Capejasmine Fruit.Fructus Gardeniae.
- Botanical Data Info of Capejasmine Fruit.
- Capejasmine Plant Description.
- Phytochemicals and Constituents of Capejasmine Fruit.
- Capejasmine Property and Effects:Capejasmine Fruit.
- Capejasmine Functions and Pharmacology Properties.
- Uses and Suggestions of Capejasmine Fruit.
- Capejasmine Fruit Tips.
- Research Update:Gardenia jaminoides Ellis or Capejasmine Fruit.
Research Update:Gardenia jaminoides Ellis or Capejasmine Fruit.:
Iridoids from Gardenia jasminoides.:Nat Prod Res. 2007 Oct;21(12):1078-84.Ragasa CY, Pimenta LE, Rideout JA.Chemistry Department, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines.
The dichloromethane extract of the air-dried flowers of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. afforded a new iridoid natural product (1), and a diastereomeric mixture of two new iridoids (2a and 2b) in a 2 : 1 ratio. Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Antimicrobial tests on 1 indicated that it was moderately active against Candida albicans; slightly active against E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus. aureus, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes; and inactive against Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger.
Isolation and purification of iridoid glycosides from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis by isocratic reversed-phase two-dimensional preparative high-performance liquid chromatography with column switch technology.:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2007 Oct 15;858(1-2):296-301. Epub 2007 Aug 30.Zhou T, Zhao W, Fan G, Chai Y, Wu Y.Shanghai Key Laboratory for Pharmaceutical Metabolite Research, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, No. 325 Guohe Road, Shanghai 200433, China.
A two-dimensional column-switching system without sample loop trapping, where two columns were switched directly via a six-port two-position switching valve, was successfully applied for the first time to the isolation and purification of six iridoid glycosides including geniposide, gardenoside, shanzhiside, scandoside methyl ester, deacetyl-asperulosidic acid methyl ester and genipin-1-beta-d-gentiobioside from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, a plant used in the traditional Chinese medicine. The introduction of the six-port switching valve instead of sample loop assured 100% recovery from the first dimension to the second, and the injection volumes of the second dimension could reach 20ml. In this mode of operation, the sample size of the two-dimensional approach was more than 1.3 times that of conventional gradient methods with even less solvent consumption. And the simultaneous operations of the two dimensions allowed the cycle time to be less than 19min, compared with that (90min) in the gradient elution single-dimension mode of operation. All of the six isolated iridoid glycosides were isolated at high purities of over 99% with approximately 96% recoveries.
Aglycone geniposidic acid, a naturally occurring crosslinking agent, and its application for the fixation of collagenous tissues.:J Biomed Mater Res A. 2007 May 25;83A(3):667-673.Mi FL, Huang CT, Chiu YL, Chen MC, Liang HF, Sung HW.Department of Biotechnology, Vanung Universtiy, Chung‐Li, Tao‐Yuan, Taiwan, Republic of China.
A natural compound, aglycone geniposidic acid (aGSA), originated from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS was used for the fixation of collagenous tissues. The presumed crosslinking reaction mechanism of collagenous tissues with aGSA was inferred by reacting aGSA with a bifunctional amine, 1,6-hexanediamine, using a series of (1)H NMR, FT-IR, and UV/Vis spectra analyses. aGSA reacted with 1,6-hexanediamine by a nucleophilic attack on the olefinic carbon atom at C-2 of deoxyloganin aglycone, followed by opening the dihydropyran ring to form heterocyclic amine compounds. It is inferred that aGSA may form intramolecular and intermolecular crosslinks with a heterocyclic structure within collagen fibers in tissues. The degrees of tissue fixation by aGSA at different pH values were investigated by examining the fixation indices and denaturation temperatures of test samples. It was found that the fixation indices and denaturation temperatures of test samples fixed at neutral or basic pH (pH 7.4 or pH 8.5) were significantly greater than at acidic pH (pH 4.0). The results obtained in this study may be used to elucidate the.
Molecular ecology of Gardenia jasminoides authenticity.:Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2006 Dec;17(12):2385-8. Chinese.Han J, Chen S, Zhang WS, Wang Y.Institute of Medicinal Plant, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100094, China. email@example.com
By using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, this paper studied the genetic relationships among five wild or cultivated Gardenia jasminoides Ellis populations in Jiangxi Province. Chemical fingerprint was also built with HPLC method. The results showed that there was a great genetic difference among these samples. The UPGMA obtained with NTSYS-PC 2. 10e software suggested that there were seven branches of population, and the population from near geographical location clustered firstly. The geniposide content of these branches was not correlated with UPGMA. It could be concluded that the authenticity was resulted from the co-action of genotype and environmental change. The microelements content in G. jasminoides fruit measured by inductively coupled plasma showed that there was a negative correlation between Zn and geniposide contents.
Hepatoprotective and hypolipidaemic effects of glycoprotein isolated from Gardenia jasminoides ellis in mice.:Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006 Oct;33(10):925-33.
The present study was performed to investigate the hepatoprotective and hypolipidaemic effects of a 27 kDa glycoprotein isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJE glycoprotein) in glucose/glucose oxidase (G/GO)-treated BNL CL.2 cells, as well as in CCl4, Triton WR-1339 and corn oil-treated mice. In G/GO-treated BNL CL.2 cells, the results showed that GJE glycoprotein has an inhibitory effect on G/GO-induced cytotoxicity and intracellular reactive oxygen species production. In addition, GJE glycoprotein has an anti-oxidant effect against the lipid peroxidation process in the Fe2+/ascorbic acid system. In CCl4 (1.0 mL/kg)-treated mice, pretreatment with GJE glycoprotein (80 mg/kg) blocked lactate dehydrogenase release and the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. In addition, in these mice GJE resulted in increased nitric oxide production and the activation of anti-oxidant enzymes, accompanied by the inhibition of the cytotoxic-related signals hepatic cytochrome c, nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein-1. In both Triton WR-1339 (400 mg/kg) and corn oil (1.0 g/kg)-treated mice, pretreatment with GJE glycoprotein (80 mg/kg) lowered the levels of plasma lipoproteins (triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein). On the basis of these results, we assume that GJE glycoprotein can ameliorate liver function, because it has hepatoprotective and hypolipidaemic activities.
Crocetin improves endothelium-dependent relaxation of thoracic aorta in hypercholesterolemic rabbit by increasing eNOS activity.:Biochem Pharmacol. 2006 Aug 28;72(5):558-65. Epub 2006 Jul 31.Tang FT, Qian ZY, Liu PQ, Zheng SG, He SY, Bao LP, Huang HQ.Department of Pharmacology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009, PR China. firstname.lastname@example.org
Our previous studies have proven that crocetin (CCT), extracted from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, possesses the anti-atherosclerotic effect. Because endothelial dysfunction strongly contributes to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, the present study aims to investigate whether CCT is capable of improving this dysfunction and to explore the possible mechanisms. Endothelial dysfunction was induced by in vivo feeding high cholesterol diet (HCD) to rabbit and by in vitro treating bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) with oxidized LDL (oxLDL). Endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) evoked by acetylcholine (Ach) and endothelium-independent relaxation (RIDR) mediated by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) of thoracic aorta isolated from rabbit were measured. The results indicated that the EDR in HCD alone treated rabbits was seriously impaired and the maximal relaxation induced by Ach (10(-5.5) M) was only 54% that in control rabbit fed with regular diet. Oral complementation with CCT (15, 30 mg/kg) dose-dependently improved this impairment and restored the maximal relaxation to 68% and 80% that in control group, respectively. However, the EIDR maintained comparable in all groups. Complementation with CCT (15, 30 mg/kg) simultaneously increased serum level of nitric oxide (NO), upregulated vessel activity and mRNA expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) as well as vessel cyclic GMP (cGMP) content compared with those in rabbit treated with HCD alone. Inducible NOS (iNOS) activity remained unchangeable in all groups. In BAECs, oxLDL treatment decreased NO production, downregulated both activity and mRNA expression of eNOS. While those decrease or downregulation were inhibited by co-treatment with CCT (0.1, 1, 10 microM) in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggested that CCT significantly restored the EDR of thoracic aorta in hypercholesterolemic rabbit, which might be explained by its action to increase the vessel eNOS activity, leading to elevation of NO production.
Mechanism of hypolipidemic effect of crocin in rats: crocin inhibits pancreatic lipase.:Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Aug 14;543(1-3):116-22. Epub 2006 Jun 2.Sheng L, Qian Z, Zheng S, Xi L.China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang Street, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009, China.
The hypolipidemic mechanism of crocin, an active ingredient in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and Crocus sativus L, was examined in rats. In diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats, a 10-day treatment with crocin significantly reduced serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol level in the daily dose range of 25 to 100 mg/kg. Results of the modified fat-loading method indicated that crocin inhibited the absorption of fat and cholesterol and this inhibition is closely related to the hydrolysis of fat. In addition, the modified fat-balance method demonstrated that crocin increased the fecal excretion of fat and cholesterol in rats, but had no influence on the elimination of bile acids. The results of the in situ loop method and enzyme assay indicated that crocin could not directly block the absorption of cholesterol from rat jejunum but could selectively inhibit the activity of pancreatic lipase as a competitive inhibitor. These findings suggest that crocin yielded its hypolipidemic effect by inhibiting pancreatic lipase, leading to the malabsorption of fat and cholesterol.
Peroxidases, lignin and anatomy during in vitro and ex vitro rooting of gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) microshoots.:J Plant Physiol. 2006 Jul;163(8):827-36. Epub 2005 Sep 23.Hatzilazarou SP, Syros TD, Yupsanis TA, Bosabalidis AM, Economou AS.School of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, Aristotle University, 54 124 Thessaloniki, Greece.
In vitro and ex vitro rooting of gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) microshoots with or without indolic-3-butyric acid (IBA) was studied in order to improve acclimatization of microplants after root formation and transplantation. Peroxidase (POD) activity and isoforms, lignin content and anatomical observations were evaluated in the course of the three interdependent phases (induction, initiation and expression) of microshoot rooting. Microshoots treated or not treated with IBA achieved high rooting percentages both in vitro and ex vitro. At the end of the 2-week acclimatization period, the percentage of surviving microplants ranged from 80% to 100%, for in vitro and ex vitro rooted microshoots, respectively. Microshoots rooted in vitro and ex vitro showed a relationship between rooting and POD activity but in a different time course. It appeared that root formation occurred after the microshoots had reached and passed a peak of maximum enzyme activity. In all treatments, electrophoretic analysis (native PAGE) of PODs revealed the appearance of one anionic and three cationic POD isoforms (C(1), C(3) and C(4)). An additional cationic POD isoform (C(2)) appeared only in the ex vitro rooting. The lignin content was similar in microshoots rooted both in vitro and ex vitro. The sequential anatomical changes during the rooting process were similar in both in vitro and ex vitro rooting treatments. In the case of in vitro rooting, pith cells had vacuoles entirely filled with a dark substance, while in the case of ex vitro rooting, pith cells contained many amyloplasts. The origin of the adventitious roots, in both rooting conditions, was located in the cambial ring. Roots with organized tissue systems emerged from the microshoot stem 10-14 days after the root induction treatments; on day 10 for rooting in vitro, while a 4-day delay was noted in microshoots rooted ex vitro.
Plant originated glycoprotein has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mouse.:J Biomed Sci. 2006 Jul;13(4):549-60. Epub 2006 Apr 4.
We investigated the preventive effect of glycoprotein (27 kDa) isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJE) fruits on colitis in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 3%)-induced A/J mice which were administrated orally for 7 days. Anti-inflammatory activity of GJE glycoprotein was assessed by neutrophil infiltration and colonic lipid peroxidation, and determined by myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), respectively in DSS treatment system. The activities of antioxidative enzymes [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], activation of inflammation related mediators (iNOS, COX-2, and NF-kappaB), and production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also measured. The results of this study showed that GJE glycoprotein (80 microg/ml) has a scavenging property to inhibit the intracellular ROS production in RAW 264.7 cells and that GJE glycoprotein (80 mg/kg BW) significantly suppressed the increase in the MPO activity, TBARS level, and NO production, inflammation related mediators [iNOS, COX-2, and NF-kappaB (p50)] activity in DSS-induced mice. Interestingly, the activities of CAT, SOD, and GPx were gradually augmented after a supplement of GJE glycoprotein. Therefore, we suggest that GJE glycoprotein is preventive and therapeutic agent for the ulcerative colitis.
Estimation of measurement uncertainty of analytical results for the determination of three active components from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. by HPLC.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2005 Nov;28(11):991-4. Chinese.Hu Z, Wang Y, Luo G, He L.School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the uncertainty for quantitative analysis results of geniposide, chloregenic acid and crocinl I in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. METHODS: HPLC method was employed to determine the amounts of geniposide, choloregenic acid and crocinl I in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. Analyzing the uncertainty sources arising from the procedure of analysis, the standard uncertainty and combined uncertainty and expanded uncertainty were calculated according to the data of HPLC. RESULTS: This method met the requirements of modern pharmaceutical analysis, and the expand uncertainties for the HPLC method of the three components are 0.1024, 0.2254, 0.1264, respectively. CONCLUSION: Applying measurement uncertainty to the evaluation of quantitative analysis results of active components in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. is an improvement to the actual error evaluation system.
Chemical fingerprinting of Gardenia jasminoides fruit using direct sample introduction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection.:J AOAC Int. 2006 Jan-Feb;89(1):40-5.Yan S, Xin W, Luo G, Wang Y, Cheng Y.Zhejiang University, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, Hangzhou, 310027, People's Republic of China.
A rapid, rugged, and inexpensive approach is described to develop chemical fingerprints of volatile and semivolatile fractions in herbal medicine. The method is based on the combination of direct sample introduction and gas chromatography (GC) analysis with mass spectrometry detection. In comparison with routine methods, the proposed approach provides the most informative fingerprint and does not demand time-consuming extraction, pretreatment, and cleanup procedures. The approach was applied to establish the GC fingerprint of gardenia fruit (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis), in which 39 components were identified. With the help of principal components analysis, the obtained fingerprint could reveal the variation in and within different herb samples as affected by season and developmental state (wild or cultivated). The results indicated that the proposed approach could serve as a rapid, simple, and effective technique for the quality control of herbal medicines.
Crocetin esters, picrocrocin and its related compounds present in Crocus sativus stigmas and Gardenia jasminoides fruits. Tentative identification of seven new compounds by LC-ESI-MS.:J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Feb 8;54(3):973-9.Carmona M, Zalacain A, Sánchez AM, Novella JL, Alonso GL.Cátedra de Química Agrícola, E.T.S.I. Agrónomos, Universidad Castilla-La Mancha, 02071 Albacete, Spain. Manuel.Carmona@uclm.es
Crocetin esters present in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) stigmas and in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit are the compounds responsible for their color. Of the fifteen crocetin esters identified in this study, five new compounds were tentatively identified: trans and cis isomers of crocetin (beta-D-triglucoside)-(beta-D-gentibiosyl) ester, trans and cis isomers of crocetin (beta-D-neapolitanose)-(beta-D-glucosyl) ester, and cis crocetin (beta-D-neapolitanose)-(beta-D-gentibiosyl) ester. The most relevant differences between both species were a low content of the trans crocetin (beta-D-glucosyl)-(beta-D-gentibiosyl) ester, the absence of trans crocetin di-(beta-D-glucosyl) ester in gardenia, and its higher content of trans crocetin (beta-D-gentibiosyl) ester and cis crocetin di-(beta-D-gentibiosyl) ester. With the same chromatographic method it was possible to identify, in a single run, ten glycosidic compounds in saffron extracts with a UV/vis pattern similar to that of picrocrocin; among them, 5-hydroxy-7,7-dimethyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-3H-isobenzofuranone 5-O-beta-D-gentibioside and 4-hydroxymethyl-3,5,5-trimethyl-cyclohexen-2-one 4-O-beta-D-gentibioside were tentatively identified for the first time in saffron. Of these ten glycosides, only the O-beta-D-gentibiosyl ester of 2-methyl-6-oxo-2,4-hepta-2,4-dienoic acid was found in gardenia samples, but it was possible to identify the iridoid glycoside, geniposide.
Antihyperlipidemic effect of crocin isolated from the fructus of Gardenia jasminoides and its metabolite Crocetin.:Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Nov;28(11):2106-10.
The pancreatic lipase inhibitors were isolated from the fructus of Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS, and their antihyperlipidemic activities were measured. Gardeniae fructus (GF) water extract inhibited pancreatic lipase activity. Crocetin and crocin were isolated from GF water extract as inhibitors of pancreatic lipase with an IC50 value of 2.1 and 2.6 mg/ml (triolein as a substrate). Crocin and crocetin significantly inhibited the increase of serum TG level in corn oil feeding-induced triglyceridemic mice, as well as that of serum triglyceride and total and LDL cholesterol levels in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic mice. These compounds also showed hypolipidemic activity in hyperlipidemic mice induced by high cholesterol, high fat or high carbohydrate diets for 5 weeks. The results suggest that the hypolipidemic activity of GF and its component crocin may be due to the inhibition of pancreatic lipase and crocin, and its metabolite, crocetin, can improve hyperlipidemia.
Large-scale isolation and purification of geniposide from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis by high-speed counter-current chromatography.:J Chromatogr A. 2005 Dec 23;1100(1):76-80. Epub 2005 Oct 3.Zhou T, Fan G, Hong Z, Chai Y, Wu Y.Shanghai Key Laboratory for Pharmaceutical Metabolite Research, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was applied to the isolation and purification of geniposide from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. Analytical HSCCC was used for the preliminary selection of a suitable solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (2:1:3, v/v/v). According to the above solvent system, preparative HSCCC was successfully performed with the optimal solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (2:1.5:3, v/v/v) yielding 389 mg of geniposide at over 98% purity from 1g of the partially purified extract with 38.9% recovery in a one-step separation.
Geniposide activates GSH S-transferase by the induction of GST M1 and GST M2 subunits involving the transcription and phosphorylation of MEK-1 signaling in rat hepatocytes.:Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005 Oct 15;208(2):155-62.Kuo WH, Chou FP, Young SC, Chang YC, Wang CJ.Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Armed Forces Taichung General Hospital, ROC, Taiwan.
Geniposide, an iridoid glycoside isolated from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, has biological capabilities of detoxication, antioxidation, and anticarcinogenesis. We have recently found that geniposide possesses a potential for detoxication by inducing GST activity and the expression of GST M1 and GST M2 subunits. In this study, the signaling pathway of geniposide leading to the activation of GSH S-transferase (GST) was investigated. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with geniposide in the presence or absence of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors and examined for GST activity, expression of GST M1 and M2 subunits, and protein levels of MAPK signaling proteins. Western blotting data demonstrated that geniposide induced increased protein levels of GST M1 and GST M2 (approximately 1.76- and 1.50-fold of control, respectively). The effect of geniposide on the increased protein levels of GST M1 and GST M2 was inhibited by the MEK-1 inhibitor PD98059, but not by other MAPK inhibitors. The GST M1 and GST M2 transcripts as determined by RT-PCR and GST activity were also inhibited concurrently by the MEK-1 inhibitor PD98059. The protein levels of up- and down-stream effectors of the MEK-1, including Ras, Raf, and Erk1/2, and the phosphorylation state of Erk1/2 were found to be induced by geniposide, indicating a two-phase influence of geniposide. The results suggest that geniposide induced GST activity and the expression of GST M1 and GST M2 acting through MEK-1 pathway by activating and increasing expression of Ras/Raf/MEK-1 signaling mediators.
Orally administered crocetin and crocins are absorbed into blood plasma as crocetin and its glucuronide conjugates in mice.:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Sep 7;53(18):7302-6.
A series of crocetin glycosides (crocins) are the main pigment of the stigmas of saffron (Crocussativus L.) and the fruits of gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis). Although numerous studies have demonstrated that crocetin and crocins have a variety of biological functions, the metabolism of dietary crocetin and crocins remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the intestinal absorption of orally administered crocetin and crocins in mice. Orally administered crocetin was rapidly absorbed into the blood circulation and was present in plasma as an intact free form and as glucuronide conjugates (crocetin-monoglucuronide and -diglucuronide). Crocetin and its glucuronide conjugates were also found in crocins-administered mouse plasma, whereas intact crocins (glycoside forms) were not detected. These results indicate that orally administered crocins are hydrolyzed to crocetin before or during intestinal absorption, and absorbed crocetin is partly metabolized to mono- and diglucuronide conjugates.
The anti-tumor effect and mechanisms of action of penta-acetyl geniposide.:Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2005 Jun;5(4):299-305. Review. Peng CH, Huang CN, Wang CJ.Department of Nursing, Hungkuang University, Sha Lu, Taichung, Taiwan.RPC.
Gardenia, the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, has been widely used to treat liver and gall bladder disorders in Chinese medicine. It has been shown recently that geniposide, the main ingredient of Gardenia Fructus, exhibits the anti-tumor effect. In this review, we discuss the anti-tumor effect and possible mechanisms of a derivative from Gardenia Fructus, penta-acetyl geniposide ((Ac)5GP). It has been demonstrated that (Ac)5GP plays more potent roles than geniposide in chemoprevention. (Ac)5GP decreased DNA damage and hepatocarcinogenesis induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by activating the phase II enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST) and GSH peroxidase (GSH-Px). It reduced the growth and development of inoculated C6 glioma cells especially in pre-treated rats. In addition to the preventive effect, (Ac)5GP exerts its actions on apoptosis and growth arrest. Treatment of (Ac)5GP caused DNA fragmentation of glioma cells. (Ac)5GP induced sub- G1 peak through the activation of apoptotic cascades PKCdelta/JNK/Fas/caspase8 and caspase 3. Besides, p53/Bax signaling was suggested to be involved in (Ac)5GP-induced apoptosis, though its downstream cascades needs further clarified. (Ac)5GP has also been shown to inhibit DNA synthesis of tumor cells. It arrested cell cycle at G0/ G1 by inducing the expression of p21, thus suppressing the cyclin D1/cdk4 complex formation and the phosphorylation of E2F. The phosphorylation status of p53 on serine 392 correlated with the process of growth arrest. Evidences from the in vivo experiments showed that (Ac)5GP is not harmful to liver, heart and kidney. In conclusion, (Ac)5GP is highly suggested to be an anti-tumor agent for development in the future.
Hemoglobin polymerized with a naturally occurring crosslinking agent as a blood substitute: in vitro and in vivo studies.:Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol. 2004 May;32(2):243-62.Chang WH, Chang Y, Chen YC, Sung HW.Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, RPC.
A naturally occurring crosslinking agent, genipin, extracted from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS was used by our group to chemically modified biomolecules. Genipin and its related iridoid glucosides have been widely used as an antiphlogistic and cholagogue in herbal medicine. Our previous study showed that the cytotoxicity of genipin is significantly lower than glutaraldehyde. The study was to investigate the feasibility of using genipin to polymerize hemoglobin as a blood substitute. The results indicated that the rate of hemoglobin polymerization by glutaraldehyde was significantly faster than that by genipin and it readily produced polymers with molecular masses greater than 500,000 Da. It was found that the maximum degree of hemoglobin polymerization by genipin was approximately 40% if over-polymerization is to be prevented. With increasing the reaction temperature, hemoglobin concentration, and genipin-to-hemoglobin molar ratio, the duration taken to achieve the maximum degree of hemoglobin polymerization by genipin became significantly shorter. The P50 value of the unmodified hemoglobin was 9 mmHg, while that of the genipin-polymerized PLP-hemoglobin increased to 21 mmHg. It was found in a rat model that the genipin-polymerized PLP-hemoglobin resulted in a longer circulation time than the unmodified hemoglobin. In conclusion, the results of the study indicated that the genipin-polymerized hemoglobin solution has a lower oxygen affinity and a longer vascular retention time than the unmodified hemoglobin solution.
A novel use of genipin-fixed gelatin as extracellular matrix for peripheral nerve regeneration.:J Biomater Appl. 2004 Jul;19(1):21-34.Liu BS, Yao CH, Hsu SH, Yeh TS, Chen YS, Kao ST.Department of Radiological Technology, Chungtai Institute of Health Science and Technology, Taichang, Taiwan.
Application of combining herbal medicine and biomedical material science to nerve regeneration is a new approach. In this study, we describe a novel use of purified genipin, which can be extracted from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, fixing the gelatin to be an extracellular matrix for peripheral nerve regeneration. A 10-mm gap of rat sciatic nerve was created between the proximal and distal nerve stumps, which were sutured into silicone rubber tubes filled with either the genipin-fixed gelatin or collagen gel. Silicone rubber tubes filled with saline were used as controls. Six weeks after implantation, regeneration across the nerve gaps occurred in 80 and 90% of the animals from the groups of genipin-fixed gelatin and collagen, respectively, whereas only 30% in the control group. Large numbers of myelinated axons were also seen in the genipin-fixed gelatin (5104 +/- 3278) and the collagen groups (8063 +/- 1807). These findings indicated that the genipin-fixed gelatin could be an acceptable extracellular matrix for nerve regeneration.
Geniposide, an anti-angiogenic compound from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides.:Planta Med. 2004 May;70(5):467-9.
The EtOH extract of gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) fruits was previously found to possess potent anti-angiogenic activity in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation and purification of the EtOH extract yielded an active anti-angiogenic compound, which was determined to be an iridoid glucoside, geniposide, by spectral analyses. Geniposide showed anti-angiogenic activity in a dose-dependent manner. It also exhibited an inhibitory effect in the range of 25-100 microM on the growth of the transformed NIH3T3 cell line.
Differential induction of the expression of GST subunits by geniposide in rat hepatocytes.:Pharmacology. 2004 Jan;70(1):15-22.Kuo WH, Wang CJ, Young SC, Sun YC, Chen YJ, Chou FP.Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Armed Forces Taichung General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
Geniposide, an iridoid glycoside isolated from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, has the biological capabilities of detoxication, antioxidation, and anticarcinogenesis. In this study, the mechanism of geniposide affecting the GST (glutathione S-transferase) system was investigated. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with geniposide and examined for total GST activity and expression of GST subunits. The results showed that the geniposide-induced GST activity was dose and time dependent. Western blotting data demonstrated that geniposide induced increased protein levels of GSTM1 and GSTM2 (approximately 1.7- and 1.8-fold of control, respectively), but did not increase those of GSTA1. The corresponding transcripts levels were confirmed by RT-PCR. Using PD98059, the effect of geniposide was verified to be via the MEK pathway. The results suggest that geniposide possesses a potential for detoxication by inducing GST activity via increasing the transcription of GSTM1 and GSTM2.
Antiangiogenic activity of Gardenia jasminoides fruit.:Phytother Res. 2003 Sep;17(8):961-2.Park EH, Joo MH, Kim SH, Lim CJ.College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul, 140-742, Korea. email@example.com
The ethanol extract of gardenia fruit (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis), a Chinese herbal medicine, and its successive hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were evaluated for their antiangiogenic activities using a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The n-butanol fraction was found to be most effective in the antiangiogenic assay.
Identification and determination of geniposide contained in Gardenia jasminoides and in two preparations of mixed traditional Chinese medicines.:J Chromatogr A. 2002 Jun 28;961(1):83-8.Tsai TR, Tseng TY, Chen CF, Tsai TH.School of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan.
A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was applied to the determination of the geniposide concentration in Gardenia fruit and preparations of traditional Chinese medicine using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-methanol-5 mM monosodium phosphate (pH 4.6) (5:15:80, v/v/v). Intra-assay and inter-assay accuracy and precision of the analyses were < or = 10% in the range of 0.1 through 50 microg/ml. The presence of geniposide in the medicinal herb and its preparations was ascertained by retention time, spiking with an authentic standard, change of detection wavelength and change of the composition of the mobile phase. The concentration of geniposide in the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis var. grandiflora Nakai is higher than that in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. The concentration of geniposide in the traditional Chinese herbal medicine preparations, Huang-Lian-Jiee-Dwu-Tang (66.27 +/- 1.98 mg/g) and In-Chern-Hau-Tang (68.54 +/- 2.62 mg/g) was less than in the herb Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (73.44 +/- 2.62 mg/g) itself.
Genotoxicity of gardenia yellow and its components.:Food Chem Toxicol. 2002 Nov;40(11):1603-10.
Gardenia fruit (Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS) is widely used as a natural food colorant and as a traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of hepatic and inflammatory diseases. "Gardenia yellow" is a natural food colorant which is extracted by ethanol from gardenia fruit. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of gardenia yellow. Genotoxicity of gardenia yellow and its components, crocetin, gentiobiose (a component of crocin), geniposide and genipin (formed by hydrolysis of geniposide), was studied by Ames test, rec-assay, and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) using V79 cells. Gardenia yellow and its components were found not to be mutagenic in the Salmonella reverse mutation assay. Gardenia yellow and genipin caused damage of DNA in rec-assay. Gardenia yellow induced a significant dose-dependent increase of SCE frequency (8.6 times at 1000 microg/ml as the value for the solvent control). Only genipin induced SCEs significantly among the components of gardenia yellow. Moreover, genipin induced a significant increase of tetraploids at all doses tested (95% at 8 microg/ml). Gardenia yellow preparation was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE), and geniposide was detected. However, genipin was not observed. In conclusion, we have shown that genipin possesses genotoxicity. Furthermore, there were unidentified genotoxicants in gardenia yellow.
Antithrombotic effect of geniposide and genipin in the mouse thrombosis model.:Planta Med. 2001 Dec;67(9):807-10.
Geniposide is one of the constituents of Gardenia fruit (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Rubiaceae), which has been used in traditional medicine. Although its anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects have been reported, the way it acts is still unclear. We have investigated the effects of geniposide and its metabolite genipin on thrombogenesis and platelet aggregation. In an in vivo model, geniposide and genipin significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged the time required for thrombotic occlusion induced by photochemical reaction in the mouse femoral artery. In an in vitro study, both geniposide and genipin inhibited collagen-induced, but did not inhibit arachidonate-induced, mouse platelet aggregation. However aspirin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, inhibited arachidonate-induced platelet aggregation but only partially inhibited the collagen-induced one. We also showed, by measuring PLA(2)-catalyzed arachidonic acid release, that geniposide inhibited phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity. We conclude that geniposide showed an antithrombotic effect in vivo due to the suppression of platelet aggregation. PLA(2) inhibition by geniposide is one possible anti-platelet mechanism.
Antioxidant properties of crocin from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and study of the reactions of crocin with linoleic acid and crocin with oxygen.:J Agric Food Chem. 2000 May;48(5):1455-61.
Crocin-a water soluble carotenoid-is found in the fruits of gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) and in the stigmas of saffron (Crocus sativus Linne). For crocin purification, gardenia fruits are extracted with 50% acetone, followed by ether washing, ion exchange, and separation by preparative HPLC. Purified crocin with purity of >99.6% has an antioxidative activity at concentrations up to 40 ppm. At 20 ppm the antioxidative activity of crocin is comparable to that of BHA. The antioxidant property of crocin as evaluated by the thiocyanate method was better than with the thiobarbituric acid method. The adduct between the linoleic acid radical and crocin was detected by LC-MS. When crocin reacted with oxygen in the presence of FeSO(4), intermediates such as monohydroperoxides and dihydroperoxides of crocin were formed and detected by LC-MS.
Effects of Light and Sucrose Levels on the Anatomy, Ultrastructure, and Photosynthesis of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis Leaflets Cultured in vitro.:Int J Plant Sci. 2000 Mar;161(2):281-289.Hsu JD, Chou FP, Lee MJ, Chiang HC, Lin YL, Shiow SJ, Wang CJ.Department of Pathology, Chung Shan Medical and Dental College Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
Crocetin, a major component of the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, was investigated for its antitumor promoting effect on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-promoted mouse skin carcinogenesis. Topical application of 5 nmol TPA to CD-1 mice once daily for 5 days caused epidermal hyperplasia, and increases in the levels of c-Fos, c-Jun and c-Myc in the suprabasal layer of epidermis and the muscle layer of dermis. Immunocytolochemical examination showed that pretreatment of 1 mumol crocetin repressed the TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia and the expressions of c-Jun, c-Fos and c-Myc to the extent of 47, 44 and 45% respectively. Crocetin of 3.0 mumol exhibited stronger inhibition on the induced hyperplasia and the oncoproteins levels (by 60, 53 and 55% respectively). Western blotting analysis confirmed this inhibitory effect of crocetin. Pretreatment of crocetin also repressed the TPA-induced H2O2 production and myeloperoxidase activity. These data indicate that crocetin suppresses the TPA-induced skin carcinogenesis maybe via its antioxidant property which, in turn, leads to a reduction in the TPA-induced expressions of c-Jun, c-Fos and c-Myc in mouse epidermis.
Suppression of the TPA-induced expression of nuclear-protooncogenes in mouse epidermis by crocetin via antioxidant activity.:Anticancer Res. 1999 Sep-Oct;19(5B):4221-7.
Currently available crosslinking agents used in fixing bioprostheses are all highly (or relatively highly) cytotoxic, which may induce an adverse inflammatory reaction in vivo. It is therefore desirable to provide a crosslinking agent that is of low cytotoxicty and may form stable and biocompatible crosslinked products. To achieve this goal, a naturally occurring crosslinking agent-genipin-was used by our group to fix biological tissues. Genipin may be obtained from its parent compound, geniposide, which may be isolated from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. In our previous studies, it was found that the cytotoxicity of genipin is significantly lower than both glutaraldehyde and an epoxy compound. Also, it was shown that genipin can form stable and biocompatible crosslinked products. The present study further investigates the crosslinking characteristics and mechanical properties of a genipin-fixed bovine pericardium. Fresh and glutaraldehyde- and epoxy-fixed counterparts were used as controls. It was found that the denaturation temperatures of the glutaraldehyde- and genipin-fixed tissues were significantly greater than the epoxy-fixed tissue, although their fixation indices were comparable. The mechanical properties of fresh bovine pericardium are anisotropic. However, fixation tended to eliminate tissue anisotropy. The tendency in the elimination of tissue anisotropy for the genipin-fixed tissue was more remarkable than for the glutaraldehyde- and epoxy-fixed tissues. In addition, the genipin-fixed tissue had the greatest ultimate tensile strength and toughness among all the fixed tissues. Distinct patterns in rupture were observed in the study: The torn collagen fibers of the genipin- and glutaraldehyde-fixed tissues appeared to be bound together, while those of fresh and the epoxy-fixed tissues stayed loose. The results obtained in the study suggests that tissue fixation in glutaraldehyde, epoxy compound, and genipin may produce distinct crosslinking structures. The differences in crosslinking structure may affect the crosslinking characteristics and mechanical properties of the fixed tissues.
Inhibitory effect of crocetin on benzo(a)pyrene genotoxicity and neoplastic transformation in C3H10T1/2 cells.:Anticancer Res. 1996 Nov-Dec;16(6B):3603-8.
Crocetin is a major component in the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, a Chinese herbal medicine. In the work, we investigate the protective action and mechanism against benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced genotoxicity and neoplastic transformation with a non-toxic dose of crocetin (0.01-0.10 mM) for 1 hour prior to the administration of 0.1 mM B(a)P. B(a)P genotoxicity was inhibited significantly by crocetin in a dose responsive manner. Pretreating C3H10T1/2 cells with crocetin (0.1 mM) also caused a decrease in the covalent binding of B(a)P-diol-epoxide to DNA, to about half that of cells without crocetin treatment. Crocetin also inhibited B(a)P-induced transformations. When the culture was treated with crocetin (0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 mM) for 7 days, the transformation frequencies were lower than that of the culture without crocetin treatment. Furthermore, pretreating cells with crocetin (0.01-0.10 mM) also caused an increase in the activity of GSH S-transferase (GST) to 18-71% that of the cells without crocetin treatment. These results suggest that the inhibition by crocetin of B(a)P-induced genotoxicity and neoplastic transformation in C3H10T1/2 cells is due to a mechanism that increases the activity of GST and decreases the formation of a B(a)P-DNA adduct.
Hypoglycemic activity and structure-activity relationship of iridoidal glycosides.:Biol Pharm Bull. 1996 Jan;19(1):160-1.
Four iridoidal glycosides, deacetylasperulosidic acid methyl ester (DE), scandoside methyl ester (SC), geniposide (GE) and gardenoside (GA) isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis grandiflora Makino leaves, were tested hypoglycemic activity in mice. DE lowered the blood glucose level in normal mice. However, SC, GE and GA did not affect the blood glucose level in normal mice, indicating that the absolute configuration of 6 position hydroxy based (OH) should be essential for the biological activity.
Karyological studies on the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1995 Oct;20(10):588-90, 638. Chinese.
This paper reports the karyological studies on the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides and G. jasminoides var. grandiflora. The chromosome numbers are 2n = 22 and the places of centromere are metacentric and submedian. The fruit of G. jarminoides is more primary than Gardenia jarminoidce var. grandiflora in karyotype.
Effect of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJE) on the blood flow of internal organs at the early stage of acute necrotizing hemorrhagic pancreatitis in rats.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1993 Jul;18(7):431-3, 448. Chinese.
Effect of GJE on the prevention and treatment of experimental acute pancreatitis was observed by means of testing pancreatic, hepatic, gastric and intestinal blood flow. The results show that the blood flow of internal organs that decreases significantly at the early stage of acute necrotizing hemorrhagic pancreatitis in rats can be picked up by GJE especially pancreatic.
Screening studies on anti-inflammatory function of traditional Chinese herb Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and its possibility in treating soft tissue injuries in animals.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1991 Aug;16(8):489-93, 513. Chinese.Yao Q, Zhou G, Zhu Y, Pan Y, Hu J, Xue H, Zhang Q.Nanjing Institute of Materia Medica.
This paper reports the study of six fractions and one chemical constituent isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Gardenia jasminoides. The results showed that two fractions (G5.G6,), alcohol extract (G1) and genipoiside(A) had obvious anti-inflammatory effects and were comparatively effective in treating soft tissue injuries in animals.
- 1.Capejasmine Fruit.Fructus Gardeniae.
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