What is Parmelia perlata,Shaileyam,Stone Flowers?
- Basic Botanical Info of Parmelia perlata.
- General Description of Lichen Class and Its Uses.
- Brief literature of Parmelia perlata.
- Contents applications of Parmelia perlata.
- Mechanism and Chemical Change.
- Common Use of Parmelia perlata.
- Major chemical contents from China Lichen.
- Research Update:Parmelia perlata and Phytochemicals.
Mechanism and Chemical Change.:
Chemical Composition: The chromogenic bodies in the lichens mentioned are crystallizable phenols and phenol acids. To the latter class belong lecanoric acid,discovered in 1842 by Schunck, with which beta-orsellinic acid of Stenhouse (1848) is identical; erythrinic and roccellic acids(Heeren, 1830),usnic acid, evernic acid, etc.
(For details regarding these acids, see Husemann and Hilger, Pflanzenstoffe,Vol. I, p. 303.) They are in themselves colorless, but become converted into coloring matters by the joint action of water,air, and ammonia.
Lecanoric acid: (C16H14O7, Gerhardt and Hesse),crystallizes in white stellate needles soluble in 2500 parts of boiling water with acid reaction, more soluble in hot acetic acid, also soluble in alcohol and ether. Its melting point is 153C. (307.7F.), and it forms crystallizable salts with acids. Heated with water, alcohol or aqueous alkalies,lecanoric acid adds one molecule of water and is converted into crystallizable orsellinic acid(C8H8O4). This when continuously boiled with water, loses carbonic acid and forms orcin or dihydroxy-toluene (C7H8O2, or C6H3.CH3.[OH]2), which is also obtained by dry distillation of lecanoric acid. Orcin is the chromogene body proper of this group. It forms colorless needles of sweetish, nauseating taste, is easily soluble in water, alcohol, and ether; ferric chloride produces with it a violet coloration. Exposed to light and air it turns reddish. In alkaline solution it changes to red or brown upon exposure to the air. In contact with moist air containing ammonia, it is converted into orcein(C7H7NO3), a brown substance soluble in aqueous alkalies with purple-red color, being precipitated from this solution by acids. Orcen is the coloring principle of orseille or archil.
Orcin: when exposed to moist and ammoniated air in the presence of alkali carbonates, is converted into azolitmin,the blue coloring matter of litmus. The coloring bodies in litmus, according to Dr. Kane (Chem. Centralblatt, 1841,p. 567; also see Pereira, Mat. Med., edition by J. Carson,1846), are:
(1) A purplish-red semifluid material,erythrolein: It is soluble in ether and alcohol, and yields with ammonia a rich purple solution;
(2) a crystalline body of a light red color,erythrolitmin: nitrogen free, soluble in alcohol,but sparingly so in ether and water, and striking blue with ammonia;
(3) a brownish-red, noncrystalline body, the chief coloring principle of litmus, named azolitmin(C7H7NO4): it turns blue with alkalies, is insoluble in alcohol and ether,and sparingly soluble in cold water;
(4) a small amount of a bright-red body,spaniolitmin: which is colored blue by alkalies; water dissolves it sparingly; insoluble in alcohol and ether.
- 1.What is Parmelia perlata,Shaileyam,Stone Flowers?
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