Fragrant Orchid Extract.Gymnadenia conopsea R.Orchis moustique,Modern Applications.
Research Update:Orchis moustique.:
Research Update:Gymnadenia conopsea.
Cloning and expression of Gymnadenia conopsea GcSec61beta gene encoding endosplasmic reticulum membrane translocation channel protein.:Zhi Wu Sheng Li Yu Fen Zi Sheng Wu Xue Xue Bao. 2007 Aug;33(4):354-60. Chinese.Yang ZJ, Zhou JP, Li GR, Zhang Y, Ren ZL.School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, China. email@example.com
Protein translocation channel in endosplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotes is composed of several subunits of Sec61 complex, which is essential for protein secretion. In the present study, we cloned a full-length cDNA fragment of 621 bp coding 107 amino acids from a psychrophile and endangered plant Gymnadenia conopsea, which grows in high land. Sequence analysis revealed that the gene was highly homologous to the member Sec61beta of ER protein transporter channel, which was thus designated as GcSec61beta. Phylogenetic tree shows that the GcSec61beta was closely related to the corresponding genes from Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. Results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that the expression of GcSec61beta was high both in leaves and the bud, and also induced by low temperature treatment. The sequence of the GcSec61beta was introduced into pET28a vector and transformed to E. coli strain BL21. The growth of E. coli was slowed down but the cold resistance was increased by the expression of GcSec61beta, which provides a new function of GcSec61beta protein.
Hybrids and fruit set in a mixed flowering-time population of Gymnadenia conopsea (Orchidaceae).:Hereditas. 2006 Dec;143(2006):222-8.L?nn M, Alexandersson R, Gustafsson S.S?dert?rn University College, School of Life Sciences, Huddinge, Sweden. firstname.lastname@example.org
We have recently found that the morphologically determined subspecies Gymnadenia conopsea ssp conopsea in Sweden includes early and late flowering individuals. We were interested in the interactions between the flowering time groups; if there were gene flow between them and if so this was detrimental or advantageous. A spatially mixed population of early and late flowering individuals was studied using three microsatellite loci. We measured patterns in genetic differentiation and inferred occurrence of hybridisation and introgression. Variation in flowering time, fertility and relative and absolute fruit set was measured. The pattern of introgression between flowering-time groups differed between loci. In two of the three investigated loci, allele separation was distinct between early and late flowering plants and one genetically obvious hybrid was infertile. In the third locus, several alleles were shared between the two flowering time variants. The degree of introgression was associated to fruit set failure, which was higher in the late flowering plants and lower in early flowering plants. A small group of early flowering individuals with somewhat delayed flowering compared to the main group was genetically distinct and had lower relative and absolute fruit set. This group was not genetically intermediate, but rather constituting an independent group, with lower fruit set possibly caused by absence of pollinators. There seem to be a strong barrier against introgression into the late flowering group which is kept genetically distinct and less diverse. The early flowering group is diverse, includes two subgroups and seems to benefit from gene flow.
Effects of Gymnadenia conopsea alcohol extract on collagen synthesis in rat lungs exposed to silica and its mechanism of antioxidative stress:Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2007 Jan;5(1):50-5. Chinese.Wang J, Zeng JB, Zhao XF, Li Q, Wang SX.Department of Scientific Research, Medical College of Chinese People's Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162, China.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of Gymnadenia conopsea alcohol extract (GcAE) on the collagen synthesis in rat lungs exposed to silica and the influence on antioxidase activities, level of lipid peroxidation (LPO). METHODS: One hundred and twenty rats were randomly divided into control group, silica group, and GcAE-treated group. Silicotic animal models were established by direct tracheal instillation of silica into rat lungs surgically. From the second day of model establishment, rats in GcAE-treated group were orally given GcAE [8 g/(kg x d) corresponding to raw herb]. At 7, 14, 21, 28 and 60 days after establishment of the animal model, eight rats in each group were sacrificed, and samples were collected. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in plasma were assayed by a spectrophotometer. Types I and III collagen were detected by Sirius red polarization and microscopy, and measuered by Image-Pro Plus Version 4.5 for Windows software. RESULTS: GcAE could reduce the lung/body weight ratio of rats exposed to silica, the synthesis of types I and III collagen of the lungs and the level of lipid peroxidation, increase the activities of SOD and GPx. CONCLUSION: GcAE can ameliorate the silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis by increasing the activities of antioxidase and alleviating the damage of lipid peroxidation to the lungs.
Quantifying relative extinction risks and targeting intervention for the orchid flora of a natural park in the European preAlps.:Conserv Biol. 2006 Dec;20(6):1804-10.Pierce S, Ceriani RM, Villa M, Cerabolini B.Dipartimento di Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Università degli Studi dell'Insubria, Via J.H. Dunant 3, I-21100 Varese, Italy. email@example.com
Conservation currently relies largely on hindsight because demographic studies identify population decline after the event. Nevertheless, the degree of aggregation within a population is an "instantaneous" characteristic with the potential to identify populations presently at greatest risk of genetic impoverishment (via Allee effects and in-breeding depression) and local decline. We sought to determine the relative extinction risk for sympatric orchid species throughout Monte Barro natural park (Lecco, Italy), based on an index of dispersion (I) calculated from the size and location of subpopulations (recorded with GPS and mapped with GIS). Three population dispersion types were identified: (1) highly aggregated and locally abundant (large subpopulations restricted to particular sites; e.g., Gymnadenia conopsea [L.] R.Br.; I=54.5); (2) widespread and moderately aggregated (opportunistic throughout the elevational range of the mountain; e.g., Listera ovata[L.] R.Br.; I=18.9); and (3) weakly aggregated and locally rare (small, highly diffuse subpopulations; e.g., endemic Ophrys benacensis [Reisigl] O. & E. Danesch & Ehrend.; I=4.4). Type 1 populations are more likely to respond to in situ intervention, whereas type 2 are relatively invasive species for which conservation intervention is not necessary, and type 3 are rare species that are least likely to respond to habitat management, for which ex situ conservation and population reinforcement would be most appropriate. Although our methodology provides only a "snapshot" of aboveground patterns of population dispersion, it can help target the application of in situ and ex situ conservation activities proactively and is of particular utility for parks for which a rapid assessment of local extinction risks is needed.
Chemical fingerprint analysis of rhizomes of Gymnadenia conopsea by HPLC-DAD-MSn:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2006 Dec 5;844(2):301-7. Epub 2006 Aug 23.Cai M, Zhou Y, Gesang S, Bianba C, Ding LS.Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China; College of Life Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China.
A high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)) method has been firstly developed for chemical fingerprint analysis of rhizomes of Gymnadenia conopsea R. Br. and rapid identification of major compounds in the fingerprints. Comparing the UV and MS spectra with those of reference compounds, seven main peaks in the fingerprints were identified as adenosine (1), 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (2), 4-hydroxybenzyl aldehyde (3), dactylorhin B (4), loroglossin (5), dactylorhin A (6) and militarine (7). Compounds 4-7 were succinate derivative esters and firstly discovered from this species. The Computer Aided Similarity Evaluation System (CASES) for chromatographic fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine was employed to evaluate the similarities of 10 samples of the rhizomes of G. conopsea collected from Sichuan, Qinghai and Hebei provinces, Tibet autonomous region of China, and Nepal. These samples from different sources had similar chemical fingerprints. This method is specific and may serve for quality identification and comprehensive evaluation of this traditional Tibetan remedy.
Glucosyloxybenzyl 2-Isobutylmalates from the tubers of Gymnadenia conopsea.:J Nat Prod. 2006 Jun;69(6):881-6.
Seven new glucosyloxybenzyl 2-isobutylmalates, gymnosides I-VII (1-7), were isolated from the tubers of Gymnadenia conopsea. The structures of 1-7 were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.
Bioactive constituents from Chinese natural medicines. XVII. constituents with radical scavenging effect and new glucosyloxybenzyl 2-isobutylmalates from Gymnadenia conopsea.:Chem Pharm Bull. 2006 Apr;54(4):506-13.
The methanol-eluted fraction of the methanolic extract from the tubers of Gymnadenia conopsea was found to show radical scavenging activities for DPPH and super oxide anion (.O2-) radicals. Three new glucosyloxybenzyl 2-isobutylmalates, gymnosides VIII, IX, and X, were isolated from this natural medicine together with 58 known constituents. The stereostructures of gymnosides were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. In addition, the phenanthrene and dihydrostilbene constituents showed radical scavenging activities and suggested the following structural requirements on radical scavenging activities; a) phenanthrenes: 1) dihydrogenation at the 9,10-positions enhances the activities, 2) the 1 or 3-p-hydroxybenzyl group enhances the activities; b) dihydrostilbenes: 1) methylation of the 3'-position reduces the activities, 2) the 2- and/or 6-p-hydroxybenzyl groups enhance the activities.
Floral scent emission and pollinator attraction in two species of Gymnadenia (Orchidaceae).:Oecologia. 2005 Feb;142(4):564-75. Epub 2004 Dec 7.Huber FK, Kaiser R, Sauter W, Schiestl FP.Geobotanical Institute ETH, Zollikerstrasse 107, Zurich, 8008, Switzerland.
We investigated scent composition and pollinator attraction in two closely related orchids, Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R.Br. s.l. and Gymnadenia odoratissima (L.) Rich. in four populations during the day and night. We collected pollinators of both species using hand nets and sampled floral odour by headspace sorption. We analysed the samples by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry to identify compounds and with electroantennographic detection to identify compounds with physiological activity in pollinators. In order to evaluate the attractiveness of the physiologically active compounds, we carried out trapping experiments in the field with single active odour substances and mixtures thereof. By collecting insects from flowers, we caught eight pollinators of G. conopsea, which were members of four Lepidoptera families, and 37 pollinators of G. odoratissima, from five Lepidopteran families. There was no overlap in pollinator species caught from the two orchids using nets. In the scent analyses, we identified 45 volatiles in G. conopsea of which three (benzyl acetate, eugenol, benzyl benzoate) were physiologically active. In G. odoratissima, 44 volatiles were identified, of which seven were physiologically active (benzaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, 1-phenyl-2,3-butandione, phenylethyl acetate, eugenol, and one unknown compound). In field bioassays using a mixture of the active G. odoratissima compounds and phenylacetaldehyde alone we caught a total of 25 moths, some of which carried Gymnadenia pollinia. A blend of the active G. conopsea volatiles placed in the G. odoratissima population did not attract any pollinators. The two orchids emitted different odour bouquets during the day and night, but G. odoratissima showed greater temporal differences in odour composition, with phenylacetaldehyde showing a significant increase during the night. The species differed considerably in floral odour emission and this differentiation was stronger in the active than non-active compounds. This differentiation of the two species, especially in the emission of active compounds, appears to have evolved under selection for attraction of different suites of Lepidopteran pollinators.
Antiallergic phenanthrenes and stilbenes from the tubers of Gymnadenia conopsea.:Planta Med. 2004 Sep;70(9):847-55.
The methanolic extract from the tubers of Gymnadenia conopsea showed an antiallergic effect on ear passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions in mice. From the methanolic extract, three new dihydrophenanthrenes, gymconopins A ( 1), B ( 2), and C ( 3), and a new dihydrostilbene, gymconopin D ( 4), were isolated together with 10 known phenanthrene and stilbene constituents. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of physicochemical evidence. Next, the inhibitory effects of the principal constituents on the release of beta-hexosaminidase, as a marker of degranulation, in RBL-2H3 cells were examined and five phenanthrenes, gymconopin B ( 2), 4-methoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-2,7-diol ( 6), 1-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-4-methoxyphenanthrene-2,7-diol ( 7), 1-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-4-methoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-2,7-diol ( 8), and blestriarene A ( 9), and six dihydrostilbenes, gymconopin D ( 4), batatacin III ( 10), 3'- O-methylbatatacin III ( 11), 3,3'-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5-methoxybibenzyl ( 12), 3',5-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-3-methoxybibenzyl ( 13), and 3,3'-dihydroxy-2,6-bis(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5-methoxybibenzyl ( 14) were found to inhibit the antigen-induced degranulation by 65.5 to 99.4 % at 100 microM in RBL-2H3 cells.
Genetic differentiation and habitat preference of flowering-time variants within Gymnadenia conopsea.:Heredity. 2003 Sep;91(3):284-92.Gustafsson S, L?nn M.Department of Conservation Biology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Norbyv?gen 18D, S-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden. Susanne.Gustafsson@ebc.uu.se
Using fast-evolving microsatellites, more slowly evolving ITS markers and performing habitat analyses, we demonstrated a drastic genetic divergence and significant habitat differentiation between early- and late-flowering variants of plants morphologically belonging to Gymnadenia conopsea ssp conopsea. The two phenological variants can either be found in separate or in mixed populations. Information from microsatellite markers and ITS sequences indicated the occurrence of an early historical split between the two flowering-time variants, a split that has been maintained until the present time even within sympatric populations. Early-flowering variants were also far more genetically diverse, had more alleles per microsatellite locus and a wider habitat amplitude than late-flowering variants. As a comparison, we included G. odoratissima in the sequencing study. We found G. odoratissima to be most closely related to the early-flowering type. This indicates a more ancient divergence event between the two flowering-time variants within G. conopsea ssp conopsea than between the two different species G. odoratissima and the early-flowering variant of G. conopsea. Possible explanations to the results arrived at and possible mechanisms maintaining the genetic separation are discussed.
Patterns of genetic variation in Gymnadenia conopsea, the fragrant orchid.:Mol Ecol. 2000 Nov;9(11):1863-72.Gustafsson S.Department of Conservation Biology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Norbyv?gen 18D, S-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden. Susanne.Gustafsson@ebc.uu.se
Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br., or the fragrant orchid, is one of many plant species negatively influenced by new practices in agriculture and forestry during the last decades. This study describes the level of microsatellite variation within and among 10 Swedish populations of this species. It was not possible to detect strong effects of small population size or fragmentation. In general, the species had high genetic variation within and low genetic divergence among populations, although the correlation between population size and number of alleles was close to significance at the 95% level. Also, a significant isolation by distance effect was observed, indicating the presence of modest restrictions in gene dispersal between the investigated populations.
Genetic and Floral Divergence among Sympatric Populations of Gymnadenia conopsea s.l. (Orchideaceae) with Different Flowering Phenology.:Int J Plant Sci. 1999 Sep;160(5):897-905.Soliva M, Widmer A.
Gymnadenia conopsea s.l. is a common orchid in central Europe, where early- and late-flowering populations can be distinguished. The early-flowering form is recognized as subspecies conopsea and the late-flowering form as subspecies densiflora. The two subspecies can occur in sympatry, but their flowering periods are separated. We investigated whether early- and late-flowering subspecies are genetically differentiated, whether they diverged once or repeatedly, and we tried to identify potential evolutionary forces involved in the divergence of the two subspecies. We used genetic markers to estimate genetic divergence within and among populations of early- and late-flowering G. conopsea, and to reconstruct their evolutionary history. In addition, we assessed morphological variation between subspecies. Allozyme variation indicated that subspecies conopsea was significantly more variable than ssp. densiflora and that gene flow among populations of ssp. conopsea was higher than among populations of ssp. densiflora. Gene flow between subspecies was low, indicating that the difference in flowering phenology represented an effective barrier to gene flow. A neighbor-joining tree based on allozyme frequencies indicated that early- and late- flowering populations did not diverge repeatedly in sympatry. Levels of cpDNA variation were generally low, even between G. conopsea s.l. and Gymnadenia odoratissima, chosen as an outgroup. Four cpDNA haplotypes were found, which differed only in the number of microsatellite repeats. Their distribution among subspecies of G. conopsea s.l. and G. odoratissima indicates that microsatellite haplotypes have evolved repeatedly, and their occurrence in different taxa thus represents a homoplasy. Floral characters were variable within and among populations and subspecies but did not consistently separate early- from late-flowering populations. A weak separation between subspecies was found in vegetative characters that presumably reflected habitat and competitive differences experienced by early- and late-flowering populations.
- 1.Fragrant Orchid Extract.Gymnadenia conopsea R.Orchis moustique,Modern Applications.
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