What is Sea Buckthorn,Hippophae rhamnoides L,Sea Buckthorn Berry,Argousier,Sanddorn,Finbar,Homokt?Seabuckthorn and its History?
- Basic Botanical Data of Sea Buckthorn.
- Sea-Buckthorn(Hippophae rhamnoides L.).
- Phytochemicals and Properties of Sea-Buckthorn berries.
- Nutritional Values of Sea-Buckthorn berries.
- What is the secret of Sea-Buckthorn berries?.
- Wonder-working berries,antioxidant and wide uses.
- Typical composition of the Sea Buckthorn Fruit Extract.
- History of Sea Buckthorn.
- Research Update:Sea Buckthorn or Hippophae rhamnoides.
Sea-Buckthorn(Hippophae rhamnoides L.).:
A decidious Shrub growing to 6m by 2.5m at a medium rate.It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen from September to October. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. It can fix Nitrogen.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.
Sea-buckthorn was introduced from Eurasia and is sometimes found naturalized in the wild. This shrub or small tree is drought resistant and well adapted for growth on sandy soil and steep slopes. It also possesses some tolerance to salinity.
In the Far East, Sea Buckthorn has been used as a popular remedy for skin irritation, sunburn, wounds, inflammation, gastric problems, coughs, and mucous membrane disorders.
In the 1940s, Russian scientists began to research the active ingredients of the leaves and berries of Sea Buckthorn. In the many following studies,not only have all the curative properties been confirmed, but it was found that Sea Buckthorn berries are one of the most nutritious foods on earth.Looking at the contents is almost like reading a super food label.Because of its nutritional value, China planted in the beginning of the 1980s 300,000 ha of sea buckthorn. Today it has 150 factories which produce about 200 different sea buckthorn products.
Among its many other benefits, medical researchers found the effect of Sea Buckthorn on the skin, restoration of the mucous system and the digestive system the strongest. The high concentration of some rare fatty acids and cartenoids are thought to be the cause of the healing effect Sea Buckthorn has on such skin problems as burns, dermatitis and eczema.
Hospitals in Russia and China are using it for eczema, bed sores, burns and radiation injuries. Sea Buckthorn was used in Chernobyl after the reactor accident in 1986.
When I was researching herb information for this article, I ran into one which has not much recorded history, although it has been used for a minimum of 1,200 years. As usual, the Greeks were the first ones to note its medical use. They fed the leaves to their horses, whose coats turned very shiny,and the horses gained remarkable weight. This is how Sea Buckthorn got its Latin name. 'Hippo' stands for horse and 'phaos' means to shine.
Site Selection/Spacing/Rooting Depth:
Sea buckthorn does not like dry conditions and grows best in areas receiving 16 to 24 inches (400 to 600 mm) of precipitation. Best growth occurs in deep, well drained, sandy loam soil with high organic matter. Sea buckthorn can be grown in very poor soils including river banks, steep slopes, and acid and alkaline soils. Sea buckthorn is also salt tolerant. Sea buckthorn grows on soils with a pH of 5.5 to 8.3 but does best with soil pH between six and seven. Plants should be spaced three feet (1 m) between plants and 13 feet (4 m) between rows. No information is known about root depth and spread. Sea buckthorn is a nitrogen fixing plant.
Pisha Sandstone Plant:Sea Buckthorn
Various plant grows since ancient years of earth time,different species required different conditions of soil,water and others.Pisha Sandstone was named as "Cancer of the Earth",yet a vivid plant survived and growing vividly on this kind of stone,Sea Buckthorn is just this mysterious plant!Pisha Sandstone is a kind of stone composed of sand granules and spread to high land cold area,where water is hard to find,there is no other plant but Sea Buckthorn can survive on Pisha sandstone.
Sea-buckthorn will reach a height of 2 to 5 metres and has a tendency to sucker if the roots are injured. Male and female flowers are produced on separate plants. Both are required in a stand for fruit production.The branches are grey and spiny with silvery-white leaves. Small yellowish flowers appear in spring before the leaves and attractive yellowish-orange berries follow. The berries remain on the tree through winter.
Sea Buckthorn belong to defoliate shrub or small arbor,height 1~2 meters,thick thorn.flower colored yellow green,dioecism .Sea Buckthron grows out many leaves and branches,systems of roots,growing fast and into small forest in 3~5 years,it really a good source to protect water and soil,its advantage released out expecially at drought barren area,high zoology value than other plants.Sea Buckthorn flower sprout out before leaves and pollination by wind,flowers hard to differentiate male and female,opposite to flowers, fruit of sea buckthorn colors fresh and pretty,red,orange,orange yellow,yellow color normally.
The berries contain 10 different vitamins, 24 trace elements, 18 amino acids, are rich in proteins and many bioactive substances. The vitamin C content is one of the highest, after rosehips, cayenne pepper and red sweet peppers, found on the planet. They are also on the top of the list for vitamin E, beta carotene and flavonoid content.
Sea Buckthorn origins from temperate zone of ancient land as early as 25~40 million years before.In long history of lithosphere flux,pass baptism of ice age, interglacial age,loess process,and rising of Himalayas,its character of its biology and ecologydeveloped and evolve to drought resistant,cold resistant,barren resistant,thus became such a kind of precious plant with strong ecological adaptability,sophisticated metabolism,nutritious and contains large amount of phytochemicals.
The fruit is orange when ripe at the end of August/beginning of September and is very difficult harvest. Although the fruit is ripe, it is not easily removed from the tree. Estimates of 600 hours/acre (1500 hours/hectare) for fruit harvesting can be expected. Mechanical harvesters have been tried with little success. Other techniques of removing the branch from the tree work well but it is still very labour intensive. Work is ongoing to find economical ways to harvest the fruit. Expected yields are around 11 to 15 lb. (5 to 7 kg) per plant or 1.8 to 2.2 tons/acre or (4 to 5 t/ha).
Sea buckthorn is a deciduous winter-hardy shrub with yellow to orange 6 to 8 mm small berries, which remain on the shrubs throughout the winter . Sea buckthorn reaches 2 to 5 m in height. The sea buckthorn's leaves are alternate and narrow are silver-grey colored. The small, yellow flowers appear in spring before leaves. Both male and female sea buckthorn plants are needed for fruit production. Sea buckthorn is used for land reclamation and to prevent soil erosion because of its extensive root system and its ability to fix nitrogen and other nutrients.
About the name:
Sea Buckthorn is spelled sometime together as Seabuckthorn or SeaBuckthorn. The correct English spelling is Sea Buckthorn. The name might be related to the fact, that in England the spiny shrubs and trees ( it can grow either way, depending of the soil and climate) of Sea Buckthorn used to grow on sand dunes along the sea beaches. Similarly, the German name for Sea Buckthorn - Sanddorn may be translated as sand spine. In recent years, due to the expansion of Sea Buckthorn products into many new markets, the combined spelling: Seabuckthorn or SeaBuckthorn became quite popular as well. It is also worth mentioning that Sea Buckthorn has nothing in common with Buckthorn. These are two different plants from different families.
Sea Buckthorn is called Oblepikha in Russia, Sanddorn in Germany, Argousier in France, Espino Armarillo in Spain, Finbar in Sweden, Tindved in Denmark, Rokitnik in Poland, Yashildoo Chatsargana in Mongolia. Tradition of medicinal use of Sea Buckthorn in Central Asia regions stretching around the Himalayas (Mongolia, Russia, China) most probably has been acquired from Tibetan medicine. Indeed, Sea Buckthorn is a traditional component of Tibetan herbal medicines where it is called Star-Bu or D'har-Bu.
In recent years people have discovered the many potential benefits of antioxidants in the diet, and the pharmaceutical industry has raced to synthesize more and more powerful varieties of them. But in chasing new discoveries we have forgotten a time-honored natural source of antioxidants: Sea-Buckthorn berries.
Succeeds in most soils, including poor ones, so long as they are not too dry. Grows well by water and in fairly wet soils. Established plants are very drought resistant. Requires a sunny position, seedlings failing to grow in a shady position and mature shrubs quickly dying if overshadowed by taller plants. Does well in very sandy soils. Very tolerant of maritime exposure. Plants are fairly slow growing. Although usually found near the coast in the wild, they thrive when grown inland and are hardy to about -25. A very ornamental plant, it is occasionally cultivated, especially in N. Europe, for its edible fruit, there are some named varieties. "Leikora" is a free-fruiting form, developed for its ornamental value. Members of this genus are attracting considerable interest from breeding institutes for their nutrient-rich fruits that can promote the general health of the body (see edible and medicinal uses below). This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. Plants produce abundant suckers, especially when grown on sandy soils. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. The sexes of plants cannot be distinguished before flowering, but on flowering plants the buds of male plants in winter are conical and conspicuous whilst female buds are smaller and rounded. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.
Seed - sow spring in a sunny position in a cold frame. Germination is usually quick and good although 3 months cold stratification may improve the germination rate. Alternatively the seed can be sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring into their permanent positions. Male seedlings, in spring, have very prominent axillary buds whilst females are clear and smooth at this time. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, June/July in a frame. Difficult. This is the easiest method of vegetative propagation. Cuttings of mature wood in autumn. Difficult. The cuttings should be taken at the end of autumn or very early in the spring before the buds burst. Store them in sand and peat until April, cut into 7 - 9cm lengths and plant them in a plastic tent with bottom heat. Rooting should take place within 2 months and they can be put in their permanent positions in the autumn. Division of suckers in the winter. They can be planted out direct into their permanent positions and usually establish well and quickly. Layering in autumn.
Hippophae in China:
Hippophae in China spread wide and including following:Hippophae goniocarpa,Hippophae gyantsensis,Hippophae litangensis,Hippophae neurocarpa;Hippophae neurocarpa subsp. neurocarpa;Hippophae neurocarpa subsp. stellatopilosa;Hippophae rhamnoides;Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. mongolica;Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis;Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. turkestanica;Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. wolongensis;Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. yunnanensis;Hippophae salicifolia;Hippophae tibetana
- 1.What is Sea Buckthorn,Hippophae rhamnoides L,Sea Buckthorn Berry,Argousier,Sanddorn,Finbar,Homokt?Seabuckthorn and its History?
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