Sambucus nigra,Black elder,Elderberry and its narration literature.


Research Update:Sambucus nigra or Elderberry.:

Elderberry Sambucus Nigra Berry Drupe European elder American Sambucus canadensis   Age effect on human aortic valvular glycoproteins.:Arch Med Res. 2007 Jul;38(5):495-502. Epub 2007 Apr 16.Przyby?o M, Stepień E, Pfitzner R, Lityńska A, Sadowski J.Department of Glycoconjugate Biochemistry, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.

 BACKGROUND: The aortic valve has been the subject of many hemodynamic studies but, to our knowledge, posttranslational modification of human valve proteins has not yet been studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether any age-related changes in the protein composition of normal human aortic valves and their glycosylation pattern could be observed. METHODS: Aortic valves harvested from male cadaveric donors free of cardiovascular diseases were divided into four age groups: I, mean age 21 years; II, 30 years; III, 41 years; IV, 51 years. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and transferred to PVDF membranes. Identification of monosaccharide moieties or oligosaccharide units was performed with the use of eight lectins of narrow specificity: Galantus nivalis agglutinin, Sambucus nigra agglutinin, Maackia amurensis agglutinin, Datura stramonium agglutinin, Aleuria aurantia agglutinin, Arachis hypogeae agglutinin, Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin, and Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin. RESULTS: Isolated proteins showed no age-related changes in SDS-PAGE protein profile, contrary to their glycosylation. Protein sialylation, number of tri/tetraantennary complex glycans, proteins having terminal galactose and polylactosaminyl units increased with age, whereas protein fucosylation showed the opposite relationship. Moreover, groups III and IV possessed a larger number of proteins bearing high-mannose and/or hybrid-type glycans, and the quantity of these structures seemed to change, in particular proteins, with the age of donors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results clearly demonstrate that glycosylation profile in human aortic proteins is associated with the age of the donor.

  First comprehensive contribution to medical ethnobotany of Western Pyrenees.:J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2007 Jun 6;3:26.Akerreta S, Cavero RY, Calvo MI.Department of Plant Biology (Botany Section), University of Navarra, C/Irunlarrea s/n, Pamplona, 31080, Navarra, Spain.

 BACKGROUND: An ethnobotanical and medical study was carried out in the Navarre Pyrenees, an area known both for its high biological diversity and its cultural significance. As well as the compilation of an ethnopharmacological catalogue, a quantitative ethnobotanical comparison has been carried out in relation to the outcomes from other studies about the Pyrenees. A review of all drugs used in the area has also been carried out, through a study of the monographs published by the institutions and organizations responsible for the safety and efficacy of medicinal plants (WHO, ESCOP, and the E Commission of the German Department of Health) in order to ascertain the extent to which the Navarre Pyrenees ethnopharmacology has been officially evaluated. METHODS: Fieldwork was carried out over two years, from November 2004 to December 2006. During that time we interviewed 88 local people in 40 villages. Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews and the data was analyzed using quantitative indexes: Ethnobotonicity Index, Shannon-Wiener's Diversity, Equitability and The Informant Consensus Factor. The official review has been performed using the official monographs published by the WHO, ESCOP and the E Commission of the German Department of Health. RESULTS: The ethnobotanical and medical catalogue of the Navarre Pyrenees Area comprises 92 species, of which 39 have been mentioned by at least three interviewees. The quantitative ethnobotany results show lower values than those found in other studies about the Pyrenees; and 57.6% of the Pyrenees medical ethnobotany described does not figure in documents published by the above mentioned institutions. CONCLUSION: The results show a reduction in the ethnobotanical and medical knowledge in the area of study, when compared to other studies carried out in the Pyrenees. Nevertheless, the use of several species that may be regarded as possible sources for pharmacological studies is reported here such as the bark of Sambucus nigra, the roots of Fragaria vesca, or the leaves of Scrophularia nodosa. These species are not currently approved by the WHO, ESCOP and the E Commission of the German Department of Health, institutions that, apart from encouraging the greater use of plants for medicinal purposes, may help in the design of development plans for these rural areas by validating their traditional medicine.

  Wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the Polish countryside: a review.:J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2007 Apr 15;3:17.?uczaj ?, Szymański WM.High School of Humanities and Economics in ?ód?, Department of Humanities, 90-222 ?ód?, Poland.

 BACKGROUND: This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the end of the 18th century to the present day, within the present borders of Poland. METHODS: 42 ethnographic and botanical sources documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analyzed. RESULTS: The use of 112 species (3.7% of the flora) has been recorded. Only half of them have been used since the 1960s. Three species: Cirsium rivulare, Euphorbia peplus and Scirpus sylvaticus have never before been reported as edible by ethnobotanical literature. The list of wild edible plants which are still commonly gathered includes only two green vegetables (Rumex acetosa leaves for soups and Oxalis acetosella as children's snack), 15 folk species of fruits and seeds (Crataegus spp., Corylus avellana, Fagus sylvatica, Fragaria vesca, Malus domestica, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Rosa canina, Rubus idaeus, Rubus sect. Rubus, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. oxycoccos, V. uliginosum, V. vitis-idaea) and four taxa used for seasoning or as preservatives (Armoracia rusticana root and leaves, Carum carvi seeds, Juniperus communis pseudo-fruits and Quercus spp. leaves). The use of other species is either forgotten or very rare. In the past, several species were used for food in times of scarcity, most commonly Chenopodium album, Urtica dioica, U. urens, Elymus repens, Oxalis acetosella and Cirsium spp., but now the use of wild plants is mainly restricted to raw consumption or making juices, jams, wines and other preserves. The history of the gradual disappearance of the original barszcz, Heracleum sphondylium soup, from Polish cuisine has been researched in detail and two, previously unpublished, instances of its use in the 20th century have been found in the Carpathians. An increase in the culinary use of some wild plants due to media publications can be observed. CONCLUSION: Poland can be characterized as a country where the traditions of culinary use of wild plants became impoverished very early, compared to some parts of southern Europe. The present use of wild plants, even among the oldest generation, has been almost entirely restricted to fruits.

  Colds and influenza: a review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations.:Altern Med Rev. 2007 Mar;12(1):25-48. Review.Roxas M, Jurenka J.Thorne Research, PO Box 25, Dover, ID 83825, USA.

 The common cold is the leading cause of doctor visits in the United States and annually results in 189 million lost school days. In the course of one year the U.S. population contracts approximately 1 billion colds. Influenza infection is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, accounting for 20-25 million doctor visits and 36,000 deaths per year in the United States. Conventional therapies for colds and flu focus primarily on temporary symptom relief and include over-the-counter antipyretics, anti-inflammatories, and decongestants. Treatment for influenza also includes prescription antiviral agents and vaccines for prevention. This article reviews the common cold and influenza viruses, presents the conventional treatment options, and highlights select botanicals (Echinacea spp., Sambucus nigra, larch arabinogalactan, Astragalus membranaceous, Baptisia tinctoria, Allium sativa, Panax quinquefolium, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Andrographis paniculata, olive leaf extract, and Isatis tinctoria) and nutritional considerations (vitamins A and C, zinc, high lactoferrin whey protein, N-acetylcysteine, and DHEA) that may help in the prevention and treatment of these conditions.

  Occurrence of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acid amides in different herbal drugs and their influence on human keratinocytes, on human liver cells and on adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to the human stomach.:Planta Med. 2007 Feb;73(2):142-50. Epub 2007 Feb 13.Hensel A, Deters AM, Müller G, Stark T, Wittschier N, Hofmann T.University of Münster, Institute for Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry, Münster, Germany.

 Thirty commonly used medicinal plants were screened by a selective and specific LC-MS/MS method for the occurrence of N-phenylpropenoyl- L-amino acid amides, a new homologous class of secondary products. In 15 plants, one or more of the respective derivatives (1 to 12) were found and quantitated. Especially roots from Angelica archangelica, fruits of Cassia angustifolia, C. senna, Coriandrum sativum, leaves from Hedera helix, flowers from Lavandula spec. and from Sambucus nigra contained high amounts (1 to 11 microg/g) of mixtures of the different amides 1 to 12. For functional investigations on potential activity in cellular physiology, two amides with an aliphatic (8) and an aromatic amino acid residue (5) were used. N-(E)-Caffeic acid L-aspartic acid amide (8) and N-(E)-caffeic acid L-tryptophan amide (5) stimulated mitochondrial activity as well as the proliferation rate of human liver cells (HepG2) at 10 microg/mL significantly. When monitoring the influence of selected phase I and II metabolizing enzymes, both compounds did not influence CYP3A4 gene expression, but stimulated CYP1A2 gene expression and inhibited GST expression. Also, the proliferation of human keratinocytes (NHK) was increased up to 150% by both amides 5 and 8; this stimulation was also detectable on the level of gene expression by an up-regulation of the transcription factor STAT6. The aliphatic aspartic compound 8 showed strong antiadhesive properties on the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human stomach tissue.
 Elderberry Sambucus Nigra Berry Drupe European elder American Sambucus canadensis

  A comparative evaluation of the anticancer properties of European and American elderberry fruits.:J Med Food. 2006 Winter;9(4):498-504.Thole JM, Kraft TF, Sueiro LA, Kang YH, Gills JJ, Cuendet M, Pezzuto JM, Seigler DS, Lila MA.Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.

 European elderberry (Sambucus nigra), recognized in Europe for its health-promoting properties for many generations, is known to contain a range of anthocyanins, flavonoids, and other polyphenolics that contribute to the high antioxidant capacity of its berries. American elderberry (Sambucus canadensis), on the other hand, has not been cultivated, bred, and promoted as a medicinal plant like its better-characterized European counterpart. In this study, aqueous acetone extracts of the berries from these two species were fractionated and tested in a range of assays that gauge anticarcinogenic potential. Both cultivated S. nigra and wild S. canadensis fruits demonstrated significant chemopreventive potential through strong induction of quinone reductase and inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2, which is indicative of anti-initiation and antipromotion properties, respectively. In addition, fractions of S. canadensis extract showed inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase, an enzyme marker related to the promotion stage of carcinogenesis. Analysis of active fractions using mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed, in addition to flavonoids, the presence of more lipophilic compounds such as sesquiterpenes, iridoid monoterpene glycosides, and phytosterols.

  Alpha2,6-linked sialic acid acts as a receptor for Feline calicivirus.:J Gen Virol. 2007 Jan;88(Pt 1):177-86.Stuart AD, Brown TD.Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK.

 Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a major causative agent of respiratory disease in cats. It is also one of the few cultivatable members of the family Caliciviridae. It has recently been reported that FCV binding is in part due to interaction with junction adhesion molecule-A. This report describes the characterization of additional receptor components for FCV. Chemical treatment of cells with sodium periodate showed that FCV recognized carbohydrate moieties on the surface of permissive cells. Enzymic treatment with Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase demonstrated that sialic acid was a major determinant of virus binding. Further characterization using linkage-specific lectins from Maackia amurensis and Sambucus nigra revealed that FCV recognized sialic acid with an alpha2,6 linkage. Using various proteases and metabolic inhibitors, it was shown that alpha2,6-linked sialic acid recognized by FCV is present on an N-linked glycoprotein.

  Localization of mechanisms involved in hydropassive and hydroactive stomatal responses of Sambucus nigra to dry air.:Plant Physiol. 2007 Feb;143(2):1068-77. Epub 2006 Dec 8.Kaiser H, Legner N.Botanisches Institut der Christian-Albrechts-Universit?t, D-24098 Kiel, Germany.

 The response of stomata to a reduction of air humidity is composed of a hydropassive opening followed by active closure. Whereas the mechanisms behind the hydropassive opening are largely understood, the location and physiological basis of the sensing mechanisms leading to active closure are not yet known. This study attempts to evaluate the importance of a single pore's transpiration on its own response and that of adjacent pores. Selected stomata on attached intact leaves of Sambucus nigra were sealed with mineral oil and the response to a reduction of humidity was continuously observed in situ. Blocking a pore's transpiration had no appreciable effect on hydropassive opening and subsequent stomatal closure. If the adjacent stomata were additionally sealed, the closing response was reduced, but not the hydropassive opening. On the other hand, sealing the entire leaf surface, except a small area including the observed stomata, also reduced stomatal closure. These results indicate that strictly local processes triggered by a pore's own transpiration are not required to induce stomatal closure. To describe the effect of one pore's transpiration on the hydropassive and hydroactive responses of neighboring stomata, a simple spatial model was constructed. It suggests that 90% of the closing effect covers an area of approximately 0.5 mm2, whereas the effect on hydropassive opening affects an area of approximately 1 mm2. This divergence may suggest mechanisms other than or in addition to those involving changes of local leaf water potential.

  Beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase and the sialyl alpha2,6-galactosyl-linkage in tissues and cell lines.:Methods Mol Biol. 2006;347:157-70.Dall'Olio F, Malagolini N, Chiricolo M.Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

 beta-Galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal.I) is the principal sialyltransferase responsible for the biosynthesis of the sialyl alpha2,6-galactosyl linkage. This enzyme and its cognate glycosidic structure are overexpressed in several malignancies and are related to cancer progression. The expression of the enzyme is regulated primarily through the expression of three principal mRNA species differing in the 5'-untranslated exons. The form known as YZ is considered associated with the basal expression of the gene, while forms H and X are specific to the liver and B-lymphocytes, respectively. The authors have studied the expression of ST6Gal.I activity by two different methods using a panel of human cancer cell lines: the expression of alpha2,6-sialylated sugar chains by the lectin from Sambucus nigra (SNA), and the expression of the different mRNA species by RT-PCR using oligonucleotide primers complementary to the isoform-specific regions. Very high levels of ST6Gal.I activity result in high levels of SNA reactivity and are associated with the expression of the H transcript in colon and liver cell lines, and of the X transcript in B cells.

  Color properties of four cyanidin-pyruvic acid adducts.:J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Sep 6;54(18):6894-903.Oliveira J, Fernandes V, Miranda C, Santos-Buelga C, Silva A, de Freitas V, Mateus N.Centro de Investiga??o em Química, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal.

 Four anthocyanin-pyruvic adducts were synthesized through the reaction of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-sophoroside, and cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside with pyruvic acid, structurally characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and their chromatic properties were studied (pH and SO2 stability assays). Overall, these pigments were shown to have a higher resistance to discoloration toward pH variations and also in the presence of SO2, being that this resistance to discoloration was explained by a higher protection of the chromophore group against the water or bisulfite nucleophilic attack that gives rise to the colorless hemiacetal form. Only slight differences in the protection against the nucleophilic attack of water and bisulfite were found to occur between all of the cyanidin-pyruvic acid adducts studied. Indeed, anthocyanin-pyruvic acid adducts with glucose or sambubiose attached to the 3-O position of the flavylium moiety were shown to have smaller bleaching constants compared with similar pigments that possess a rutinosyl or sophorosyl moiety. The study of the pigments (A-D and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside) color parameters, namely, chroma (C), lightness (L), and the hue angle (h(a,b)), obtained from the CIELAB system, revealed that different patterns of sugars in the anthocyanin-pyruvic acid adduct moiety affected the referred three parameters of color. The loss of saturation (DeltaC < 0) and the increase of lightness (DeltaL > 0) presented by the cyanidin-pyruvic acid adduct solutions at acidic pH values (1.0 and 2.0) showed that they are much less colored than the cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. For higher pH values (5.0 and 7.0), the reverse trend was observed. This means that the cyanidin-pyruvic acid adducts A-D are much more colored than the anthocyanin at these pH values. The higher coloring capacity of these pigments at higher pH values may be an important feature, indicating a putative application of these compounds in food products.
 Elderberry Sambucus Nigra Berry Drupe European elder American Sambucus canadensis

  The use of common elder Sambucus nigra to promote Aphidophagous syrphids in apple orchards.:Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2005;70(4):527-38.Bribosia E, Bylemans D, Huysmans S, Schweitzer P, Migon M, van Impe G.PCF-Royal Research Station of Gorsem, Sint-Truiden, Belgium.

 Elder shrubs (Sambucus nigra L.) were planted in an experimental apple orchard as bordering hedgerow with the objective of rearing syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae) and consequently enhancing the biological control of the rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini). The inoculative introduction of the specific elder aphid Aphis sambuci L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) in late March 2002 and again in 2003 led to the complete hedgerow turning into an early and productive alternative prey reservoir for indigenous syrphids. The species Scaeva pyrastri (L.), S. selenetica (Meigen), Syrphus ribesii (L.), S. vitripennis Meigen, Epistrophe eligans (Harris), E. nitidicollis (Meigen), Platycheirus scutatus (Meigen), Eupeodes corollae (F.), Meligramma triangulifera (Zetterstedt) and Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer) developed on the elder hedgerow during the spring 2002 taking advantage of the aphid infestation. The season 2003 was characterised by a quite different species abundance pattern as, contrary to the previous year when both monovoltine and polyvoltine species were equally represented, the monovoltine syrphids (Epistrophe spp.) represented the dominant group exploiting the elder aphids. A parallel analysis showed that the faeces of the first adult syrphids observed ovipositing on the elder hedgerow in spring contained digested pollen of mainly apple. Our observations indicate the possibility of establishing a local population of monovoltine syrphids in apple orchards by managing an aphid-infested elder hedgerow, without any additional pollen or nectar producing plants.

  Inhibition of proinflammatory activities of major periodontal pathogens by aqueous extracts from elder flower (Sambucus nigra).:J Periodontol. 2006 Feb;77(2):271-9.Harokopakis E, Albzreh MH, Haase EM, Scannapieco FA, Hajishengallis G.Department of Pedodontics, School of Dentistry, Center of Excellence in Oral and Craniofacial Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.

 BACKGROUND: Prolonged induction of excessive levels of inflammatory mediators contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic disease states, such as periodontitis. It is thus important to develop safe and effective anti-inflammatory strategies for therapeutic reasons. In this study, we determined the ability of aqueous extracts from elder flower (Sambucus nigra) to inhibit the proinflammatory activity of major virulence factors from the periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. METHODS: Monocytes/macrophages or neutrophils were incubated with whole cells of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, or purified components thereof (lipopolysaccharide and fimbriae) in the absence or presence of elder flower extract and were assayed for cytokine production, integrin activation, or induction of the oxidative burst. RESULTS: The elder flower extract was found to potently inhibit all proinflammatory activities tested. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed that the anti-inflammatory extract inhibited activation of the nuclear transcription factor kappaB and of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. CONCLUSION: The elder flower extract displays useful anti-inflammatory properties that could be exploited therapeutically for the control of inflammation in human periodontitis.

  The blood-brain barrier transmigrating single domain antibody: mechanisms of transport and antigenic epitopes in human brain endothelial cells.:J Neurochem. 2005 Nov;95(4):1201-14.Abulrob A, Sprong H, Van Bergen en Henegouwen P, Stanimirovic D.Cerebrovascular Research Group, Institute for Biological Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

 Antibodies against receptors that undergo transcytosis across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) have been used as vectors to target drugs or therapeutic peptides into the brain. We have recently discovered a novel single domain antibody, FC5, which transmigrates across human cerebral endothelial cells in vitro and the BBB in vivo. The purpose of this study was to characterize mechanisms of FC5 endocytosis and transcytosis across the BBB and its putative receptor on human brain endothelial cells. The transport of FC5 across human brain endothelial cells was polarized, charge independent and temperature dependent, suggesting a receptor-mediated process. FC5 taken up by human brain endothelial cells co-localized with clathrin but not with caveolin-1 by immunochemistry and was detected in clathrin-enriched subcellular fractions by western blot. The transendothelial migration of FC5 was reduced by inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, K+ depletion and chlorpromazine, but was insensitive to caveolae inhibitors, filipin, nystatin or methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. Following internalization, FC5 was targeted to early endosomes, bypassed late endosomes/lysosomes and remained intact after transcytosis. The transcytosis process was inhibited by agents that affect actin cytoskeleton or intracellular signaling through PI3-kinase. Pretreatment of human brain endothelial cells with wheatgerm agglutinin, sialic acid, alpha(2,3)-neuraminidase or Maackia amurensis agglutinin that recognizes alpha(2,3)-, but not with Sambucus nigra agglutinin that recognizes alpha(2,6) sialylgalactosyl residues, significantly reduced FC5 transcytosis. FC5 failed to recognize brain endothelial cells-derived lipids, suggesting that it binds luminal alpha(2,3)-sialoglycoprotein receptor which triggers clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This putative receptor may be a new target for developing brain-targeting drug delivery vectors.

  "Zahraa", a Unani multicomponent herbal tea widely consumed in Syria: components of drug mixtures and alleged medicinal properties.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Dec 1;102(3):344-50. Epub 2005 Aug 9.Carmona MD, Llorach R, Obon C, Rivera D.Departamento de Biología Vegetal, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Murcia, Espinardo, Spain.

 In Unani system of medicine, drugs consist of complex formulae with more than three components, for which, literature analysing these mixtures as they are sold in the market is scarce. In this paper, the main botanical components of the herbal tea known as "Zahraa" in Damascus, which contains between 6 and 14 species components is elucidated: Alcea damascena (Mout.) Mout. (Malvaceae), Aloysia triphylla (L'Herit.) Britt. (Malvaceae), Astragalus cf. amalecitanus Boiss., Cercis siliquastrum L. subsp. hebecarpa (Bornm.) Yalt. and subsp. siliquastrum. (Leguminosae), Colutea cilicica Boiss. et Bal. in Boiss. (Leguminosae), Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc. ex DC. (Rosaceae), Cytisopsis pseudocytisus (Boiss.) Fertig. (Leguminosae), Eleagnus angustifolia L. (Eleagnaceae), Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. (Equisetaceae), Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench. subsp. barrelieri (Ten.) Nyman. (Compositae), Matricaria recutita L. (Compositae), Mentha longifolia L. subsp. noeana (Boiss. ex. Briq.) Briq. (Labiatae), Mentha spicata L. subsp. condensata (Briq.) Greuter and Burdet (Labiatae), Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. and Hohen. in Boiss. (Labiatae), Paronychia argentea Lam. (Caryophyllaceae), Phlomis syriaca Boiss. (Labiatae), Rosa damascena Mill. (Rosaceae), Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Labiatae), Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae), Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae), Zea mays L. (Gramineae).

  Antiviral activity in vitro of Urtica dioica L., Parietaria diffusa M. et K. and Sambucus nigra L.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr 26;98(3):323-7.Uncini Manganelli RE, Zaccaro L, Tomei PE.Department of Agronomia e Gestione dell'Agroecosistema, University of Pisa, Via S. Michele degli Scalzi 2, Pisa 56100, Italy.

 Parietaria diffusa M. et K., Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) and Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae) are plants usually used in popular medicine of central Italy for treating numerous diseases, first of all Herpes zoster. Several plant products have been described as potential antiviral agents, with special attention being devoted to those having retroviruses as etiological agents, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), in which a retrovirus, the designated human immunodeficiency virus HIV, has been clearly identified as the primary cause of this disease. The present study proposes a preliminary screening of the antiviral activity of Parietaria diffusa, Sambucus nigra and Urtica dioica preparation against the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection. The feline immunodeficiency virus is a widespread lentivirus of domestic cats sharing numerous biological and pathogenic features with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). FIV infection in cats has therefore been proposed as an animal model for AIDS studies with respect to pathogenesis, chemotherapy, and vaccine development [Pedersen, N.C., 1993. Feline immunodeficiency virus infection. In: Levy, J.A. (Ed.), The Retroviridae. Plenum Press, New York; Bendinelli, M., Pistello, M., Lombardi, S., Poli, A., Garzelli, C., Matteucci, D., Ceccherini-Nelli, L., Malvaldi, G., Tozzini, F., 1995. Feline immunodeficiency virus: an interesting model for AIDS studies and an important cat pathogen. Clinical Microbiology Revue 8, 87-112; North, T.W., LaCasse, R.A., 1995. Testing anti-HIV drugs in the FIV model. Nature Medicine 1, 410-411; Matteucci, D., Pistello, M., Mazzetti, P., Giannechini, S., Isola, P., Merico, A., Zaccaro, L., Rizzati, A., Bendinelli, M., 2000. AIDS vaccination studies using feline immunodeficiency virus as a model: immunisation with inactivated whole virus suppresses viraemia levels following intravaginal challenge with infected cells but non-following intravenous challenge with cell-free virus. Vaccine 18, 119-130]. Early studies showed that some of them presented antiviral activity against infection of FIV as assayed by syncytia formation using feline kidney Crandell cells (CrFK).
 Elderberry Sambucus Nigra Berry Drupe European elder American Sambucus canadensis

  Epitope recognition of antibodies that define the sialomucin, endolyn (CD164), a negative regulator of haematopoiesis.:Tissue Antigens. 2005 Mar;65(3):220-39. Jorgensen-Tye B, Levesque JP, Royle L, Doyonnas R, Chan JY, Dwek RA, Rudd PM, Harvey DJ, Simmons PJ, Watt SM.Stem Cell Laboratory, National Blood Service and Nuffield Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, The John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK.

 Endolyn (CD164) is a sialomucin that functions as an adhesion molecule and a negative regulator of CD34+ CD38- human haematopoietic precursor cell proliferation. The 105A5 and 103B2/9E10 CD164 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which act as surrogate ligands, recognize distinct glycosylation-dependent classes I and II epitopes located on domain I of the native and recombinant CD164 proteins. Here, we document five new CD164 mAbs, the 96 series, that rely on conformational integrity, but not glycosylation, of exons 2- and 3-encoded CD164 domains, thereby resembling the class III mAbs, N6B6 and 67D2. Although all the 96 series class III mAbs labelled both the 105A5+ and 103B2/9E10+ cells, cross-competition and immunoblotting studies allow them to be categorized into two distinct class III subgroups, i.e. the N6B6-like subgroup that only recognizes 80-100 kDa proteins and the 67D2-like subgroup that also recognizes a higher molecular weight (>220 kDa) form. To more closely define the reactivity patterns of mAbs to the classes I and II epitopes, the global glycosylation patterns of the soluble human (h) CD164 proteins were determined using lectin binding, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. hCD164 recombinant proteins bound to the lectins, Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, Datura stramonium agglutinin, Sambucus nigra agglutinin, Maackia amurensis agglutinin and peanut agglutinin, indicating the presence of high mannose and complex N-glycans, in addition to core 1 O-glycans (the Tn antigen) and alpha2-3 and alpha2-6 sialic acid moieties. Our HPLC and mass spectrometry results revealed both high mannose and complex N-glycosylation with various numbers of branches increasing the complexity of the glycosylation pattern. Most O-glycans were small, core 1 or 2 based. High levels of sialylation in alpha2-3 and alpha2-6 linkages, without sialyl-Lewis X, indicate that the majority of these hCD164 recombinant proteins are unable to bind to selectins in our assay system, but may interact with Siglec molecules.

  Toxicity of manganese exposure on the postnatal development of dopaminergic neurons of nigra substance in rat brain.:Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2004 Nov;33(6):666-7. Chinese.He X, Zhang D, Chen W, Huang S.Basic College, Guangdong College of Pharmacy, Guangzhou 510224, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To study the poisonous effect of manganese on the postnatal development of dopaminergic neurons of nigra substance in rat brain. METHODS: Morris Water Maze was carried out to examine the muscle motor ability of the rat. Fluorometry was used to determine the dopamine levels of caudate nucleus. Immunochemistry combined with digital imagine analysis was carried out to observe the TH reactivity and its average densities of the TH-positive products in nigra substance and caudate nucleus respectively. RESULTS: (1) The latency to reach the platform above water in Morris Water Maze was longer and longer with the increasing of Mn-dose exposured. (2) The DA levels of the caudate nucleus, and the TH-immunochemical reactivity as well as the average densities of TH-positive products in nigra substance and caudate was significantly declined respectively with increasing of Mn-dose exposure. CONCLUSION: The postnatal development of dopaminergic neurons in nigra substance of the rat brain was damaged by manganese-exposure, and the positive relationship existed between the damage effects and the Mn-dose exposure.

  Traditional phytotherapy in Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium).:Fitoterapia. 2005 Jan;76(1):1-25. Review.Guarrera PM.Museo Nazionale Arti e Tradizioni Popolari, Piazza Marconi 8-10, Roma, 00144, Italy.

 In this study, the more significant results of extensive ethnopharmacobotanical research carried out by the author in the years 1977-2000 in 175 localities of three regions of Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium) have been reported and compared. The usages of 80 species belonging to 36 families are described, of which 71 were used in human therapy and 29 in veterinary medicine. Uses are suited with the number of localities in which they have been mentioned. Among the wild plant mainly still used, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, and Sambucus nigra are particularly highly considered, while major uses of plants concern these plants in addition to Allium sativum, Rubus ulmifolius, Parietaria diffusa, Cynodon dactylon, and Ficus carica. Unusual phytotherapic uses concern Brassica oleracea, Taraxacum officinale (warts), Ruscus aculeatus, S. nigra (chilblains), Allium cepa (chilblains; to remove thorns and splinters), Juglans regia, R. ulmifolius (burns), and Euphorbia paralias (bites of weevers). Among new uses with only one quotation, we remember Cirsium arvense (intestinal disturbances), Centaurea bracteata (cough), Lupinus albus (calluses), Melittis melissophyllum (eye inflammations, antispasmodic), and Artemisia absinthium (tendon inflammations), while among plants employed in various regions with interesting less-known properties, there are C. arvense (emergency haemostatic), P. diffusa (insect bites), and Scrophularia canina (antiseptic and cicatrizing agent for wounds in bovines and sheep).

  Characterization of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in some cultivars of Ribes, Aronia, and Sambucus and their antioxidant capacity.:J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Dec 29;52(26):7846-56.Wu X, Gu L, Prior RL, McKay S.Agriculture Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, 1120 Marshall Street, Little Rock, Arkansas 72202, USA.

 Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins were characterized by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS coupled with a diode array and/or fluorescent detector in seven cultivars of Ribes nigrum (black currant) and Ribes rubrum (red currant, Red Lake), six cultivars of Ribes grossularia (gooseberries), Aronia melanocarpa(chokeberry), and Sambucus nigra (elderberry). Thirty-one different anthocyanins were detected in these berries, but not every anthocyanin was observed in each berry. A number of minor anthocyanins were identified from these berries for the first time. The concentrations of individual anthocyanins in all of the berries were quantified using relevant anthocyanidin 3-glucoside standards. Among the berries studied in this paper and in berries in general, chokeberry has the highest total anthocyanin concentrations [1480 mg/100 g of fresh weight (FW)], whereas the lowest total anthocyanin concentration in the berries studied was found in the gooseberry cv. Careless, which contained only 0.07 mg/100 g of FW. Two cultivars of gooseberries (Marigold and Leveller) did not contain any anthocyanins. Total proanthocyanidin concentrations in the berries studied ranged from 23 to 664 mg/100 g of FW in elderberry and chokeberry, respectively. Procyanidin or prodelphinidin polymers were the predominant components (>65% w/w) in most of the berries. The lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities were measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL)) procedure. The total antioxidant capacity varied from 21 micromol of TE/g of FW in Careless gooseberry to 161 micromol of TE/g of FW in chokeberry. Total phenolics in the berries in general paralleled hydrophilic antioxidant capacity.

  LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries.:J Biomed Biotechnol. 2004;2004(5):241-247.

 Anthocyanin extracts of two blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) and Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry), and of three other berries, Ribes nigrum (black currant), Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry), and Sambucus nigra (elderberry), were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS). Both bilberry and rabbiteye blueberry contained 15 identical anthocyanins with different distribution patterns. Black currant, chokeberry, and elderberry contained 6, 4, and 4 kinds of anthocyanins, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of these berry extracts were analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). All these extracts showed potent antiradical activities.
 Elderberry Sambucus Nigra Berry Drupe European elder American Sambucus canadensis

  Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections:J Int Med Res. 2004 Mar-Apr;32(2):132-40.Zakay-Rones Z, Thom E, Wollan T, Wadstein J.Department of Virology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.

 Elderberry has been used in folk medicine for centuries to treat influenza, colds and sinusitis, and has been reported to have antiviral activity against influenza and herpes simplex. We investigated the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry syrup for treating influenza A and B infections. Sixty patients (aged 18-54 years) suffering from influenza-like symptoms for 48 h or less were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study during the influenza season of 1999-2000 in Norway. Patients received 15 ml of elderberry or placebo syrup four times a day for 5 days, and recorded their symptoms using a visual analogue scale. Symptoms were relieved on average 4 days earlier and use of rescue medication was significantly less in those receiving elderberry extract compared with placebo. Elderberry extract seems to offer an efficient, safe and cost-effective treatment for influenza. These findings need to be confirmed in a larger study.

  Analysis of the in planta antiviral activity of elderberry ribosome-inactivating proteins.:Eur J Biochem. 2004 Apr;271(8):1508-15. Vandenbussche F, Desmyter S, Ciani M, Proost P, Peumans WJ, Van Damme EJ.Laboratory for Phytopathology and Plant Protection, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.

 Although the type-2 ribosome-inactivating proteins (SNA-I, SNA-V, SNLRP) from elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) are all devoid of rRNA N-glycosylase activity towards plant ribosomes, some of them clearly show polynucleotide-adenosine glycosylase activity towards tobacco mosaic virus RNA. This particular substrate specificity was exploited to further unravel the mechanism underlying the in planta antiviral activity of ribosome-inactivating proteins. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Samsun NN) plants expressing the elderberry ribosome-inactivating proteins were generated and challenged with tobacco mosaic virus in order to analyze their antiviral properties. Although some transgenic plants clearly showed antiviral activity, no clear correlation was observed between in planta antiviral activity of transgenic tobacco lines expressing the different ribosome-inactivating proteins and the in vitro polynucleotide-adenosine glycosylase activity of the respective proteins towards tobacco mosaic virus genomic RNA. However, our results suggest that the in planta antiviral activity of some ribosome-inactivating proteins may rely on a direct mechanism on the virus. In addition, it is evident that the working mechanism proposed for pokeweed antiviral protein cannot be extrapolated to elderberry ribosome-inactivating proteins because the expression of SNA-V is not accompanied by induction of pathogenesis-related proteins.

  Effects of copper on Sambucus nigra L. seedlings studied by electron paramagnetic resonance and atomic absorption spectroscopies.:Chemosphere. 2003 Oct;53(3):263-8.Orsega EF, Agnoli F, Cacco G, Delaney E, Argese E.Department of Physical Chemistry, Calle Larga S Marta 2137-30123 Venezia, Italy.

 We present in this work preliminary results on the translocation of copper, manganese and iron from soil to leaves of Sambucus nigra L. seedlings in the presence of increasing copper concentrations in the growth medium. The use of electron spin resonance spectroscopy and the comparison with atomic absorption spectroscopy is not presently common in the study of metal absorption in plants. This approach gave promising results both on the detection of some metal ions, as well as of radical species related to the presence of Cu2+ in plant tissues. Copper was found to act synergistically in manganese uptake.

  Non-toxic type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) from Sambucus: occurrence, cellular and molecular activities and potential uses.:Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2003 Jun;49(4):537-45. Review. Erratum in: Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2004 Mar;50(2):205.Girbes T, Ferreras JM, Arias FJ, Mu?oz R, Iglesias R, Jimenez P, Rojo MA, Arias Y, Perez Y, Benitez J, Sanchez D, Gayoso MJ.Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid, Spain.

 Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a family of enzymes that trigger the catalytic inactivation of ribosomes. The most known member of the family is the highly poisonous two-chain ricin isolated from Ricinus communis L. Sambucus species contain a number of two-chain RIPs structurally and enzymatically related to ricin which have the noteworthy feature that, having an enzymatic activity on ribosomes, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis, higher than ricin, they are lacking of the tremendous unspecific toxicity of ricin. Therefore, they have been called non-toxic type 2 RIPs. The most representative and studied members are nigrin b present in the bark of the common (black) elder Sambucus nigra L. and ebulin 1 present in the leaves of the dwarf elder Sambucus ebulus L. The molecular basis for the low unspecific activities of nigrin b and ebulin 1 as compared with ricin seems to be related with single changes of amino acids in the high affinity sugar binding sites of the B chains. These changes determine the intracellular traffic of these proteins and thus the cellular toxicity. Conjugation ofnigrin b or ebulin 1 to either transferrin or monoclonal antibodies provided highly active conjugates targeting cancer. Thus these non-toxic type 2 RIPs are promising tools for cancer therapy.

  Isolation and characterization of a new d-galactose-binding lectin from Sambucus racemosa L.:Protein Pept Lett. 2003 Jun;10(3):287-93.Rojo MA, Citores L, Jiménez P, Ferreras JM, Arias FJ, Méndez E, Girbés T.Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47005 Valladolid, Spain.

 A new acidic lectin from red elder (Sambucus racemosa L.) bark has been isolated by affinity chromatography and gel filtration. Noteworthy, and in contrast to other Sambucus species, red elder bark lacks acidic non-toxic type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins but has basic ribosome-inactivating protein activities. The new lectin (SRLbm) shows specificity for N-Ac-Galactosamine/D-Galactose and has an apparent Mr of 30,000. The N-terminal amino acid sequence displays a close homology with other lectins and B chains of non-toxic type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins nigrins and ebulins present in other Sambucus species. SRLbm triggers red blood cell agglutination in the range 4-12 micro g/ml.

  Synthesis of degraded cyanogenic glycosides from Sambucus nigra.:Nat Prod Res. 2003 Jun;17(3):177-81.Dellagreca M, Fiorentino A, Monaco P, Previtera L, Temussi F, Zarrelli A.Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Biochimica, Università Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia, 1-80134 Napoli, Italy.

 Two natural cyanohydrins, isolated from Sambucus nigra, have been synthesised from mandelonitrile and penta-O-acetyl-beta-galactopyranose. The synthesis confirmed the stereochemistry of the compounds, which had been assigned on biogenetic grounds.

  Sialic acid expression in autoimmune thyroiditis.:Acta Histochem. 2002;104(4):343-7.Janega P, Cerná A, Kholová I, Brabencová E, Babál P.Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia.

 Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland are among the most frequent endocrine disorders. The present study analyzes expression patterns of sialic acids in these diseases. Three lectins specific for sialic acids were used for the histochemical analysis of surgical specimens of the thyroid gland: Tritrichomonas mobilensis lectin that stains all types of sialic acids, Maackia amurensis leukoagglutinin that stains sialic acids with alpha2,3 linkage and Sambucus nigra agglutinin that stains sialic acids with alpha2,6 linkage. In autoimmune thyroiditis, there was a significant increase in sialic acid expression in epithelial cells, especially on luminal membranes of follicular cells. The alpha2,3 linkage dominated over the alpha2,6 linkage. Lymphocytes of patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis, especially in germinal centers, showed strong expression of alpha2,6-linked sialic acids on their cell membrane. Vascular endothelium was positive in all specimens. It can be concluded, that there is a significant increase in sialic acid expression in autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland, predominantly of sialic acids with alpha2,3 linkage, whereas the sialylation pattern of lymphocytes in Hashimoto thyroiditis was also different.

  A complex fruit-specific type-2 ribosome-inactivating protein from elderberry (Sambucus nigra) is correctly processed and assembled in transgenic tobacco plants.:Eur J Biochem. 2002 Jun;269(12):2897-906.Chen Y, Vandenbussche F, Rougé P, Proost P, Peumans WJ, Van Damme EJ.Laboratory for Phytopathology and Plant Protection, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.

 Fruits of elderberry (Sambucus nigra) express small quantities of a type-2 ribosome-inactivating protein with an exclusive specificity towards the NeuAc(alpha2,6)Gal/GalNAc disaccharide and a unique molecular structure typified by the occurrence of a disulfide bridge between the B-chains of two adjacent protomers. A cDNA clone encoding this so-called Sambucus nigra fruit specific agglutinin I (SNA-If) was isolated and expressed in tobacco (Samsun NN) under the control of the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter. Characterization of the purified protein indicated that the recombinant SNA-If from tobacco leaves has the same molecular structure and biological activities as native SNA-If from elderberry fruits, demonstrating that transgenic tobacco plants are fully capable of expressing and correctly processing and assembling a type-2 ribosome-inactivating protein with a complex molecular structure. None of the transformants showed a phenotypic effect, indicating that the ectopically expressed SNA-If does not affect the viability of the tobacco cells. Bioassays further demonstrated that none of the transgenic lines exhibited a decreased sensitivity to infection with tobacco mosaic virus suggesting that the elderberry type-2 RIP SNA-If does not act as an antiviral agent in planta.

  Mutational analysis of the carbohydrate-binding activity of the NeuAc(alpha-2,6)Gal/GalNAc-specific type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein from elderberry (Sambucus nigra) fruits..:Biochem J. 2002 Jun 1;364(Pt 2):587-92.Chen Y, Rouge P, Peumans WJ, van Damme EJ.Laboratory for Phytopathology and Plant Protection, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.

 Sambucus nigra agglutinin I (SNA-I) is a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to mimic the conversion of the highly active B-chain of fruit-specific SNA (SNA-If) into the completely inactive B-chain of the closely related and naturally occurring loss-of-activity mutant called S. nigra agglutinin lectin-related protein. In the first mutant SNA-If-M1 the high-affinity site 2 of SNA-If was disrupted by replacing the presumed critical residue Asp231 with Glu231. In the double mutant SNA-If-M2, site 1 of SNA-If-M1 was also disrupted by substituting the presumed critical residue Asn48 with Ser48. The parent type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein and both mutants were expressed in Nicotiana tabacum Samsun NN and the recombinant proteins were purified and analysed. Recombinant SNA-If agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes equally well as SNA-If, but both mutants were completely inactive in this test. Binding assays to immobilized galactose and fetuin revealed that the mutation Asp231-->Glu231 reduces the affinity of the B-chain for galactose and fetuin by more than 50%. Furthermore, the introduction of the second mutation Asn48-->Ser48 reduces the binding activity to less than 20% of the original activity.

  The Sambucus nigra type-2 ribosome-inactivating protein SNA-I' exhibits in planta antiviral activity in transgenic tobacco.:FEBS Lett. 2002 Apr 10;516(1-3):27-30.Chen Y, Peumans WJ, Van Damme EJ.Laboratory for Phytopathology and Plant Protection, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 42, B-3001, Leuven, Belgium.

 Transgenic tobacco (Samsun NN) plants transformed with a cDNA clone encoding SNA-I' from Sambucus nigra synthesize, and correctly process and assemble, a fully active type-2 ribosome-inactivating protein. Expression of SNA-I' under the control of the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter enhances the plant's resistance against infection with tobacco mosaic virus. In contrast to type-1 ribosome-inactivating proteins, the expression of SNA-I' does not affect the growth and fertility of the transgenic plants and is not accompanied by an increased expression of pathogenesis-related proteins indicating that its antiviral activity most probably differs from that of pokeweed antiviral protein.

  Biochemical, molecular and structural analysis of multiple thaumatin-like proteins from the elderberry tree (Sambucus nigra L.).:Planta. 2002 Apr;214(6):853-62. Epub 2002 Jan 25.Van Damme EJ, Charels D, Menu-Bouaouiche L, Proost P, Barre A, Rougé P, Peumans WJ.Laboratory for Phytopathology and Plant Protection, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 42, 3001, Belgium.

 Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) were isolated and characterized from fruits and leaves of elderberry (Sambucus nigra) and their corresponding genes cloned. In addition, the developmental regulation and induction of the different TLPs was followed in some detail. Ripening berries accumulated a fruit-specific TLP during the final stages of maturation. This fruit-specific TLP had no antifungal activity and was devoid of beta-glucanase activity. Leaves constitutively expressed a TLP that closely resembled the fruit-specific homologue. Treatment with jasmonate methyl ester induced two additional TLPs in leaves but did not induce or enhance the expression of TLPs in immature berries. In contrast to jasmonate methyl ester, both ethephon and garlic extract induced the expression of a TLP in unripe berries that normally do not express any TLP. Sequence analysis and molecular modeling indicated that all elderberry thaumatin-like proteins share a high sequence similarity with group-5 pathogenesis-related proteins. However, the proteins encoded by the different sequences differed from each other in isoelectric point and the distribution of the charges on the surface of the molecule.

  Anti-HIV activity of a glycoprotein from first trimester placental tissue.:Antiviral Res. 2002 Apr;54(1):47-57.Kondapi AK, Hafiz MA, Sivaram T.Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, India.

 Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) transmission from a mother to the offspring during pregnancy is highly complex and a variable process in part due to the presence of several anti-HIV factors. In this study, we report an early pregnancy-associated protein (early pregnancy associated protein-1, Epap-1) with an apparent molecular weight of 90 kDa in placental tissue of pregnant women during the first trimester. Epap-1 was isolated and purified using Sambucus nigra agarose lectin affinity chromatography. Epap-1 strongly inhibits HIV-1(MN), HIV-1(91US056), HIV-1(VB-7) replication in vitro while it exhibits low activity with HIV-1(VB-66) strain. The molecular analysis of action of Epap-1 shows that it affects HIV-CD4 binding through inhibition of CD4-gp120 interaction.

  Nonsaponifiable lipid components of the pollen of elder (Sambucus nigra L.):J Chromatogr A. 2001 Nov 30;936(1-2):173-81.Stránsky K, Valterová I, Fiedler P.Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nám. 2, 166 10 Prague 6, Czech Republic.

 Pollen of the elder (Sambucus nigra L.) was extracted with chloroform-methanol. The extract was separated by column chromatography into the following groups of compounds: hydrocarbons (8.7%). polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (0.2%), complex esters (5.2%), triglycerides (18.7%), hydroxy esters (27.9%), free fatty acids and alcohols (16.8%), free sterols (6.8%), and triterpenic alcohols (4.0%). The nonsaponifiable components (hydrocarbons, fatty acids, alcohols, and sterols) were examined in detail using spectroscopic and chromatographic methods (IR spectroscopy, GC, and GC-MS). The identified compounds were characterized by their mass spectra and Kováts retention indices. The double bond positions and their configurations in unsaturated compounds are also reported.

  Potential allelochemicals from Sambucus nigra.:Phytochemistry. 2001 Dec;58(7):1073-81.D'Abrosca B, DellaGreca M, Fiorentino A, Monaco P, Previtera L, Simonet AM, Zarrelli A.Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, II Università di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, I-81100, Caserta, Italy.

 Twenty-four aromatic metabolites belonging to cyanogenins, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic glycosides were obtained from Sambucus nigra. Structures were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic features. Two compounds have been isolated and identified as (2S)-2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and benzyl 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2,6-dihydroxybenzoate. All the compounds have been assayed on dicotyledons Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Raphanus sativus (radish) and monocotyledon Allium cepa (onion) to test their stimulatory or inhibitory effects on seed germination and radicle elongation. Cyanogenins have a mainly inhibiting effect while lignans stimulate the growth. Some compounds show different effects on dicotyledons and monocotyledons.

  Preparation of monospecific polyclonal antibodies against Sambucus nigra lectin related protein, a glycosylated plant protein.:Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 2001 Aug;31(3):209-16.Desmyter S, Vandenbussche F, Van Damme EJ, Peumans WJ.Laboratory for Phytopathology and Plant Protection, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.

 A simple, but highly efficient, method was developed for the purification of monospecific antibodies against the plant glycoprotein Sambucus nigra lectin related protein. In a first step, the antiserum is purified by affinity chromatography on a column with the immobilized antigen. To deplete the affinity-purified antiserum from aspecific cross-reacting antibodies directed against the glycan part of the glycoprotein, a second affinity chromatography on an unrelated plant glycoprotein, in casu the Robinia pseudoacacia agglutinin, is included.

  The effect of Sambucol, a black elderberry-based, natural product, on the production of human cytokines: I. Inflammatory cytokines.Eur Cytokine Netw. 2001 Apr-Jun;12(2):290-6.Barak V, Halperin T, Kalickman I.Immunology Laboratory for Tumor Diagnosis, Department of Oncology, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel.

 Sambucus nigra L. products - Sambucol - are based on a standardized black elderberry extract. They are natural remedies with antiviral properties, especially against different strains of influenza virus. Sambucol was shown to be effective in vitro against 10 strains of influenza virus. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study, Sambucol reduced the duration of flu symptoms to 3-4 days. Convalescent phase serum showed a higher antibody level to influenza virus in the Sambucol group, than in the control group. The present study aimed to assess the effect of Sambucol products on the healthy immune system - namely, its effect on cytokine production. The production of inflammatory cytokines was tested using blood - derived monocytes from 12 healthy human donors. Adherent monocytes were separated from PBL and incubated with different Sambucol preparations i.e., Sambucol Elderberry Extract, Sambucol Black Elderberry Syrup, Sambucol Immune System and Sambucol for Kids. Production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8) was significantly increased, mostly by the Sambucol Black Elderberry Extract (2-45 fold), as compared to LPS, a known monocyte activator (3.6-10.7 fold). The most striking increase was noted in TNF-alpha production (44.9 fold). We conclude from this study that, in addition to its antiviral properties, Sambucol Elderberry Extract and its formulations activate the healthy immune system by increasing inflammatory cytokine production. Sambucol might therefore be beneficial to the immune system activation and in the inflammatory process in healthy individuals or in patients with various diseases. Sambucol could also have an immunoprotective or immunostimulatory effect when administered to cancer or AIDS patients, in conjunction with chemotherapeutic or other treatments. In view of the increasing popularity of botanical supplements, such studies and investigations in vitro, in vivo and in clinical trials need to be developed.

  Analysis of anthocyane glycosides in human serum.:Fresenius J Anal Chem. 2000 Feb;366(4):379-81.Murkovic M, Adam U, Pfannhauser W.Graz University of Technology, Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, Austria.

 Anthocyanins, natural food antioxidants, can be identified in human blood plasma using a restricted access phase for removal of the proteins and enrichment of the anthocyanins. In preliminary studies the spray dried elderberry juice was shown to have antioxidant activities in vitro. From the four known anthocyanins present in elderberry (Sambucus nigra) the two main components could be analysed quantitatively enabling their analysis in blood. Using a restricted access phase and a column switching set-up the injection of high volumes of concentrated protein solutions is possible. Additional, by using high injection volumes the sensitivity is increased due to a concentration of the analytes on the restricted access phase. The limit of quantification reached was 0.5 ng/mL. In this experiment the maximum concentration in blood (35 mg/mL) was observed after 1 h with a quick decay.

  Effect of signaling inhibitors on the release of lysozyme from human neutrophils activated by Sambucus nigra agglutinin.:Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000 Aug;65(8):940-5.Gorudko IV, Timoshenko AV.Department of Biophysics, Belarusian State University, Minsk, 220050, Belarus.

 The effect of alpha-NeuAc(2-->6)Gal/GalNAc-specific lectin from Sambucus nigra (SNA) on the release of lysozyme from human neutrophils was studied in vitro. Interaction of cells with the lectin was accompanied by dose-dependent release of lysozyme, which was increased in the presence of cytochalasin B. The involvement of intracellular signaling pathways in the lectin-induced degranulation of neutrophils was determined using a panel of specific inhibitors tested at concentrations in the range of 10-100 microM. Aristolochic acid (a phospholipase A2 inhibitor), indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), neomycin sulfate (a phospholipase C inhibitor), trifluoperazine (a calmodulin antagonist/protein kinase C inhibitor), N-ethylmaleimide (a sulfhydryl reagent), and guanosine-5;-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (a G-protein inhibitor) were found to reduce SNA-induced lysozyme release from neutrophils by 20-45%. The treatment of cells with bisindolylmaleimide (a protein kinase C inhibitor), H-8 (an inhibitor of protein kinases A, C, G and of myosin light chain kinase), PD 98059 (a MAP kinase inhibitor), and (+/-)-methoxyverapamil (a Ca2+-channel blocker) failed to affect the release of lysozyme. These results indicate that only selective intracellular pathways associated with activation of G-proteins and phospholipid metabolism as well as the thiol-dependent signaling systems are apparently involved in the realization of the SNA-induced degranulation response of human neutrophils.

  Beta-galactoside alpha2,6 sialyltransferase in human colon cancer: contribution of multiple transcripts to regulation of enzyme activity and reactivity with Sambucus nigra agglutinin.:Int J Cancer. 2000 Oct 1;88(1):58-65.Dall'Olio F, Chiricolo M, Ceccarelli C, Minni F, Marrano D, Santini D.Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

 Colon cancer tissues display an increased activity of beta-galactoside alpha2,6 sialyltransferase (ST6Gal.I) and an increased reactivity with the lectin from Sambucus nigra (SNA), specific for alpha2,6-sialyl-linkages. Experimental and clinical studies indicate a contribution of these alterations to tumor progression, but their molecular bases are largely unknown. In many tissues, ST6Gal.I is transcriptionally regulated through the usage of different promoters that originate mRNAs diverging in the 5;-untranslated regions. RT-PCR analysis of 14 carcinoma samples, all expressing an increased ST6Gal.I enzyme activity, and of the corresponding normal mucosa revealed the presence of at least 2 transcripts. One, containing the 5;-untranslated exons, Y+Z, is thought to represent the "housekeeping" expression, and another previously described in hepatic tissues. Both the Y+Z and the hepatic transcripts were detectable in normal and cancer tissues but that latter form had a marked tendency to accumulate in cancer. The extent of alpha2,6-sialylation of glycoconjugates, as determined by SNA-dot blot analysis, was markedly enhanced in all cancer specimens, but the level of reactivity only partially correlated with the level of enzyme expression. Western blot analysis revealed a strikingly heterogeneous pattern of SNA reactivity among cancer tissues. These data indicate that: i) during neoplastic transformation of colonic cells, ST6Gal.I expression may be modulated through a differential promoter usage; ii) the extent of alpha2,6-sialylation of cancer cell membranes is not a direct function of the ST6Gal.I activity, strongly suggesting the existence of other, more complex mechanisms of regulation.

  Olfactory and quantitative analysis of aroma compounds in elder flower (Sambucus nigra L.) drink processed from five cultivars.:J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Jun;48(6):2376-83.J?rgensen U, Hansen M, Christensen LP, Jensen K, Kaack K.Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Food Science, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Aarslev, Denmark.

 Fresh elder flowers (Sambucus nigra L.) were extracted with an aqueous solution containing sucrose, peeled lemon slices, tartaric acid, and sodium benzoate to make elder flower syrup. Aroma compounds emitted from the elder flower syrup were collected by the dynamic headspace technique and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 59 compounds were identified, 18 of which have not previously been detected in elder flower products. The concentrations of the identified volatiles were measured in five elder cultivars, Allesoe, Donau, Sambu, Sampo, and Samyl, and significant differences were detected among cultivars in the concentration levels of 48 compounds. The odor of the volatiles was evaluated by the GC-sniffing technique. cis-Rose oxide, nerol oxide, hotrienol, and nonanal contributed to the characteristic elder flower odor, whereas linalool, alpha-terpineol, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, and (Z)-beta-ocimene contributed with floral notes. Fruity odors were associated with pentanal, heptanal, and beta-damascenone. Fresh and grassy odors were primarily correlated with hexanal, hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexenol.

  The traditional plant treatment, Sambucus nigra (elder), exhibits insulin-like and insulin-releasing actions in vitro.:J Nutr. 2000 Jan;130(1):15-20.Gray AM, Abdel-Wahab YH, Flatt PR.School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, BT52 1SA, United Kingdom.

 Sambucus nigra (elder) has been documented as a traditional treatment of diabetes. In the present study, an aqueous extract of elder (AEE, 1 g/L) significantly increased 2-deoxy-glucose transport, glucose oxidation and glycogenesis of mouse abdominal muscle in the absence of added insulin (2 x 2 factorial design). in acute 20-min tests, 0.25-1 g/L AEE evoked a stepwise stimulation of insulin secretion from clonal pancreatic beta-cells. The insulin releasing effect of AEE (0.5 g/L) was significantly potentiated by 16.7 mmol/L of glucose and significantly reduced by 0.5 mmol/L of diazoxide. AEE did not further enhance insulin secretion in cells stimulated by 10 mmol/L of L-alanine, 1 mmol/L of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine or a depolarizing concentration of KCl (25 mmol/L). Prior exposure of clonal pancreatic beta-cells to AEE did not alter subsequent stimulation of insulin secretion induced by 10 mmol/L of L-alanine, thereby precluding a detrimental effect on cell viability. The insulinotropic action of AEE was partially dependent upon use of heat during extract preparation. Activity of AEE was heat-stable, acetone-insoluble and unaltered by prolonged exposure to acid/alkali (0.1 mol/L of HCl and NaOH). However, activity was significantly decreased 41% by dialysis to remove components with molecular mass <2000 Da. Sequential extraction with solvents revealed activity in both methanol and water fractions, indicating a cumulative effect of more than one extract constituent. Known constituents of elder, including lectin, rutin and the lipophilic triterpenoid (lupeol) and sterol (beta-sitosterol), did not stimulate insulin secretion. The results demonstrate the presence of insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity in the traditional antidiabetic plant, Sambucus nigra.

  Effect of extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth, Hieracium pilosella L., Sambucus nigra L. and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. in rats.:Phytother Res. 1999 May;13(3):222-5.Beaux D, Fleurentin J, Mortier F.Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, Centre des Sciences de l'Environnement, Metz, France.

 Aqueous extracts of Sambucus nigra and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and hydroalcohol extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus and Hieracium pilosella were tested for their diuretic activities in rats; pharmacological evaluation revealed that they led to an increase in urine flow. Urinary sodium excretion in rats was increased with O. stamineus and S. nigra.

  Interaction of vitamin C and flavonoids in elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) during juice processing.:Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1998;52(3):187-98.Kaack K, Austed T.Department of Food Science and Technology, Aarslev, Denmark.

 A field experiment and two oxidation experiments in the laboratory were carried out. The content of the major anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-G) and cyanidin-3-sambubioside (Cy-3-Sa), in the fresh fruits from the 13 cultivars were from 361 to 1266 and from 269 to 656 mg/100 g, respectively. The two minor anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-sambubioside-5-glucoside (Cy-3-Sa-5-G) and cyanidin-3.5-diglucoside (Cy-3.5-dG), occurred in concentrations between 5 and 47 mg/100 g. The content of ascorbic acid and quercetin in the fresh fruits of the cultivars varied from 6 to 25, and from 29 to 60 mg/100 g, respectively. Purging of the elderberry juice with N2 and/or addition of ascorbic acid reduced the oxidative degradation rate of the two major anthocyanins and quercetin. Ascorbic acid protected the anthocyanins, but not quercetin from oxidative degradation. Mixing of fruits with air during processing and even a low content of oxygen in the juice before tapping must be avoided by appropriate steps during processing. Improvement of the nutritional value of the elderberry juice and increased protection of anthocyanins against oxidative degradation may potentially be obtained by selection of cultivars with a high content of ascorbic acid.

  Histochemical localization of glycoconjugates on microglial cells in Alzheimer's disease brain samples by using Abrus precatorius, Maackia amurensis, Momordica charantia, and Sambucus nigra lectins.:Exp Neurol. 1998 Sep;153(1):167-71.Zambenedetti P, Giordano R, Zatta P.Department of Biology, University of Padova, Italy.

 Four lectins (Abrus precatorius (APA), Maackia amurensis (MAA), Momordica charantia (MCA) and Sambucus nigra (SNA)) have been used to identify glycohistochemically the microglial cells (MGC) activation in autoptic brain samples from Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects. Three of these lectins (APA, MAA and MCA) have utilized as microglial cell markers for the first time. The identification of new markers for the study of MGC is very important to better understand the role of these type of cells in the metabolic/dismetabolic control of betaA4 in AD which still represents a vexata questio.

  Constitutive and inducible type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) in elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.).:FEBS Lett. 1998 May 22;428(1-2) Benito FM, Iglesias R, Ferreras JM, Citores L, Camafeita E, Méndez E, Girbés T.Departamento de Bioquímica y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Spain.

 Two novel highly basic type 1 (single chain) ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) with N-glycosidase activity have been found in elderberries (the fruits of Sambucus nigra L.). Mass spectrometry of these RIPs, which we named nigritins f1 and f2, gave Mr values of 24095 and 23 565, respectively. Both proteins strongly inhibited protein synthesis in rabbit reticulocyte lysates but were inactive against plant ribosomes. Both nigritins have a similar topological activity on pBlueScript SK+ DNA as that displayed by dianthin 30. Nigritin f1 is a constitutive RIP since it is present in both green and mature intact elderberries at nearly the same proportion with respect to total fruit protein. By contrast, nigritin f2 is inducible and only appeared in mature intact elderberries. Elderberries also contain two isoforms of a basic nigrin equivalent to the recently found basic nigrin b in elder bark (De Benito et al., FEBS Letters 413 (1997) 85-91). Our results indicate that probably not all plant RIPs exert the same biological function and that this may be determined by the physiological state of the tissue.

  Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) contains truncated Neu5Ac(alpha-2,6)Gal/GalNAc-binding type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins.:FEBS Lett. 1998 Mar 20;425(1):35-9.Peumans WJ, Roy S, Barre A, Rouge P, van Leuven F, van Damme EJ.Laboratory for Phytopathology and Plant Protection, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.

 Analysis of affinity-purified preparations of the fetuin-binding proteins from elderberry bark and fruits revealed besides the previously reported Neu5Ac(alpha-2,6)Gal/GalNAc-specific type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIP) the occurrence of single chain proteins of 22 kDa, which according to their N-terminal amino acid sequence correspond to the second part of the B chain of the respective type 2 RIP. Both proteins are very similar except that the polypeptides of the fruit lectin are 10 amino acid residues longer than these from the bark lectin. Our findings not only demonstrate the occurrence of carbohydrate-binding fragments of type 2 RIP but also provide further evidence that type 2 RIP genes give rise to complex mixtures of type 2 RIP/lectins in elderberry.

  N-acetylneuraminic acids (nana): a potential key in renal calculogenesis.:Urol Res. 1998;26(1):49-56.Hofbauer J, Fang-Kircher S, Steiner G, Wiener H, Susani M, Simak R, Ghoneim MA, Marberger M.Department of Urology, University of Vienna Medical School, Austria.

 N-Acetylneuraminic acids (NANA) promote binding of calcium ions to macromolecules and cells, increase the intrinsic viscosity of glycoproteins and facilitate gel formation in water. Since these properties are crucial in urinary calculogenesis, we evaluated NANA levels in urine and serum as well as their expression in kidney tissues. Using a modified thiobarbituric acid assay, the evaluation of free and bound NANA in 24-h urine samples revealed a ratio of 1.87 in 33 non-stone-formers but a reversed ratio of 0.84 in 41 recurrent calcium oxalate stone-formers. Time kinetics revealed a gradual rise in NANA expression until 48 h of culture and a significantly higher release into supernatants of papillary renal epithelial cells (REC) when compared with cortical REC. To examine NANA distribution in kidney tissues, paraffin-embedded biopsies from five normal and six stone-forming kidneys were labeled with the biotinylated NANA-specific lectins Maackia amurensis (MAA) and Sambucus nigra (SNA). Immunohistochemistry revealed intense luminal MAA reactivity of distal tubular REC and collecting ducts in 96.7% and 91.5% of normal and stone-forming kidneys respectively. By contrast, there was a marked difference between normal and stone-forming kidneys for SNA reactivity (17.7% vs 95%) at the same locations. Finally, the glycocalyx of recurrent stone-formers showed altered sialylglycoside linkages [alpha(2,6) instead of alpha(2,3)] that may indicate an altered REC function. Given the calcium-binding potential of NANA, their increased local concentration within the glycocalyx layer in the distal nephron may either initiate stone formation or facilitate attachment of microcrystals to REC.

  The major elderberry (Sambucus nigra) fruit protein is a lectin derived from a truncated type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein.:Plant J. 1997 Dec;12(6):1251-60.Van Damme EJ, Roy S, Barre A, Rougé P, Van Leuven F, Peumans WJ.Laboratory for Phytopathology and Plant Protection, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.

 The major protein of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) fruits is a lectin, called Sambucus nigra agglutinin IVf or SNAIVf. This lectin is composed of subunits that strongly resemble the B chain of the type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), called SNAVf, present in the same tissue. To corroborate the possible relationship between both proteins their corresponding cDNAs were cloned and compared. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the cDNA encoding SNAIVf is almost identical to that of SNAVf except that its A chain is truncated. Northern blot analysis confirmed that the mRNA encoding SNAIVf is about 500 nucleotides shorter than the SNAVf mRNA. In addition, the occurrence of a truncated type 2 RIP gene was unambiguously demonstrated by the analysis of PCR amplified genomic sequences. These results not only demonstrate for the first time that a plant lectin is encoded by a truncated type 2 RIP gene but also address important questions with respect to the molecular evolution of RIP and lectins.

  Isolation and partial characterization of a novel and uncommon two-chain 64-kDa ribosome-inactivating protein from the bark of elder (Sambucus nigra L.).:FEBS Lett. 1997 Aug 11;413(1) Benito FM, Citores L, Iglesias R, Ferreras JM, Camafeita E, Méndez E, Girbés T.Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Spain.

 A novel, strongly basic, two-chain ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) with an apparent Mr of 64000 by SDS-PAGE and 63469 by mass spectrometry analysis, that we have named basic nigrin b, has been found in the bark of elder (Sambucus nigra L.). The new protein does not agglutinate red blood cells, even at high concentrations and displays an unusually and extremely high activity towards animal ribosomes (IC50 of 18 pg/ml for translation by rabbit reticulocyte lysates). However, it is inactive against plant and HeLa cells protein synthesis. Our functional and structural data are consistent with a heterodimeric structure for basic nigrin b of the type A-B*, B* being a truncated lectin lacking functional binding domains equivalent to the B (lectin) chain of the type 2 RIP SNA I and nigrin b present also in elder bark.

  Characterization of a new non-toxic two-chain ribosome-inactivating protein and a structurally-related lectin from rhizomes of dwarf elder (Sambucus ebulus L.).:Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1997 Jun;43(4):485-99.Citores L, De Benito FM, Iglesias R, Ferreras JM, Argüeso P, Jiménez P, Testera A, Camafeita E, Méndez E, Girbés T.Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Valladolid, Spain

 A new N-glycosidase ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) belonging to the novel family of the nontoxic type 2 RIPs from Sambucaceae has been isolated from rhizomes of dwarf elder (Sambucus ebulus L.) and named ebulin r. Dwarf elder rhizomes also contain a novel monomeric N-Ac-galactosamine-binding lectin that we named SEAII. Ebulin r and SEAII have two isoforms each one, which were readily resolved by ion exchange. Both isoforms of ebulin (ebulins r1 and r2) strongly inhibited protein synthesis in mammalian but not in plant ribosomes by promoting depurination of sensitive ribosomes. Ebulin r and SEAII have apparent molecular masses of 56 and 33.5 kDa, respectively. Ebulins r1 and r2 are composed of two dissimilar subunits (types A-B) of apparent molecular masses of 26 and 30 kDa by disulphide bridges. The rhizome SEAII and the lectins SNA II and SNA III from elder (Sambucus nigra L.) share good amino acid sequence homology. This rhizome ebulin-A chain is more sequence-related to RIP members of cucurbitaceae than to any other plant family. The rhizome ebulin B chain shares a large homology in amino acid sequence with ebulin 1-B chain and SEAII. Anti-ebulin 1 polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits reacted better with ebulin r1 than with ebulin r2, thus suggesting that both RIP isoforms could have some differences.

  Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) bark contains two structurally different Neu5Ac(alpha2,6)Gal/GalNAc-binding type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins.:Eur J Biochem. 1997 May 1;245(3):648-55.Van Damme EJ, Roy S, Barre A, Citores L, Mostafapous K, Rougé P, Van Leuven F, Girbés T, Goldstein IJ, Peumans WJ.Laboratory for Phytopathology and Plant Protection, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.

 A second NeuAc(alpha2,6)Gal/GalNAc binding type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), called SNAI' has been isolated from elderberry (Sambucus nigra) bark. SNAI' is a minor bark protein which closely resembles the previously described major Neu5Ac(alpha2,6)Gal/GalNAc binding type 2 RIP called SNAI with respect to its carbohydrate-binding specificity and ribosome-inactivating activity but has a different molecular structure. Molecular cloning revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of SNAI' is highly similar to that of SNAI and that the difference in molecular structure between both proteins relies on a single cysteine residue present in the B chain of SNAI but absent from SNAI'. The isolation of SNAI' not only identifies a minor bark protein as a type 2 RIP but also further emphasizes the complexity of the type 2 RIP/lectin mixture present in the bark of elderberry.

  Isolation and molecular cloning of a novel type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein with an inactive B chain from elderberry (Sambucus nigra) bark.:J Biol Chem. 1997 Mar 28;272(13):8353-60.Van Damme EJ, Barre A, Rougé P, Van Leuven F, Peumans WJ.Laboratory for Phytopathology and Plant Protection, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 42, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.

 One of the predominant proteins in the bark of elderberry (Sambucus nigra) has been identified as a novel type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein that exhibits a normal RNA N-glycosidase activity, but is devoid of carbohydrate binding activity. Sequence analysis of the corresponding cDNA clones revealed a striking homology to the previously cloned bark lectins from elderberry, suggesting that the new protein is a lectin-related protein. Molecular modeling of the protein confirmed that its A chain is fully active, whereas its B chain contains two functionally inactive carbohydrate-binding sites. These findings not only demonstrate for the first time the occurrence of a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein with an inactive B chain, but also offer interesting perspectives for the synthesis of immunotoxins with an improved selectivity.

  Toxicity and cytotoxicity of nigrin b, a two-chain ribosome-inactivating protein from Sambucus nigra: comparison with ricin.:Arch Toxicol. 1997;71(6):360-4. Battelli MG, Citores L, Buonamici L, Ferreras JM, de Benito FM, Stirpe F, Girbés T.Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, Bologna, Italy.

 Nigrin b, a lectin isolated from the bark of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.), has structure and enzymatic activity similar to that of ricin and other type 2 ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs), and yet is much less toxic to cells and animals. In an attempt to explain this difference, we studied (1) the cytotoxicity of both lectins at 18 and 37 degrees C, and in the presence of substances interfering with intracellular routing, and (2) the binding of nigrin b to, and its uptake and degradation by HeLa cells, in parallel with ricin. As compared with the latter, (1) less nigrin b was bound and more was degraded by cells, with a resulting lower concentration remaining inside the cells, and (2) there is evidence for a different intracellular routing followed by the two lectins. These results may explain at least partly the different cytotoxicity and consequently the lower toxicity to mice of nigrin b compared with ricin.

  Characterization and molecular cloning of Sambucus nigra agglutinin V (nigrin b), a GalNAc-specific type-2 ribosome-inactivating protein from the bark of elderberry (Sambucus nigra).:Eur J Biochem. 1996 Apr 15;237(2):505-13.Van Damme EJ, Barre A, Rougé P, Van Leuven F, Peumans WJ.Laboratory for Phytopathology and Plant Protection, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.

 The molecular structure of the Sambucus nigra agglutinin V (SNAV), which has been described previously as a type-2 ribosome-inactivating protein called nigrin b, has been studied in detail by analysis of the purified protein combined with cDNA cloning and molecular modelling. Native SNAV is a dimer of two [A-s-s-B] pairs. Hapten inhibition assays indicated that GalNAc is a 20-fold more potent inhibitor of SNAV than Gal. A cDNA clone encoding SNAV was isolated from a cDNA library constructed with mRNA from the bark. Sequence analysis of this cDNA revealed a striking similarity to the recently cloned NeuAc alpha-2,6-gal/GalNAc-specific S. nigra bark agglutinin I (SNAI) and to the previously sequenced type-2 ribosome-inactivating proteins from Ricinus communis and Abrus precatorius. In addition, molecular modelling of SNAV further suggested that its structure closely resembles that of ricin. The N-terminal sequence of the B chain of SNAV also shows a marked similarity with the polypeptide of the previously described GalNAc-specific s. nigra bark agglutinin II (SNAII), which unlike SNAV and SNAI has no ribosome-inactivating activity. It appears, therefore, that elderberry bark contains at least two different type-2 ribosome-inactivating proteins and a lectin built up of subunits which are closely related to the B chain of SNAV.

  Sialylated oligosaccharide-specific plant lectin from elderberry (Sambucus sieboldiana) bark tissue has a homologous structure to type II ribosome-inactivating proteins, ricin and abrin. cDNA cloning and molecular modeling study.:J Biol Chem. 1996 Jan 19;271(3):1480-5.

 Bark lectins from the elderberry species belonging to the genus Sambucus have a unique carbohydrate binding specificity for sialylated glycoconjugates containing NeuAc(alpha 2-6)Gal/GalNAc sequence. To elucidate the structure of the elderberry lectin, a cDNA library was constructed from the mRNA isolated from the bark tissue of Japanese elderberry (Sambucus sieboldiana) with lambda gt11 phage and screened with anti-S. sieboldiana agglutinin (SSA) antibody. The nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding full-length SSA (LecSSA1) showed the presence of an open reading frame with 1902 base pairs, which corresponded to 570 amino acid residues. This open reading frame encoded a signal peptide and a linker region (19 amino acid residues) between the two subunits of SSA, the hydrophobic (A-chain) and hydrophilic (B-chain) subunits. This indicates that SSA is synthesized as a preproprotein and post-translationally cleaved into two mature subunits. Homology searching as well as molecular modeling studies unexpectedly revealed that each subunit of SSA has a highly homologous structure to the galactose-specific lectin subunit and ribosome-inactivating subunit of plant toxic proteins such as ricin and abrin, indicating a close evolutionary relationship between these carbohydrate-binding proteins.

  The NeuAc(alpha-2,6)-Gal/GalNAc-binding lectin from elderberry (Sambucus nigra) bark, a type-2 ribosome-inactivating protein with an unusual specificity and structure.:Eur J Biochem. 1996 Jan 15;235(1-2):128-37.Van Damme EJ, Barre A, Rougé P, Van Leuven F, Peumans WJ.Laboratory for Phytopathology and Plant Protection, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.

 The cDNA encoding the NeuAc(alpha-2,6)Gal/GalNAc binding lectin from elderberry (Sambucus nigra) bark (SNAI) was isolated from a cDNA library constructed with mRNA from the bark. Sequence analysis of this lectin cDNA revealed a striking similarity to the previously sequenced type-2 ribosome-inactivating proteins from Ricinus communis and Abrus precatorius. Molecular modelling of SNAI further indicated that its structure closely resembles that of ricin. Since SNAI strongly inhibits cell-free protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate it presumably is a type-2 ribosome-inactivating protein. However, SNAI differs from all previously described type-2 ribosome-inactivating proteins by its specificity towards NeuAc(alpha-2,6)Gal/GalNAc and its unusual molecular structure.

  Inhibition of several strains of influenza virus in vitro and reduction of symptoms by an elderberry extract (Sambucus nigra L.) during an outbreak of influenza B Panama.:J Altern Complement Med. 1995 Winter;1(4):361-9.Zakay-Rones Z, Varsano N, Zlotnik M, Manor O, Regev L, Schlesinger M, Mumcuoglu M.Department of Virology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.

 A standardized elderberry extract, Sambucol (SAM), reduced hemagglutination and inhibited replication of human influenza viruses type A/Shangdong 9/93 (H3N2), A/Beijing 32/92 (H3N2), A/Texas 36/91 (H1N1), A/Singapore 6/86 (H1N1), type B/Panama 45/90, B/Yamagata 16/88, B/Ann Arbor 1/86, and of animal strains from Northern European swine and turkeys, A/Sw/Ger 2/81, A/Tur/Ger 3/91, and A/Sw/Ger 8533/91 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. A placebo-controlled, double blind study was carried out on a group of individuals living in an agricultural community (kibbutz) during an outbreak of influenza B/Panama in 1993. Fever, feeling of improvement, and complete cure were recorded during 6 days. Sera obtained in the acute and convalescent phases were tested for the presence of antibodies to influenza A, B, respiratory syncytial, and adenoviruses. Convalescent phase serologies showed higher mean and mean geometric hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers to influenza B in the group treated with SAM than in the control group. A significant improvement of the symptoms, including fever, was seen in 93.3% of the cases in the SAM-treated group within 2 days, whereas in the control group 91.7% of the patients showed an improvement within 6 days (p < 0.001). A complete cure was achieved within 2 to 3 days in nearly 90% of the SAM-treated group and within at least 6 days in the placebo group (p < 0.001). No satisfactory medication to cure influenza type A and B is available. Considering the efficacy of the extract in vitro on all strains of influenza virus tested, the clinical results, its low cost, and absence of side-effects, this preparation could offer a possibility for safe treatment for influenza A and B.

  Isolation and partial characterization of nigrin b, a non-toxic novel type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein from the bark of Sambucus nigra L.:Plant Mol Biol. 1993 Sep;22(6):1181-6.Girbés T, Citores L, Ferreras JM, Rojo MA, Iglesias R, Mu?oz R, Arias FJ, Calonge M, García JR, Méndez E.Departamento de Bioquimíca y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Spain.

 The bark of Sambucus nigra L. contains a non-toxic novel type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein that we named nigrin b. In vitro, nigrin b strongly inhibited mammalian protein synthesis but did not affect plant nor bacterial protein synthesis. The protein (M(r) 58,000) contains two subunits, A (M(r) 26,000) and B (M(r) 32,000); linked by disulphide bridge(s). Nigrin b was found to be an rRNA N-glycosidase of the rRNA of intact mammalian ribosomes and shares a very good N-terminal amino-acid sequence homology with the anti-HIV-1 proteins TAP 29 and trichosanthin.

  The interaction of elderberry (Sambucus sieboldiana) bark lectin and sialyloligosaccharides as detected by 1H-NMR.:J Biochem. 1992 Jul;112(1):143-6.Takesada H, Shibuya N, Nagashima N.Central Research Laboratories, Ajinomoto Co., Inc., Kanagawa.

 The interaction of Japanese elderberry bark lectin (Sambucus sieboldiana agglutinin, SSA) with carbohydrate was investigated by 1H-NMR. When a low affinity ligand, methyl beta-D-galactoside (beta MeGal), was mixed with SSA, each proton signal of beta MeGal was broadened. The signal of H-4 was markedly broad, while those of H-1, OCH3, and H-2 of beta MeGal were rather sharp. The specific broadening of Gal H-4 was more evident when SSA was mixed with methyl-beta-D-lactoside (beta MeLac). Position-dependent signal broadening suggests that beta MeGal binds to SSA such that H-4 is closely involved in the contact region, but H-1, OCH3, and H-2 are far from this region. In the case of a high affinity ligand, Neu5Ac(alpha 2-6)Gal(beta 1-4)Glc(= N6L), ligand signals of the SSA-N6L mixture did not change at all. But when a small amount of N6L was added to the SSA-beta MeGal mixture, the broad signals of bound beta MeGal became dramatically sharp. This indicates that the added N6L molecules liberated the bound beta MeGal from SSA. On the other hand, the sialyllactose with the alpha(2-3)-linkage(= N3L) could not substitute for bound beta MeGal because of its lower affinity. This demonstrates that the competitive binding experiment between two ligands is a useful technique to detect the interaction of lectins with high affinity ligands which could not be observed directly by NMR signal broadening and/or chemical shift change.

  Separation of flavonol-2-O-glycosides from Calendula officinalis and Sambucus nigra by high-performance liquid and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.:J Chromatogr. 1992 Feb 28;593(1-2):165-70.Pietta P, Bruno A, Mauri P, Rava A.Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy.

 Calendula officinalis and Sambucus nigra flowers were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC). RP-HPLC was performed on C8 Aquapore RP 300 columns with eluents containing 2-propanol and tetrahydrofuran. MECC was carried out on a 72-cm fused-silica capillary using sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium borate (pH 8.3) as the running buffer. The results obtained by these techniques are compared.

  Purification and partial characterization of a novel lectin from elder (Sambucus nigra L.) fruit.:Biochem J. 1991 Sep 15;278 ( Pt 3):667-71. Mach L, Scherf W, Ammann M, Poetsch J, Bertsch W, M?rz L, Gl?ssl J.Zentrum für Angewandte Genetik, Universit?t für Bodenkultur, Vienna, Austria

 A previously unknown haemagglutinin, named Sambucus nigra agglutinin-III (SNA-III), has been purified from the fruit of the elder (Sambucus nigra). Whereas elder bark agglutinin I (SNA-I) is highly specific for terminal alpha 2,6-linked sialic acid residues, SNA-III displays a high affinity for oligosaccharides containing exposed N-acetylgalactosamine and galactose residues. Different N-terminal sequences and the amino acid composition distinguish the fruit lectin from elder bark agglutinin II (SNA-II), which shows a similar carbohydrate specificity. The 40-fold higher affinity of SNA-III for asialofetuin than for human asialo-alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and human asialotransferrin respectively suggests a preference for O-linked glycans. SNA-III occurs mainly as a monomeric glycoprotein, but tends to form di- and oligo-meric aggregates. This aggregation seems to mediate the multivalent interaction, leading to agglutination. SDS/PAGE revealed two major polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 32 and 33 kDa respectively. This heterogeneity is probably a result of proteolysis in the C-terminal region. Binding to concanavalin A and susceptibility to peptide: N-glycosidase F indicated the presence of N-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides.

  Isolation and characterization of a seed lectin from elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) and its relationship to the bark lectins.:Carbohydr Res. 1991 Jun 25;213:7-17.Peumans WJ, Kellens JT, Allen AK, Van Damme EJ.Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Fakulteit der Landbouwwetenschappen, Laboratorium voor Fytopathologie en Plantenbescherming, Belgium.

 A third elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) lectin (SNA-III) has been isolated from dry seeds by affinity chromatography on immobilized 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose. This lectin is a blood-group, nonspecific glycoprotein containing 21% of carbohydrate, and is rich in asparagine (or aspartic acid), serine, glutamine (or glutamic acid), and glycine. Gel filtration on Superose 12 yielded a single symmetrical peak corresponding to mol. wt. 50,000, SDS-poly(acrylamide) gel (SDS-PAGE) electrophoresis showed a single polypeptide band of 33 kDa, indicating that the native protein is a dimer of identical subunits. Hapten-inhibition assays of the agglutination of red blood cells showed that 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose is the best inhibitor, being twice as potent as D-galactose, melibiose, and 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-galactose. A comparison of SNA-III to the previously described elderberry-bark lectins, SNA-I and SNA-II, indicated that the seed lectin is well distinct from them.

  A method of selective histochemical analysis of sialoglycoproteins using lectins from elder (Sambucus nigra L.).:Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1991 Jan;111(1):71-4. Russian.Iatskovski? AN, Lutsik AD.

 Good potentialities in application of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) bark lectin for selective histochemical identification of sialylated glycoconjugates has been demonstrated using lectin-peroxidase technique. In order to omit this lectin binding to D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues, preincubation of tissue sections with non-marked PNA and SBA (or other lectins with similar carbohydrate specificity) is proposed. By means of neuraminidase digestion it has been ascertained, that oligosaccharide chains of secretory glycopolymers, synthesised in ovine submandibular gland mucocytes, contain DGal and DGalNAc residues penultimate to terminal sialic acids.

  Isolation and characterization of a second lectin (SNA-II) present in elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) bark.:Arch Biochem Biophys. 1990 Mar;277(2):255-62.Kaku H, Peumans WJ, Goldstein IJ.Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109.

 A second lectin (SNA-II) has been isolated from elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) bark by affinity chromatography on immobilized asialo-glycophorin. This lectin is a blood group nonspecific glycoprotein containing 7.8% carbohydrate and which is rich in asparagine/aspartic acid, glutamine/glutamic acid, glycine, valine, and leucine. Gel filtration on Superose 12 gave a single symmetrical peak corresponding to Mr, 51,000; SDS-acrylamide electrophoresis gave a single polypeptide, Mr, 30,000. Hence SNA-II appears to be a homodimer. The lectin is a Gal/GalNAc-specific lectin which is precipitated by glycoproteins containing GalNAc-terminated oligosaccharide chains (e.g., asialo-ovine submaxillary and hog gastric mucins), and by glycoproteins and polysaccharides having multiple terminal nonreducing D-galactosyl groups as occur in asialoglycophorin, asialo-laminin and Type 14 pneumococcal polysaccharide. The carbohydrate binding specificity of SNA-II was studied by sugar hapten inhibition of the asialo-glycophorin precipitation reaction. The lectin's binding site appears to be most complementary to Gal-NAc linked alpha to the C-2, C-3, or C-6 hydroxyl group of galactose. These disaccharide units are approximately 100 times more potent than melibiose, 60 times more potent than N-acetyllactosamine, and 30 times more potent than lactose. Interestingly, the blood group A-active trisaccharide containing an L-fucosyl group linked alpha 1-2 to galactose was 10-fold poorer as an inhibitor than the parent oligosaccharide (GalNAc alpha 1-3Gal), suggesting steric hindrance to binding by the alpha-L-fucosyl group; this explains the failure of the lectin to exhibit blood group A specificity.

  A comparative study of bark lectins from three elderberry (Sambucus) species.:J Biochem. 1989 Dec;106(6):1098-103.Shibuya N, Tazaki K, Song ZW, Tarr GE, Goldstein IJ, Peumans WJ.National Food Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Ibaraki.

 Three elderberry lectins isolated from the bark of three different species of the genus Sambucus which are native to Europe (S. nigra), North America (S. canadensis), and Japan (S. sieboldiana) were studied comparatively with regard to their carbohydrate binding properties and some structural features. All three lectins contained two identical carbohydrate binding sites per molecule and showed a very high specificity for the Neu5Ac(alpha 2-6)-Gal/GalNAc sequence. However, relative affinities for various oligosaccharides were significantly different among them, suggesting differences in the detailed structure of the carbohydrate binding sites of these lectins. The three lectins were immunologically related, but not identical, and all were composed of hydrophobic and hydrophilic subunit regions, although the molecular sizes of these subunits were slightly different among the three lectins. N-terminal sequence analysis of the subunits of these lectins suggested that they have a very similar structure in this region but also indicated the occurrence of N-terminal processing such as the deletion of several amino acid residues at the N-termini for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic subunits of all three lectins. Tryptic peptide mapping of the three lectins showed a similar pattern for all of them but also showed the presence of some unique peptides for each lectin.

  Seasonal Fluctuations of Lectins in Barks of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) and Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia).:Plant Physiol. 1986 Mar;80(3):747-751.Nsimba-Lubaki M, Peumans WJ.Laboratorium voor Plantenbiochemie, Kuleuven, Kardinaal Mercierlaan 92, 3030 Leuven, Belgium.

 Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) agglutinins, which are abundantly present in the bark of both species, display seasonal fluctuations with regard to their content in this tissue. These seasonal changes result apparently from a circa-annual rhythm of lectin accumulation and depletion during autumn and spring, respectively. Because the bark of trees can be considered as a type of vegetative storage tissue, the results suggest that bark lectins behave as typical storage proteins.

  A lectin from elder (Sambucus nigra L.) bark.:Biochem J. 1984 Jul 1;221(1):163-9.Broekaert WF, Nsimba-Lubaki M, Peeters B, Peumans WJ.

 A lectin was isolated from elder (Sambucus nigra) bark by affinity chromatography on fetuin-agarose. It is a tetrameric molecule (Mr 140000) composed of two different subunits of Mr 34500 and 37500 respectively, held together by intramolecular disulphide bridges. The lectin is a glycoprotein and is especially rich in asparagine/aspartic acid, glutamine/glutamic acid, valine and leucine. It is also the first lectin isolated from a species belonging to the plant family Caprifoliaceae.

  A new anti-H lectin.:Folia Haematol Int Mag Klin Morphol Blutforsch. 1980;107(2):299-304.Prodanov P, Atanasova N.

 The results of serological investigations of a new anti-H lectin obtained from the leaves of Sambucus nigra are presented. In saline extracts the lectin is useful for investigating the ABO secretors' status, A-subgroups and absorption-elution experiments as well.


  • 1.Sambucus nigra,Black elder,Elderberry and its narration literature.

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  • Name:Elderberry Extract
  • Serie No:R074.
  • Specifications:10:1 TLC.
  • EINECS/ELINCS No.:283-259-4
  • CAS:84603-58-7
  • Chem/IUPAC Name:Sambucus Nigra Berry Extract is an extract of the berries of the elder,Sambucus nigra,Caprifoliaceae
  • Other Names:Sambucus Nigra,European elder,Sambucus canadensis,American elder,Holunder,Sureau,Sauco,Autum-Flowering Elder,Blue Elderberry,bourtree,Bore Tree,danewort,dwarf elder,Hylantree,Sweet Elderberry,Sambucus cerulea var. mexicana,Sambucus orbiculata,Sambucus simpsonii,Sambucus caerulea,Sambucus ebulus,Sambucus pubens,Sambucus racemosa,Sambreo,Jie Gu Mu Guo.

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Elderberry Extract INCI Name Sambucus Nigra Berry Extract CAS 84603-58-7 EINECS ELINCS No 283-259-4 Drupe European elder American Elderberry Sambucus canadensis L

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