the DOXP/MEP route. A more detailed investigation of carrot root tissues revealed that the biosynthesis of terpenes is mainly localized in the phloem. Nevertheless, in xylem a de novo-biosynthesis of terpenes was detectable as well, even in the absence of oil ducts in this tissue.
Evolution of endogenous hormone concentration in embryogenic cultures of carrot during early expression of somatic embryogenesis.:Plant Cell Rep. 2005 Jan;23(8):567-72. Epub 2004 Sep 16. Jiménez VM, Guevara E, Herrera J, Bangerth F.CIGRAS, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060, San Pedro, Costa Rica. email@example.com
Embryogenic callus and suspension cultures of carrot (Daucus carota L., cv. Nantaise), growing on/in medium including 1 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), were transferred to medium with or without this plant growth regulator, to impair or induce, respectively, further development of somatic embryos. The endogenous hormone levels of the cultures were determined over 7 days by means of radio-immunoassay, to characterize their evolution in the initial stages of embryo development. In general, levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) showed only short-lived differences among treatments during this time in both types of tissue analyzed (i.e., a peak of IAA in callus cultures in the absence of 2,4-D, 48 h after medium change, and higher ABA contents 144 h after subculture of suspension cultures in the presence of 2,4-D). Gibberellins (1, 3 and 20) were detected only in suspension cultures devoid of 2,4-D, starting 24 h after subculture. Concerning the evaluated cytokinins-zeatin/zeatin riboside and N6(Delta2-isopentenyl) adenine/N6(Delta2-isopentenyl) adenosine-the most remarkable observation is that high levels of the former generally coincided with low concentrations of the latter, indicating a shift from precursor to the active form, and vice versa.
Isolation and identification of novel pyranoanthocyanins from black carrot (Daucus carota L.) juice.:J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Aug 11;52(16):5095-101.Schwarz M, Wray V, Winterhalter P.Institute of Food Chemistry, Technical University of Braunschweig, Schleinitzstrasse 20, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
Six novel pyranoanthocyanins were identified by HPLC-ESI-MSn in black carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) juice. The two major compounds, namely, the vinylcatechol adducts of cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-feruloyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1-->6)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside and cyanidin 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside, respectively, were isolated by a combination of high-speed countercurrent chromatography with semipreparative HPLC. Their structures were fully elucidated by means of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The four remaining pigments were characterized as the vinylphenol and vinylguaiacol adducts of cyanidin 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside, the vinylguaiacol adduct of cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-feruloyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1-->6)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside, and the vinylcatechol adduct of cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-sinapoyl-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-(1-->6)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside. These compounds are formed during storage of the juice through the direct reaction of either caffeic, ferulic, or coumaric acid with the respective genuine anthocyanins.
Quantitative studies and sensory analyses on the influence of cultivar, spatial tissue distribution, and industrial processing on the bitter off-taste of carrots (Daucus carota l.) and carrot products.:J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Jul 14;52(14):4508-14.Czepa A, Hofmann T.Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Lebensmittelchemie, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
Although various reports pointed to 6-methoxymellein (1) as a key player imparting the bitter taste in carrots, activity-guided fractionation experiments recently gave evidence that not this isocoumarin but bisacetylenic oxylipins contribute mainly to the off-taste. Among these, (Z)-heptadeca-1,9-dien-4,6-diyn-3-ol (2), (Z)-3-acetoxy-heptadeca-1,9-dien-4,6-diyn-8-ol (3), and (Z)-heptadeca-1,9-dien-4,6-diyn-3,8-diol (falcarindiol, 4) have been successfully identified. In the present study, an analytical procedure was developed enabling an accurate quantitation of 1-4 in carrots and carrot products. To achieve this, (E)-heptadeca-1,9-dien-4,6-diyn-3,8-diol was synthesized as a suitable internal standard for the quantitative analysis of the bisacetylenes. On the basis of taste activity values, calculated as the ratio of the concentration and the human sensory threshold of a compound, a close relationship between the concentration of 4 and the intensity of the bitter off-taste in carrots, carrot puree, and carrot juice was demonstrated, thus showing that compound 4 might offer a new analytical measure for an objective evaluation of the quality of carrot products. Quantitative analysis on the intermediate products in industrial carrot processing revealed that removing the peel as well as green parts successfully decreased the concentrations in the final carrot puree by more than 50%.
Lutein and beta-carotene from lutein-containing yellow carrots are bioavailable in humans.:Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):131-6.Molldrem KL, Li J, Simon PW, Tanumihardjo SA.Integrated Graduate Program in Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 53706, USA.
BACKGROUND: Lutein is a hydroxy-carotenoid constituting the macular pigment of the human retina. Increasing lutein intake from foods could increase the density of this pigment and decrease the risk of developing macular degeneration. Yellow carrots are a novel food source that could increase lutein consumption. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated and compared lutein uptake and clearance in humans from genetically selected lutein-containing yellow carrots fed chronically and from a lutein supplement. DESIGN: Four women and 5 men aged 23-28 y participated in this randomized, blinded, 3 x 3 crossover intervention. Treatments consisted of yellow carrots (YC treatment, 1.7 mg lutein/d), white carrots as a negative control (WC treatment, 0 mg lutein/d), and a lutein supplement in oil as a positive control (LS treatment, 1.7 mg lutein/d). Each treatment lasted 7 d and was followed by a 7-d washout period. RESULTS: Mean (+/- SD) peak changes in serum lutein concentration from baseline were 0.31 +/- 0.08, 0.19 +/- 0.08, and -0.04 +/- 0.04 micromol/L for the LS, YC, and WC treatments, respectively. The areas under the curve for 0-14 d (AUC(0-14d)) differed significantly (P < 0.0001) between treatments. Lutein from the YC treatment was 65% as bioavailable as that from the LS treatment. The AUC(0-14d) for beta-carotene (-0.01 +/- 0.28 micromol.d/L) also showed that the YC treatment maintained peak serum beta-carotene concentrations at 0.35 +/- 0.30 micromol/L, whereas the LS treatment did not (AUC(0-14d) = -0.71 +/- 0.59 micromol.d/L). CONCLUSION: Lutein from this novel food source significantly increases serum lutein concentrations and does not result in the decrease in beta-carotene concentrations that accompanies administration of lutein supplements.
Effect of storage temperature on the stability of anthocyanins of a fermented black carrot (Daucus carota var. L.) beverage: shalgam.:J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Jun 16;52(12):3807-13.Turker N, Aksay S, Ekiz HI.Department of Food Engineering, University of Mersin, 33342 Ciftlikk?y, Mersin, Turkey. firstname.lastname@example.org
The effect of temperature on the stability of shalgam anthocyanins stored at 4, 25, and 40 degrees C for 90 days was investigated. The effect of pasteurization and sorbate addition on the anthocyanin stability as compared to control was also studied. The monomeric anthocyanin content and color density decreased with increasing time as a function of storage temperature whereas the percent polymeric color and browning increased. The same trends were observed in control, pasteurized, and sorbate-added shalgam samples. Shalgam anthocyanins consisted of two nonacylated and three acylated cyanidin derivatives. Acylated anthocyanins were more stable when compared to nonacylated ones at all storage temperatures. The activation energies, 11.11-11.64 kcal/mol, were calculated from the reaction rate constants evaluated taking first-order reaction kinetics. The highest anthocyanin retention was observed at 4 degrees C storage temperature with a half-life between 231 and 239 days.
Carotenoid profiles and consumer sensory evaluation of specialty carrots (Daucus carota, L.) of various colors.:J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Jun 2;52(11):3417-21.Surles RL, Weng N, Simon PW, Tanumihardjo SA.Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.
Five different colored carrots were analyzed for their carotenoid profile and underwent sensory evaluation to determine consumer acceptance (n = 96). Four major carotenoids were identified and quantified by use of HPLC methods. High beta-carotene orange carrots were found to contain the greatest concentration of total carotenoids. Except for the white, all the carrots are a significant source of bioavailable carotenoids. Sensory evaluation showed the high beta-carotene orange and white carrots to be favored over the yellow, red, and purple carrots in both blind and nonblind treatments (P < 0.01). However, all the carrots were well accepted by the consumer panel. With this information, carrot growers should be encouraged to cultivate specialty carrots to provide sources of both vitamin A precursors and phytochemicals.
Lycopene and beta-carotene are bioavailable from lycopene 'red' carrots in humans.:Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 May;58(5):803-11.Horvitz MA, Simon PW, Tanumihardjo SA.Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if lycopene and beta-carotene are bioavailable from lycopene red carrots and if lycopene absorption is affected by carrot fiber. DESIGN: Two crossover studies in humans attempted to compare the relative bioavailability of lycopene and beta-carotene from tomato paste to a genetically selected lycopene red carrot during chronic feeding. Each study contained three treatment groups. The vehicle of administration was muffins. INTERVENTION AND METHODS: Study 1 (n=9) used white carrots (0 mg lycopene/day), red carrots (5 mg/day), and tomato paste (20 mg/day). Study 2 (n=10) used red carrots (2.6 mg/day), tomato paste (5 mg/day), and tomato paste plus white carrots (5 mg/day). Each intervention lasted 11 days with a 10-day washout period between treatments. Serum lycopene and beta-carotene were measured by HPLC. RESULTS: Statistical analysis indicated a significant effect of muffin type in study 1 (P<0.001), and a significant treatment by sequence interaction in study 2 (P=0.04). The response to increasing amounts of lycopene is linear at the levels fed in these studies (r=0.94). The data suggest that maintenance of serum lycopene concentrations at 0.3 micromol/l occurs at about 2 mg/day of lycopene from mixed dietary sources and a serum plateau occurs at >/=20 mg/day. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that lycopene and beta-carotene are bioavailable from red carrots and lycopene absorption seems to be affected by carrot fiber. Making inferences from both studies, the lycopene in the red carrot is about 44% as bioavailable as that from tomato paste. Red carrots provide an alternative to tomato paste as a good dietary source of lycopene and also provide bioavailable beta-carotene.
Effects of drying process on antioxidant activity of purple carrots.:Nahrung. 2004 Feb;48(1):57-60. Uyan SE, Baysal T, Yurdagel U, El SN.Ege University, Engineering Faculty, Food Engineering Department, TK-35100 Bornova-Izmir, Turkey. email@example.com
Purple carrot was analysed for its antioxidant activity by measuring its scavenging effect on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The amount of purple carrot necessary to decrease by 50% the initial DPPH concentration (EC50) was found 30.23 +/- 5.17 (mg sample/mg DPPH). Effects of the dehydration process on the antioxidant activity of purple carrots were also determined after dehydration by using tray drier and microwave+tray drier combination. Purple carrots were cleaned, washed, sorted, sliced, and blanched in water at 98 +/- 1 degree C for 2 min. Then half of the samples were dehydrated in microwave (45 min) and tray drier (105 min) combination, and others were dehydrated in tray drier (150 min) until reaching the constant weight. Raw, blanched and dehydrated purple carrots were compared for their antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin contents, color values (L*, a*, b*, C*, H degrees) and dry matter contents. The antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, EC50 value ranged from 7.80 to 30.23 of processed and raw carrots where the H degrees values were changed from -3.68 to -23.96 corresponding to a bluish hue.
Effect of carrot intake on cholesterol metabolism and on antioxidant status in cholesterol-fed rat.:Eur J Nutr. 2003 Oct;42(5):254-61.Nicolle C, Cardinault N, Aprikian O, Busserolles J, Grolier P, Rock E, Demigné C, Mazur A, Scalbert A, Amouroux P, Rémésy C.Unité des Maladies Métaboliques & Micronutriments, INRA Clermont-Ferrand/Theix, Saint Genès Champanelle, France. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Vegetables are major dietary sources of fibers and antioxidants such as carotenoids, polyphenols and vitamin C which contribute to explain their protective effects against cardiovascular diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated in the rat the effects of a 3-week supplementation of the diet with carrot (15% dry matter) on lipid metabolism and antioxidant status. RESULTS: A significant decrease of cholesterol level in liver (-44%; P= 0.0007) was observed together with a reduction of the level of liver triglycerides (-40%; P= 0.0005). Fecal total steroids excretion increased by 30% upon feeding the carrot diet as compared to the control. The secretion of bile acids was maintained, whereas the cholesterol apparent absorption was reduced in rats fed carrot diet. Carrot consumption also improved the antioxidant status. It significantly decreased the urinary excretion of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced the TBARS levels in heart, increased the vitamin E plasmatic level and tended to increase the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as compared to the controls. The carrot diet provided carotenoid antioxidants: 5.1 mg beta-carotene, 1.6 mg alpha-carotene and 0.25mg lutein per 100 g diet. No carotenoids were found in plasma whereas the three carotenoids were detected in the plasma of the rats fed the carrot diet at 125, 41, 43 nmol/L respective concentrations. beta-Carotene was also detected in liver and heart. CONCLUSION: Carrot consumption modifies cholesterol absorption and bile acids excretion and increases antioxidant status and these effects could be interesting for cardiovascular protection.
Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes by compounds from Daucus carota L. Seeds.:Phytother Res. 2003 Sep;17(8):976-9.Momin RA, De Witt DL, Nair MG.Bioactive Natural Products and Phytoceuticals, Department of Horticulture and National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.
Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes inhibitory assay directed investigation of Daucus carota seed extracts resulted in the isolation and characterization of compounds, 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde (1), oleic acid (2), trans-asarone (3) and geraniol (4). Compounds 1-4 showed 3.32, 45.32, 46.15, and 3.15% of prostaglandin H endoperoxide synthase-I (COX-I) inhibitory activity and 52.69, 68.41, 64.39 and 0% prostaglandin H endoperoxide synthase-II (COX-II) inhibitory activity, respectively at 100 mg mL(-1). Compound 1 showed selectivity towards COX-II enzyme inhibition at 100 microg mL(-1). The COX-II/COX-I ratio for compound 1 was 17.68 at 100 microg mL(-1) compared to solvent control. Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Aspirin, Celebrex and Vioxx at concentrations of 2.06, 2.52, 180, 1.67 and 1.67 microg mL(-1), respectively, gave COX-II/COX-I ratios of 1.13, 0.92, 0.24, 16 and 75, respectively. The inhibition of COX-II enzymes by compounds 1 at 100 microg mL(-1) was significant when compared to Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Naproxen and Celebrex at concentrations studied.
Changes in volatile compounds of carrots (Daucus carota L.) during refrigerated and frozen storage.:J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Aug 27;51(18):5400-7.Kjeldsen F, Christensen LP, Edelenbos M.Department of Food Science, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Research Centre Aarslev, Kirstinebjergvej 10, DK-5792 Aarslev, Denmark.
Carrots (Daucus carota L.) of cv. Bolero and cv. Carlo were processed into shreds and stored for up to 4 months at -24 degrees C (frozen storage), or the roots were stored for up to 4 months at 1 degrees C (refrigerated storage) followed by processing into shreds. Volatiles from the carrot shreds were collected by dynamic headspace technique and analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, GC-MS/MS, and GC-O to determine the volatile composition and aroma active components of carrots stored under different temperature conditions. A total of 52 compounds were quantified, of which mono- and sesquiterpenes accounted for approximately 99% of the total volatile mass. Major volatile compounds were (-)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, (-)-limonene, (+)-limonene, (+)-sabinene, gamma-terpinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, and (E)- and (Z)-gamma-bisabolene. A considerable increase in the concentration of mono- and sesquiterpenes was observed during refrigerated storage, whereas the concentration of terpenoids was around the same level during frozen storage. GC-O revealed that the major volatiles together with (+)-alpha-pinene, (-)-beta-pinene, (+)-beta-pinene, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, (-)-beta-bisabolene, beta-ionone, and myristicin had an odor sensation, which included notes of "carrot top", "terpene-like", "green", "earthy", "fruity", "citrus-like", "spicy", "woody", and "sweet".
Structural and sensory characterization of compounds contributing to the bitter off-taste of carrots (Daucus carota L.) and carrot puree.:J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jun 18;51(13):3865-73. Czepa A, Hofmann T.Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Lebensmittelchemie, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
Sequential application of solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography, and HPLC in combination with taste dilution analyses revealed that not a sole compound but a multiplicity of bitter tastants contribute to the bitter off-taste of cold-stored carrots and commercial carrot puree, respectively. Among these bitter compounds, 3-methyl-6-methoxy-8-hydroxy-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin (6-methoxymellein), 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-2-methylchromone (eugenin), 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde (gazarin), (Z)-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diin-3,8-diol (falcarindiol), (Z)-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diin-3-ol (falcarinol), and (Z)-3-acetoxy-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diin-8-ol (falcarindiol 3-acetate) could be identified on the basis of MS as well as 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments. Due to the low concentrations of <0.1 mg/kg and the high taste thresholds found for eugenin and gazarin, these compounds could be unequivocally excluded as important contributors to the bitter taste of carrots. Calculation of bitter activity values as the ratio of their concentration to their bitter detection threshold clearly demonstrated that neither in fresh and stored carrots nor in commercial carrot puree did 6-methoxymellein contribute to the bitter off-taste. In contrast, the concentrations of falcarindiol in stored carrots and, even more pronounced, in carrot puree were found to be 9- and 13-fold above its low bitter detection concentration of 0.04 mmol/kg, thus demonstrating that this acetylenic diol significantly contributes to the bitter taste of the carrot products investigated.
Partial purification, characterization, and thermal and high-pressure inactivation of pectin methylesterase from carrots (Daucus carrota L.).:J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Sep 11;50(19):5437-44.Ly-Nguyen B, Van Loey AM, Fachin D, Verlent I, Indrawati I, Hendrickx ME.Laboratory of Food Technology, Department of Food and Microbial Technology, Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 22, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
Pectin methylesterase (PME) from carrots (Daucus carrota L.) was extracted and purified by affinity chromatography on a CNBr-Sepharose 4B-PME inhibitor column. A single protein and PME activity peak was obtained. A biochemical characterization in terms of molar mass (MM), isoelectric points (pI), and kinetic parameters of carrot PME was performed. In a second step, the thermal and high-pressure stability of the enzyme was studied. Isothermal and combined isothermal-isobaric inactivation of purified carrot PME could be described by a fractional-conversion model.
Pest-managing efficacy of trans-asarone isolated from Daucus carota L. seeds.:J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Jul 31;50(16):4475-8.Momin RA, Nair MG.Bioactive Natural Products and Phytoceuticals, Department of Horticulture and National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.
The bioactive hexane extract of Daucus carota seed yielded 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde (1), oleic acid (2), trans-asarone (3), and geraniol (4). Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their mosquitocidal, nematicidal, antifeedant, and antimicrobial activities. Only trans-asarone was active in the assays performed, causing 100% mortality to fourth-instar mosquito larvae, Aedes aegyptii, at 200 microg mL(-1) and the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Panagrellus redivivus at 100 microg mL(-1). In feeding trials, trans-asarone also caused significant weight reductions of the caterpillars Helicovarpa zea, Heliothis virescens, and Manduca sexta when incorporated into artificial diet at a concentration of 100 microg mL(-1). Also, it exhibited slight activity at 100 microg mL(-1) against the yeasts Candida albicans, Candida parapsilasis, and Candida kruseii.
Quantitative analysis of aroma compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L.) cultivars by capillary gas chromatography using large-volume injection technique.:J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Sep;49(9):4342-8.Kjeldsen F, Christensen LP, Edelenbos M.Department of Horticulture, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Kirstinebjergvej 10, DK-5792 Aarslev, Denmark.
Dynamic headspace sampling was used to collect aroma compounds from raw samples of four carrot (Daucus carota L.) cultivars (Brasilia, Duke, Fancy, and Cortez). The collected volatiles were analyzed by capillary GC-FID and GC-MS using large-volume cool on-column injection (LVI-COC). Of the 36 compounds identified, 6 had not been previously detected in carrots. Significant differences between the carrot cultivars were found for 31 of the identified volatiles as well as for total monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and total volatile content. Mono- and sesquiterpenes accounted for about 98% of the total volatile mass in all cultivars. LVI-COC injection was used to determine the loss of carrot volatiles during concentration of headspace samples under a stream of nitrogen. The loss among major monoterpenes in the concentrated samples varied from 16% for p-cymene to >40% for alpha-pinene as compared to nonconcentrated samples. The loss among high-boiling sesquiterpenes varied from not detectable (beta-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, and caryophyllene oxide) to approximately 7% for (E)- and (Z)-gamma-bisabolene.
Carotenoid content, physicochemical, and sensory qualities of deep-fried carrot chips as affected by dehydration/rehydration, antioxidant, and fermentation.:J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Jul;49(7):3253-61.Sulaeman A, Keeler L, Taylor SL, Giraud DW, Driskell JA.Department of Nutritional Science and Dietetics, and Food Processing Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583, USA.
Carrot slices were subjected to one of the following experiments prior to deep-frying: (A) dehydration/rehydration, (B) soaking in different antioxidants, and (C) fermentation with/without blanching. There were no significant differences (P > or = 0.05) in carotenoid contents among carrot chips treated with/without dehydration. Soaking in sodium metabisulfite resulted in the highest carotenoid content and lightness (L), redness (a), and yellowness (b) values among the antioxidant treatments. Fermentation without blanching significantly decreased (P < 0.05) carotenoid content, vitamin A activity, and fat content. Dehydration and fermentation with blanching significantly increased (P < 0.05) the lightness (L), redness (a), and yellowness (b) values of the chips. Dehydration/rehydration, but not antioxidant and fermentation, significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the water activity of the chips. The textural values of carrot chips prepared using sodium metabisulfite, without dehydration and without fermentation, were the lowest among other treatments which suggests the crispiest. Carrot chips prepared using sodium metabisulfite, without dehydration and without fermentation, had the highest carotenoid content and retention, and the highest overall acceptability score.
Impact of egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca (Pers.) parasitism on amino acid composition of carrot (Daucus carota L.).:J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Sep;48(9):3930-4.Nandula VK, Foster JG, Foy CL.Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology and Weed Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061-0331, USA.
The relationship between the organic nitrogen status of Egyptian broomrape and one of its hosts, carrot, was studied by comparing amino acid profiles of leaf and root tissues of nonparasitized and broomrape-parasitized carrot plants and by analyzing amino acid profiles of broomrape at different growth stages. Total N concentrations, expressed as a percentage of the dry weight of the tissues, were similar in leaves of nonparasitized and parasitized carrot plants but were lower in parasitized roots than in nonparasitized roots. In both dry and germinated broomrape seeds, N concentrations were lower than or similar to those in broomrape tubercles, shoots, or callus. Individual amino acid concentrations in hydrolysates of leaves of parasitized carrot plants tended to be similar to or greater than those in hydrolysates of nonparasitized carrot plants. Roots of parasitized plants tended to have similar or lower amino acid concentrations than roots of nonparasitized plants. Dry and germinated broomrape seeds had similar amino acid profiles, but individual amino acid concentrations were lower than in the other broomrape tissues examined. The broomrape shoot tended to have lower amino acid concentrations than the tubercle and callus. Free amino acid profiles of leaves and roots of parasitized plants paralleled those of nonparasitized plants, respectively. Individual free amino acids tended to occur at similar or lower levels in dry and germinated broomrape seeds than in the tubercle, shoot, or callus. Free amino acid composition of the broomrape tubercle was similar to that of the parasitized root. Arginine and alanine concentrations in broomrape callus were dramatically higher than those of other amino acids in this or other tissues investigated. These results indicate that changes in the composition of both free and bound amino acids in carrot are associated with broomrape parasitism.
Effect of Daucus carota var. boissieri extracts on immune response of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.:Folia Microbiol (Praha). 1999;44(4):441-8. Erratum in: Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2000;45(2):191.Shalaby NM, Maghraby AS, el-Hagrassy AM.Laboratory of Natural Products, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. email@example.com
Isolation and structure elucidation was carried out of flavonoid constituents found in fractionated extracts of the seeds and green leaves of Daucus carota L. var. boissieri (Apiaceae). The flavonoids are mainly apigenin, luteolin, their glycosidic precursors and 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde. Fatty acids, hydrocarbons and sterols were identified by GLC. The effect of various carrot extracts on the immune responses of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice was studied. The rate of reduction in worm infestation in mice injected with some fractions indicated a strong protection. Some extracts induced humoral immune response through raising the IgG level at 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-infection as compared with infected control. The phenotypic analysis of the cellular immune response in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes was accomplished by direct immunofluorescence. The data showed that some extracts stimulated the blastogenesis of CD4(+)-T splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node cells.
Anti-steroidogenic activity of the petroleum ether extract and fraction 5 (fatty acids) of carrot (Daucus carota L.) seeds in mouse ovary.:J Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Aug;57(3):209-12.Majumder PK, Dasgupta S, Mukhopadhaya RK, Mazumdar UK, Gupta M.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Calcutta, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
The petroleum ether extract and fraction 5 (fatty acids) of carrot seeds arrested the normal estrus cycle of adult mouse and reduced the weight of ovaries significantly. The cholesterol and ascorbic acid content in ovaries were significantly elevated due to the treatment with extract and fraction 5 (fatty acids) of carrot seeds. The significant inhibition of delta 5,3-beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the two key enzymes involved in ovarian steroidogenesis, were also observed in mouse ovaries after 15 days of treatment. Results of this study revealed that the fraction 5 (fatty acids) present in carrot seeds acts as an antisteroidogenic agent.
Purification and characterization of neutral and alkaline invertase from carrot.:Plant Physiol. 1996 Dec;112(4):1513-22.Lee HS, Sturm A.Friedrich Miescher-Institut, Basel, Switzerland.
Neutral and alkaline invertase were identified in cells of a suspension culture of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Neutral invertase is an octamer with a molecular mass of 456 kD and subunits of 57 kD, whereas alkaline invertase is a tetramer with a molecular mass of 504 kD and subunits of 126 kD. Both enzymes had sharp pH profiles, with maximal activities at pH 6.8 for neutral invertase and pH 8.0 for alkaline invertase, and both hydrolyzed sucrose with typical hyperbolic kinetics and similar Km values of about 20 mM at pH 7.5. Neutral invertase also hydrolyzed raffinose and stachyose and, therefore, is a beta-fructofuranosidase. In contrast, alkaline invertase was highly specific for sucrose. Fructose acted as a competitive inhibitor of both enzymes, with Ki values of about 15 mM. Glucose was a noncompetitive inhibitor of both neutral and alkaline invertase, with a Ki of about 30 mM. Neither enzyme was inhibited by HgCl2. Alkaline invertase was markedly inhibited by CaCl2, MgCl2, and MnCl2, and neutral invertase was not. In contrast to alkaline invertase, neutral invertase was inhibited by the nucleotides ATP, CTP, GTP, and UTP.
Hepatoprotective activity of carrot (Daucus carota L.) against carbon tetrachloride intoxication in mouse liver.:J Ethnopharmacol. 1995 Jul 7;47(2):69-74.Bishayee A, Sarkar A, Chatterjee M.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Calcutta, India.
The effect of carrot extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver damage was evaluated. The increased serum enzyme levels (viz., glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol and glutamate dehydrogenase) by CCl4-induction were significantly lowered due to pretreatment with the extract. The extract also decreased the elevated serum bilirubin and urea content due to CCl4 administration. Increased activities of hepatic 5'-nucleotidase, acid phosphatase, acid ribonuclease and decreased levels of succinic dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase and cytochrome P-450 produced by CCl4 were reversed by the extract in a dose-responsive way. Results of this study revealed that carrot could afford a significant protective action in the alleviation of CCl4-induced hepatocellular injury.
High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of dietary fibre in raw and processed carrots.:J Chromatogr A. 1994 Aug 19;677(2):273-8.Redondo A, Villanueva MJ, Rodríguez MD.Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.
An HPLC method was developed to determine dietary fibre in carrots (Daucus carota L.). Primary hydrolysis of dietary fibre residue was performed with 12 M H2SO4 for 2 h at 40 degrees C and secondary hydrolysis with 0.414 M H2SO4 for 3 h at 100 degrees C. For the neutralization step prior to injection, AG4-X4 resin (Bio-Rad) was used. Neutral monosaccharides were separated using an HPX-87P column (Bio-Rad). This method was applied for evaluation of the quantitative variation of dietary fibre content in carrots during autoclaving.
Solubilized proteins from carrot (Daucus carota L.) membranes bind calcium channel blockers and form calcium-permeable ion channels.:Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Jan 15;90(2):765-9.Thuleau P, Graziana A, Ranjeva R, Schroeder JI.Department of Biology and Center for Molecular Genetics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0116, USA.
Calcium channels have been suggested to play a major role in the initiation of a large number of signal transduction processes in higher plant cells. However, molecular components of higher plant Ca2+ channels remain unidentified to date. Calcium channel blockers of the phenylalkylamine family and bepridil specifically inhibit Ca2+ influx into carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells. By using a phenylalkylamine azido derivative, a 75-kDa carrot membrane protein has been previously identified. Here we have partially purified this Ca2+ channel blocker-binding protein by lectin-affinity and ion-exchange chromatographies. The protein fraction containing the 75-kDa binding protein was incorporated into giant liposomes. Single-channel patch-clamp studies on these proteoliposomes showed the presence of Ca2+-permeable channel currents. These Ca2+-permeable channels were not stable. Recordings after durations of 2-10 min showed the appearance of nonselective ion channels with a permeability to calcium and chloride ions. These nonselective Ca2+-permeable ion channels, in contrast, were stable and were recorded for extended durations. The addition of the Ca2+ channel-blocker bepridil (10 M) led to the inhibition of these nonselective Ca2+-permeable channels by reducing the probability of channel opening. These results suggest that the 75-kDa Ca2+ channel blocker-binding protein from carrot cells plays a role in channel sensitivity to Ca2+ channel inhibitors and may constitute one of the components of Ca2+ channels in higher plants.
Ethylene-Like Activity of Isocyanides.:Plant Physiol. 1989 Oct;91(2):669-673.Quinn JM, Yang SF.Mann Laboratory, Department of Vegetable Crops, University of California, Davis, California 95616.
Benzyl isocyanide, cyclohexyl isocyanide, benzyl isocyanate, methyl isocyanate, benzyl isothiocyanate, and methyl isothiocyanate were each tested for ethylene-like activity in a pea (Pisum sativum) growth assay. Only the isocyanides gave an ethylene-like response; the concentration that gave a half-maximal response was approximately 10 to 15 microliters per liter for each isocyanide, and this activity was inhibited by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Since the isocyanides did not promote endogenous ethylene production, it was concluded that the isocyanides acted directly to give an ethylene-like response. The isocyanides were further shown to elicit ethylene-like activity in a potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber respiration assay, in a carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) senescence assay and in a carrot (Daucus carota L.) isocoumarin formation assay. The feasibility of employing azido derivatives of benzyl isocyanide to photoaffinity label ethylene receptors in vivo is discussed.
UDP-Glucose: (1,3)-beta-Glucan Synthase from Daucus carota L. : Characterization, Photoaffinity Labeling, and Solubilization.:Plant Physiol. 1989 May;90(1):101-108.Lawson SG, Mason TL, Sabin RD, Sloan ME, Drake RR, Haley BE, Wasserman BP.Department of Food Science, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, Cook College, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903.
The membrane-bound UDP-glucose-beta-(1,3)-glucan synthase from Daucus carota L. was characterized and a solubilization procedure was developed. The enzyme exhibited maximal activity in the presence of 0.75 millimolar Ca(2+), 0.5 millimolar EGTA, and 5 millimolar cellobiose at pH 7.5 and 30 degrees C at 1 millimolar UDPG. Reaction products were confirmed to be (1,3)-linked glucan. Polypeptides of 150, 57, and 43 kilodaltons were labeled with the photoactivatible affinity label 5-azido-uridine 5'-beta-[(32)P] diphosphateglucose. Labeling of the 150 and 57 kilodalton polypeptides was completely protected against by 1 millimolar non-radioactive UDPG suggesting that one or both of these polypeptides may represent the UDPG binding subunit of glucan synthase. Carrot glucan synthase was solubilized with the detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPS) in the absence of divalent cations and chelators; however, the percentage of enzyme which could be solubilized showed variability with membrane source. With microsomal membranes, up to 80% of the enzyme was released with 0.7% CHAPS. Solubilized enzyme was stable for at least 9 hours at 4 degrees C. When more highly purified membrane fractions were isolated from sucrose step gradients a slightly different picture emerged. Activity from the 20/30% interface (Golgi and tonoplast enriched) was readily solubilized and expressed. Activity from the 30/40% interface (plasma membrane enriched) was also solubilized; however, it was necessary to add heat inactivated microsomes to assay mixtures for full activity to be expressed. A requirement for endogenous activators is suggested.
3-Deoxy-d-arabino-Heptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthase from Carrot Root (Daucus carota) Is a Hysteretic Enzyme.:Plant Physiol. 1985 Nov;79(3):765-770.Suzich JA, Dean JF, Herrmann KM.Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907.
Roots of carrots (Daucus carota) contain three activities of 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the shikimate pathway. The three activities, enzymes I, II, and III, are separated by chromatography on phosphocellulose. Enzyme III, purified to electrophoretic homogeneity, has a native molecular weight of 103,000 and consists of two identical subunits of 53,000 daltons each. Double reciprocal plots of reaction velocity versus substrate concentration yield K(m) values of 0.03 and 0.07 millimolar for P-enolpyruvate and erythrose-4-P, respectively. Both products, DAHP and orthophosphate, inhibit the enzyme. Enzyme III is a hysteretic enzyme that is activated by physiological concentrations of l-tryptophan and Mn(2+), both of which also partially eliminate the hysteretic lag. Feedback activation of carrot DAHP synthase by tryptophan is interpreted to be an early regulatory signal for polyphenol biosynthesis. The three carrot DAHP synthase isoenzymes share antigenic determinants.
Isolation and Partial Purification of Prophenoloxidase from Daucus carota L. Cell Cultures.:Plant Physiol. 1985 Aug;78(4):730-733.S?derh?ll K, Carlberg I, Eriksson T.Institute of Physiological Botany, University of Uppsala, Box 540, S-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
The enzyme, phenoloxidase, was isolated and partially purified as an inactive enzyme, a proenzyme, from plant cell cultures of Daucus carota, Nicotiana tabacum, and Haplopappus gracilis. The prophenoloxidase was found to be specifically activated by Ca(2+) or Mn(2+) ions in concentrations above 1 millimolar. Calmodulin was not involved in this activation. Concentrations of Ca(2+) or Mn(2+) below 1 millimolar could not induce activation of the prophenoloxidase, but if trypsin was added simultaneously with Ca(2+) or Mn(2+) at a concentration of 1 millimolar or below, the proenzyme was converted to its active form. The inactive form of phenoloxidase was found to be a soluble enzyme, whereas after activation the enzyme aggregated, and a significant amount of the enzyme activity could become pelleted.
A New Flavone Glycoside from Seeds of Daucus carota.:Planta Med. 1982 Dec;46(12):240-1.Gupta KR, Niranjan GS.Chemistry Department, D.V. (P.G.) College, ORAI-285001, India.
Phytochemical examination of seeds of DAUCUS CAROTA L. resulted in the isolation of apigenin -4'-O-beta-D-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside and a new flavone glycoside which was characterised as apigenin-7-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-mannopyranoside.
Fluxes of a Nonelectrolyte and Compartmentation in Cells of Carrot Root Tissue.:Plant Physiol. 1974 Feb;53(2):307-311.Glinka Z.Department of Botany, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
Permeation of thiourea into cells of carrot (Daucus carota L.) storage root discs was found to be governed by its concentration gradient only. The analysis of the course of thiourea efflux from preloaded discs shows two distinct exponential curves, apart from an initial very fast component. Reasons are given for relating the first exponential part of the curve to efflux from the cytoplasm and the second exponential part to efflux from the vacuole.The rate constant for thiourea efflux through the tonoplast is markedly temperature-dependent (activation energy 13.2 kcal mole(-)) and is lowered by 2,4-dinitrophenol and by phenyl mercuric acetate treatments. The rate constant for its efflux through the plasmalemma, on the other hand, has a low activation energy (4.2 kcal mole(-)), which is equal to that of free diffusion of thiourea in aqueous solution, and is not affected by the metabolic inhibitors. Possible reasons for the difference in the properties of the two membranes are discussed.
- 1.Carrot,Daucus carota,Origin and Archeology of Carrot,Modern Researches.
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