Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Phytochemicals are dedicated to Phytochemicals and phyto derived chemical components.Phytochemicals have been used as drugs for millennia. Hippocrates may have prescribed willow tree leaves to abate fever. Salicin, having anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties, was originally extracted from the white willow tree and later synthetically produced become the staple over-the-counter drug called Aspirin!
Phytochemicals are chemical compounds such as beta-carotene that occur naturally in plants. The term is generally used to refer to those chemicals that may affect health, but are not yet established as essential nutrients.While there is abundant scientific and government support for recommending diets rich in fruits and vegetables, there is only limited evidence that health benefits are due to specific phytochemicals.
There is evidence from laboratory studies that phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer, possibly due to dietary fibers, polyphenol antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. Specific phytochemicals, such as fermentable dietary fibers, are allowed limited health claims by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Contents: C3 | C4 | C-value | 1C-value | Cx-value | cabbage tree | Cadinene [29350-73-0] | caducous | caespitose | caffeic acid | caffeine | Calamenene[483-77-2] | calcar, calcarate | Calcification | calcium | calcium oxalate[25454-23-3] | callose | callus | calycanthemous | calycine | calyccophyll | Calycosin [20575-57-9] | calyculus | calyptra | calyx | calyx tube | CAM | cambial initials | cambium | campanulate | Campesterol:[474-62-4] | Camphene:[79-92-5] | Camphor:[76-22-2] | Camphoric acid[5394-83-2] | camptodromous | campylodromous | campylotropous | canaliculate | Canavanine[543-38-4] | canescent | canopy | cantharophilous | capillary | capitate | capitulum | capreolate | Capric Acids:[334-48-5] | Caprylic acid:[124-07-2] | Capsaicin [404-86-4] | Capsanthin [465-42-9] | capsule | caput | Carbohydrate | Carbon Dioxide[124-38-9] | carboxylated iridoids | Carboxylation | Carcinogen | Carcinogenesis | cardenolides | cardiac glycosides | carinate | Carnitine | carnose | Carnosic acid[3650-09-7] | Carnosol[5957-80-2] | Carotenes | Carotenoids | carpel | carpellate | carpellode | carpidiophore | carpophore | carpopodium | Carthamin[36338-96-2] | caruncle | Carvacrol[499-75-2] | Carvone[99-49-0] | caryophyllaceous | Caryophyllene [87-44-5] | Caryophyllene epoxide [1139-30-6] | caryopsis | Casparian band | castanospermine | casuarinine | cata- | catalepsis | Catalpol | Catalyze | cataphyll | Catechin [154-23-4] | (-)-Catechin gallate [154-23-4] | Catechol | Catecholamine[97-59-6] | Catecholamines | catkin | caudate | caudex | caudicle | cauliflorous | cauline | caulome | caveate | cecidium | cell | cellular | cellulose | central cell | centrifugal | centripetal | centromere | Ceramides [100403-19-8] | ceratolin | Cetene [629-73-2] | C-glucosyl- or C-glycosyl- | chaffy | chalaza | chalazogamy | chalazal cyst | chalazosperm | chalcones | chamaephyte | character | character state | chartaceous | chasmogamous | chelidonic acid | Chicoric acid:[70831-56-0] | chiropterophilous | -chlamydeous | chloranthoid | Chlorine [7782-50-5] | chlorogenic acid[327-97-9] | Chlorogenin[562-34-5] | Chlorophyll | Chlorophyllide a[83869-98-1] | Chlorophyllide b[14428-12-7] | chloroplast | Choline [123-41-1] | Chromium:[7440-47-3] | chromoalkaloids | chromones | chromoplast | chromosome | Chrysanthemin (6CI,8CI)[7084-24-4] | Chrysanthemol[5617-92-5] | Chrysanthenyl acetate[54324-99-1] | Chrysanthetriol[143086-40-2] | chrysophanic acid[481-74-3] | chrysophanol | Chylomicrons | Cimicifugoside [66176-93-0] | Cinnamic acid derivatives | cincinnus | Cineole:[470-82-6] | cinereous | Cinnamaldehyde:[104-55-2] | cinnamic acid:[63938-16-9] | Cinnamic aldehyde | Cinnamyl acetate:[103-54-8] | circinate | circinotropous | circumscissile | cirrus | Cistanoside A:[93236-42-1] | Cistanoside C:[94492-22-5] | Citral [5392-40-5] | Citric acid [77-92-9] | Citronellyl acetate:[150-84-5] | Citronellol:[106-22-9] | clade | cladode | cladophyll | cladoptosis | class | clathrate | clavate | claw | cleavage polyembryony | cleistogamous | clockwise | clone | closed meristem | closed | Coagulase[9001-13-2] | Cobalt:[7440-48-4] | cocarcinogenins | coccus | cochleate, cochlear | coenocarpous | coenocyte | Coenzyme | Coenzyme Q10 | Cofactor | coflorescence | coherent | coleoptile | coleorhiza | Collagen | Collagenous matrix (of bone) | collateral | collenchyma | collet | colleter | colpate (colpi, sing. colpus) | colporate | columella | Columbianetin [1147-29-1][3804-70-4 ] | Columbianadin [5058-13-9] | column | coma | commissure | companion cell | compitum | complanate | compound aperture | compound fruit | compound leaf | compressed | compression wood | concaulescent | concolorous | condensed tannins | conduplicate | conduplicate-flat | conduplicate-involute | conduplicate-plicate | condyle | cone | conferruminate | congenital | congested | coniine | Conjugation | connate | connective | connivent | contact parastichy | contorted, contort | contortiplicate | convolute (of imbrication) | Copaene[3856-25-5] | Copolymer | Copper | coralloid | cordate | coriaceous | cork | cork cambium | corm | cornosides | corolla | corona | corpus | corpusculum | cortex | Corticosteroid | corymb | costa | cotyledon | coumarins | coumestans | Coumestrol [479-13-0] | counterclockwise | craspedodromous | crassinucellate | C-reactive protein (CRP) | Creatine phosphate | crenate | Cresol [1319-77-3] | cristarque cells | cross pollination | crotonoid | crown | crown group | crownshaft | crozier | cruciferous | Cruciferous vegetables | crumpled | crustaceous | cryptocotylar | cryptogam | cryptophyte | Cryptoxanthin [472-70-8] | crystal sand | cucullate | cucurbitacins | cucurbitoid | Curcumene[644-30-4] | Curcumin | culm | cuneate | cunonioid | cupule | curcumins | curved | cuspidate | cuticle | cutin | C-value | cyanidin | Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside[7084-24-4] | cyanogenesis | cyathium | cycasin | cyclic | Cycloartenol[469-38-5] | cyclocytic | cyclopentenoids | cyme | Cymene [99-87-6] | Cynarin [1182-34-9] | cypsela | Cysteine [52-90-4] | Cystine [56-89-3] | Cystine disulfoxide [30452-69-8] | cystolith | cystisine | Cytidine[65-46-3] | Cytochrome P450 | Cytokine | Cytoplasm |
Bakkenolide A [19906-72-0]:Synonyms:Bakkenolid A;Bakkenolide A;FUKINANOLIDE;Fukinanolid;NSC 292655;19906-72-0;Bakkenolid A;Bakkenolide
C3:a photosynthetic pathway in which carbon is fixed as the 3C compound 3-phosphoglycerate, cf. C4, CAM.
C4a photosynthetic pathway in which carbon is fixed as the 4C compound phosphoenolpyruvate, and this converted into 4C acids, from these the fixed carbon entering the plant's metabolic cycles as the 3C compound 3-phosphoglycerate, often associated with a distinct tissue structure (Kranz anatomy), cf. C3, CAM.
C-valuea measure of genome size, the amount of DNA in the unreplicated gametic nucleus.
1C-valuea measure of genome size, the amount of DNA in the unreplicated gametic nuclear genome.
Cx-valuea measure of genome size, the amount of DNA in the unreplicated gametic basic monoploid chromosome set.
cabbage tree= schopfbaum.
Cadinene [29350-73-0]Synonyms:[1S-(1alpha,4alpha,4aalpha,6alpha,8alphabeta)]-decahydro-1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)naphthalene, didehydro derivative; b-Cadinene; Cadinene; Cadinenes; sesquiterpene;(1S-(1alpha,4alpha,4aalpha,6alpha,8abeta))-Decahydro-4-isopropyl-1,6-dimethylnaphthalene,didehydro derivative,108910-53-8,29350-73-0,CADINENE,CCRIS 4593,EINECS 249-580-9,Naphthalene,decahydro-1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-,(1S,4S,4aS,6S,8aS)-,didehydro deriv.,Naphthalene,decahydro-1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-,(1S-(1alpha,4alpha,4aalpha,6alpha,8abeta))-, didehydro deriv.
Formula:C15 H26 Molecular Weight:206.367 g/mol CAS RN:29350-73-0 Water Solubility:<0.1 g/100 mL at 21 C
caducousesp. of the calyx and/or corolla, falling off early compared to those of other plants, but not withering (e.g. the calyx of Papaver), cf. accrescent, deciduous, deliquescent, fugacious, marcescent, persistent.
caespitosegrowing in tufts.
caffeic acida phenol formed from cinnamic acid, more frequently occurs as an ester, as in chlorigenic acid.
Caffeic acid, C9 H8 O4. Caffeic acid ester, C17 H13 O6.
Calamenene[483-77-2]Synonyms:(-)-Calamenene;(1S-cis)-1,6-Dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene;1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)naphthalene;1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDRO-1,6-DIMETHYL-4-ISOPROPYLNAPH*;1,6-DIMETHYL-4-ISOPROPYLTETRALIN;22339-23-7;4-Isopropyl-1,6-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene;483-77-2;6617-49-8;Cadina-1,3,5-triene;Calamenene;L-calamenene;Naphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-;Naphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-, (1S-c is)-,NIST483-77-2
Cas Type 1 Name:Naphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-, (1S-cis)- Substance Name:(-)-Calamenene
Formula: C15H22 CAS RN:483-77-2 Other RN:22339-23-7 Molecular Weight:202.335 g/mol
calcar, calcarate= spur, spurred.
Calcificationthe process of deposition of calcium salts. In the formation of bone this is a normal condition. In other organs, this could be an abnormal condition. Calcification of the aortic valve causes narrowing of the passage (aortic stenosis).
calciumCalcium is the most common mineral in the human body. About 99% of the calcium in the body is found in bones and teeth, while the other 1% is found in the blood and soft tissue. Calcium levels in the blood and fluid surrounding the cells (extracellular fluid) must be maintained within a very narrow concentration range for normal physiological functioning. The physiological functions of calcium are so vital to survival that the body will demineralize bone to maintain normal blood calcium levels when calcium intake is inadequate. Thus, adequate dietary calcium is a critical factor in maintaining a healthy skeleton.
calcium oxalate[25454-23-3]the crystalline form is common in plant cells, either as druses, raphides, sand, or styloids. the crystalline form is common in plant cells, either as druses, raphides, sand, or styloids. Synonyms:18400-37-8;25454-23-3;563-72-4;5794-28-5;CALCIUM OXALATE;Calcium oxalate (1:1);EINECS 209-260-1;Ethanedioic acid, calcium salt;Ethanedioic acid,calcium salt (1:1);Oxalic acid, calcium salt (1:1)
CAS Type 1 Name:Ethanedioic acid, calcium salt Chemical Name:Ethanedioic acid, calcium salt
Formula:C2-H2-O4.x-Ca CAS RN:25454-23-3 Other RN:5794-28-5 Molecular Weight:128.0996
Note:The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
callosea polymer of glucose, a ?-1,3 glucan, found especially in the area of the sieve plate in sieve elements, also in the pollen tube, etc., cf. cellulose, hemicellulose, inulin, pectin, starch, see also lignin.
callusan unorganised, proliferative mass of large more or less thin-walled cells that are often formed after an injury, but sometimes a regular feature of the plant and then used to refer to more or less soft excrescences developing from the surface, e.g. on the labellum of some orchids and on the axis of the spikelet of some grasses, pl. calli.
calycanthemous"having sepals wholly or partly converted into petals" - umph!
calycinepertaining to the calyx.
calyccophyllwhen the calyx is more or less expanded and like a petal/petals.
Formula: C16 H12 O5. Molecular Weight:284.2678 CAS RN:20575-57-9 ACX Number:X1036559-2.
calyculusa structure varying in its morphological nature that looks like a small calyx, see in particular epicalyx.
calyptrain general, any cap-shaped structure, in mosses and liverworts, a cap-like structure covering or partly covering the capsule and derived from the venter of the archegonium; in a flower = operculum, the calyx and corolla fused together.
calyxthe sepals of one flower collectively, cf. androecium, corolla, gynoecium, perianth.
calyx tubea tube formed by connation of the sepals alone, the calyx limb being the total length of the structure and the calyx lobes the free parts of the sepals at the end.
CAMa photosynthetic pathway in which carbon is fixed in the dark as 4C compounds (e.g. malic acid) by phosphoenolpyruvate, these later being broken down releasing CO2 and carbon entering the plant's metabolic cycles as the 3C compound 3-phosphoglycerate, cf. C3, C4.
cambial initialsactively-dividing cambial cells in either cork or vascular cambia that by periclinal divisions produce cells both to the outside and inside, see fusiform initials, ray initials.
cambiumpl. cambia, lateral meristems made up of undifferentiated cells whose products are arranged in radial files and cause secondary thickening, see cork cambium, vascular cambium, see also polyderm, see also initial.
campanulatee.g. of a polysymmetric corolla, bell-shaped, broadly tubular and then gradually widening towards the more or less spreading lobes, cf. rotate, infundibular, salverform, tubular, urceolate.
Campesterol:[474-62-4]Synonyms:(24R)-5-Ergosten-3beta-ol;24alpha-Methylcholesterol;Campesterin;Campesterol;Campestrol;EINECS 207-484-4;NSC 224330;delta5-24-Isoergosten-3beta-ol;22,23-dihydrobrassicasterol;24 alpha-methylcholest-5-en-3 beta-ol;24-methylcholesterol;campesterol, (3beta)-isomer;campesterol, (3beta,24xi)-isomer;ergost-5-en-3 beta- ol, 24 epimer
CAS Type 1 Name:Ergost-5-en-3-ol, (3beta,24R)-
Chemical Name: (24R)-Ergost-5-en-3beta-ol ;Ergost-5-en-3-ol, (3beta,24R)- ;Ergost-5-en-3beta-ol, (24R)- (8CI)
Formula: C28 H48O CAS RN:474-62-4
Camphene:[79-92-5]Synonyms:2,2-Dimethyl-3-methylenebicyclo(2.2.1)heptane;2,2-Dimethyl-3-methylenenorbornane;3,3-Dimethyl-2-methylenenorbornane;3,3-Dimethyl-2-methylenenorcamphane; 3,3-Dimethyl-2-methylenenorcamphene;AI3-01775;Bicyclo(2.2.1)heptane, 2,2-dimethyl-3-methylene-;CCRIS 3783;Camphene;Camphene (2,2-dimethyl-3-methylene-norbornane);EINECS 201-234-8;EINECS 209-275-3;FEMA No. 2229;HSDB 900;NSC 4165 ; (+/-)-Camphene; 2,2-Dimethyl-3-Methylene-Bicyclo[2.2.1]Heptane; 2,2-Dimethyl-3-Methylene Norbornane; 3,3-Dimethyl-2-methylene-norcamphane; 3,3-Dimethyl-2-Methylene Norcamphone; Camphene; Camphene, remainder mainly alpha-fenchene;
Chemical Name: (1)-2,2-Dimethyl-3-methylenebicyclo(2.2.1)heptane;Bicyclo(2.2.1)heptane, 2,2-dimethyl-3-methylene- ;Camphene
Formula: C10 H16 CAS RN:79-92-5 Other RN:565-00-4 Molecular Weight:136.2364 Melting Point: 114
ACX Number:114 . Density114 Flashing Point:36 Boiling Point: 114
Camphor:[76-22-2]Synonyms:0-07-00-00135 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);1,7,7-Trimethylbicyclo(2.2.1)-2-heptanone;1,7,7-Trimethylnorcamphor;2-Bornanone;2-Camphanone;2-Kamfanon [Czech];2-Keto-1,7,7-trimethylnorcamphane;4-07-00-00213 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);AI3-18783;Alphanon;BRN 1907611;BRN 3196099;Bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-one, 1,7,7-trimethyl-;Bornane, 2-oxo-;Camphor;Camphor, synthetic;Caswell No. 155;DL-Camphor;EINECS 200-945-0;EINECS 244-350-4;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 015602;Gum camphor;HSDB 37;Huile de camphre [French];Kampfer [German];Matricaria camphor;Norcamphor, 1,7,7-trimethyl-;Root bark oil;dl-Camphor
CAS Type 1 Name:1,7,7-Trimethylbicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-one ;2-Bornanone;Bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-one, 1,7,7-trimethyl- ;Camphor;Gum camphor ;Spirit of camphor
Chemical Name: (+-)-Camphor;Bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-one, 1,7,7-trimethyl-;Camphor ;DL-Bornan-2-one
Formula: C10 H16O CAS RN:76-22-2
Note: A Ketone obtained from the wood of Cinnamomum camphora, an evergreen tree native to eastern Asia, or produced synthetically, with a penetrating characteristic odor and a pungent, aromatic taste. It is applied topically to the skin as an antipruritic and anti-infective and is used as a pharmaceutic necessity in certain pharmaceutic preparations. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Camphoric acid[5394-83-2]Synonyms:1,2,2-Trimethyl-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid; Camphoric acid;
Formula: C10 H16O4. Molecular Weight:200.234 CAS RN:5394-83-2 ACX Number:X1014920-7.
camptodromousof leaf venation, pinnate venation in which the secondary veins do not terminate at the margins, includes brochidodromous, eucamptodromous, reticulodromous, cf. acrodromous, actinodromous, campylodromous, craspedodromous, dichotomous, flabellate, palmate, parallelodromous, semicraspedodromous, simple-craspedodromous.
campylodromousof leaf venation, more or less parallel venation in which the veins originate at the base and run in incurved arches before converging at the leaf apex, cf. parallelodromous, cf. also acrodromous, actinodromous, campylodromous, craspedodromous, dichotomous, flabellate, palmate, parallelodromous, semicraspedodromous, simple-craspedodromous.
of an ovule, orientated transversely with its axis at right angles to its funicle and with a curved embryo sac, the micropyle being close to the funicle, cf. amphitropous, anatropous, atropous, circinotropous, hemitropous.
canaliculatewith a longitudinal groove or channel.
Synonyms:2-Amino-4-(guanidinooxy)butyric acid; Canavanine
Formula:C5 H13N4O3. Molecular Weight:176.1741 CAS RN:543-38-4 L-Canavanine is one of over 300 documented non-protein amino acids, also known as secondary metabolites or anti-metabolites, which exist in plants (most commonly in legumes and their seeds). Essentially, they assist in the breakdown of the 20 known amino acids common in both plants and animals. L-Canavanine’s chemical structure is quite complex and defined as follows:
Specifically, L-Canavanine is an L-arginine antimetabolite. In the Sutherlandia plant, L-Canavanine is present at levels of just over 2.0 mg per dry leaf gram. It acts as an anti-predatory agent in the plant, protecting it against various insects.
L-Canavanine has been shown to be an inhibitor (selective) of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), with possible usage in the treatment of alcohol induced brain damage and certain other neurological disorders.
What are its benefits?
L-Canavanine has been identified by G. A Rosenthal, of the Biochemical Ecology Laboratory at The University of Kentucky, as a likely therapeutic agent for human pancreatic and some other cancer types. It has been demonstrated by N. Suzuki, A. Sakomoto and R. Ogawa as having strong potential for the treatment of septic shock and chronic inflammation. These are just a few of numerous research papers on the substance.
There are a number of patents associated with L-Canavanine which indicate it's applicability in the treatment in a number of ailments. Two of the main examples are: Crooks, Rosenthal and Gerald were granted a patent in 1994 for the use of the substance to treat pancreatic cancer (Patent No. 5,552,440) and Karson, Lyon and Freeman being granted a patent that uses the substance in the treatment of numerous brain disorders in 1996 (Patent No. 5,527,825). In patent No. 6,346,519, E. Petrus gives L-Canavanine a partial role in the treatment of arthritis.
More research is currently underway on the substance and its applicability to certain other conditions. Details will be placed here as soon as confirmed.
Is a patent total proof that L-Canavanine is effective?
The tests, experiments and theory associated with the above have met a defined standard of proof with the US Patent office, as evidenced by the awarding of the patents. Despite this, we do not regard the awarding of the patents as demonstrable evidence for the efficacy of L-Canavanine in themselves. But critically, the above findings do correlate with the widespread anecdotal evidence we have taken from individuals who have used Sutherlandia and the fact that their ancestors, going back hundreds of years, have also used the plants for the same purpose, with very positive results.
Are there any side effects?
If taken in severe overdose quantities (i.e. 1,000 mg per day for 12 months), L-Canavanine can cause thinning of the blood. Furthermore, it can exacerbate the symptoms of Lupus, a disease where the body's own immune system starts to attack various organs. Individuals with kidney conditions must consult their physician before taking this substance.
At recommended dosage levels, the L-Canavanine in Sutherlandia Frutescens Tablets has not been shown to cause side effects.
canescentmore or less grey-pubescent, hoary.
canopythe branches and foliage of a tree, cf. bole.
cantharophilousentomophilous flowers that are pollinated by beetles, cf. mellitophilous, myophilous, sapromyophilous, sphigophilous.
capillaryof hairs etc., very slender.
capitatee.g. of a stigma, head-like, globose, like the head of a pin, cf. clavate.
capituluman inflorescence with sessile flowers aggregated into a dense cluster, whether a racemose (more usual) or cymose, cf. corymb, fascicle, panicle, spike, thyrse, umbel.
Capric Acids:[334-48-5]Synonyms:1-nonane carboxylic acid; caprinic acid; decanoic acid; capric acid; DECANOIC ACID,99+%; Decanoic acid (capric acid); decylic acid; n-Decanoic Acid; n-Capric Acid; n-decoic acid; n-decylic acid; neo-fat 10; Nonanecarboxylic acid;
CAS Type 1 Name:Capric acid,Decanoic acid,n-Capric acid,n-Decanoic acid;10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
CAS RN:334-48-5 Formula:C10H20O2 Molecular Weight:172.2668 Melting Point:31 - 32 ; Boiling Point:268 - 270
Caprylic acid:[124-07-2]Synonyms:1-heptanecarboxylic acid; c-8 acid; neo-fat 8; n-Caprylic Acid; n-Octanoic Acid; n-octic acid; n-octylic acid; Octanoic Acid; caprylic acid; capryloate; Octoic acid;
CAS Type 1 Name:Caprylic acid; Octanoic acid
CAS RN:124-07-2 Related RN: 15696-43-2 (unspecified lead salt) 16577-52-9 (lithium salt) 18312-04-4 (unspecified zirconium salt) 1912-83-0 (tin(+2) salt) 1984-06-1 (hydrochloride salt) 20195-23-7 (unspecified chromium salt) 20543-04-8 (unspecified copper salt) 2191-10-8 (cadmium salt) 3130-28-7 (iron(+3) salt) 3890-89-9 (copper(+2) salt) 4696-54-2 (barium salt) 4995-91-9 (nickel(+2) salt) 5206-47-3 (zirconium(+4) salt) 557-09-5 (zinc salt) 5972-76-9 (ammonium salt) 6028-57-5 (aluminum salt) 60903-69-7 (La(+3) salt) 6107-56-8 (calcium salt) 6427-90-3 (chromium(+2) salt) 6535-19-9 (unspecified manganese salt) 6535-20-2 (unspecified iron salt) 6700-85-2 (cobalt salt) 67816-08-4 (Ir(+3) salt) 68957-64-2 (Ru(+3) salt) 7319-86-0 (lead(+2) salt) 7435-02-1 (unspecified Ce salt) 764-71-6 (potassium salt) Formula:C8H16O2 Molecular Weight: 144.2132 Melting Point:16 - 16.5; Boiling Point:239.7
Capsaicin [404-86-4]Synonyms:(E)-8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide;(E)-N-((4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-methyl)-8-methyl-6-nonenamide;4-13-00-02588 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);6-Nonenamide, 8-methyl-N-vanillyl-, (E)-;6-Nonenamide, N-((4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl)-8-methyl-, (E)-;8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide, (E)-;BRN 2816484;CCRIS 1588;Capsaicin;Capsaicine;Caswell No. 158;EINECS 206-969-8;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 070701;FEMA No. 3404;HSDB 954;Isodecenoic acid vanillylamide;N-((4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl)-8-methyl-6-;nonenamide, (E)-;N-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-8-methylnon-trans-6-enamide;NCI-C56564;NSC 56353;Styptysat; trans-8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide
CAS Type 1 Name:6-Nonenamide, N-((4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl)-8-methyl-, (E)- ; Capsaicin CAS RN:404-86-4 Formula:C18H27NO3 Molecular Weight: 305.4162 Melting Point:62 - 65;
Note:Cytotoxic alkaloid from various species of Capsicum (pepper, paprika), of the Solanaceae.
Capsanthin [465-42-9]Synonyms:3,3'-Dihydroxy-beta,kappa-caroten-6'one;Capsanthin;Capsanthin/capsorubin;Paprika extract;beta,kappa-Caroten-6'one, 3,3'dihydroxy-
CAS Type 1 Name:capsanthin, (3R,3'S,5'R,13-cis)-isomer CAS RN:465-42-9 Formula:C40H56O3 Molecular Weight:584.8806
capsulein an angiosperm, a usually dry fruit formed from two or more united carpels and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds, sometimes with valves, see circumscissile, loculicidal, poricidal, septicidal, septifragal (variants), see also follicle (when fruit is a single carpel), schizocarp (when fruit breaks up into single-seeded units). in a "bryophyte", s sporophytic structure containing the spores.
caputof a pollen grain, an architectural element on top of a columella, discontinuous and not confluent (see tectum), cf. baculum, intectate.
Carbohydrateconsidered a macronutrient because carbohydrates provide a significant source of calories (energy) in the diet. Chemically, carbohydrates are neutral compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates come in simple forms known as sugars and complex forms, such as starches and fiber.
Carbon Dioxide[124-38-9]Synonyms:AER Fixus;After-damp;Anhydride carbonique [French];Carbon dioxide;Carbon oxide;Carbon oxide, di-;Carbonic acid anhydride;Carbonic acid gas;Carbonic anhydride;Carbonica;Caswell No. 163;Dioxido de carbono [Spanish];Dioxyde de carbone [French];Dry ice;EINECS 204-696-9;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 016601;HSDB 516;Khladon 744;Kohlendioxyd [German];Kohlensaure [German];R 744;Carbon dioxide; Carbon dioxide, 99.99%; Carbon dioxide, solid; Carbonic anhydride; dry ice; Makr carbon dioxide;
Chemical Name:Carbon dioxide;Carbon dioxide [UN1013] [Nonflammable gas];Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid [UN2187] [Nonflammable gas];Carbon dioxide, solid or dry ice [UN1845] [Class 9]
Equivalent Term:Carbonic Anhydride CAS Type 1 Name:Carbon dioxide
Formula: CO2 Molecular Weight:44.0098 CAS RN:124-38-9 Other RN:18923-20-1
Melting Point:-5.65E+01 deg C Boiling Point:-7.85E+01 Density:1.35 Vapor Density:1.53 log P (octanol-water): 0.83 Water Solubility:1480 mg/L at 25 deg C; Vapor Pressure:4.83E+04 mm Hg at 25 deg C Henry's Law Constant:0.015 atm-m3/mole at 25 deg C Atmospheric OH Rate Constant:0.0 cm3/molecule-sec at 25 deg C
Note:A Colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
carboxylated iridoidsa kind of route II iridoid (= normal route II) derived from epi-iridodial and epi-iridotrial via glucosylation and oxidation of C11 to the carboxyl level, cf. decarboxylated iridoids.
Strictoloside, C16 H22 O12.
Ipolamiide, C17 H26 O11.
Carboxylationthe introduction of a carboxyl group (-COOH) or carbon dioxide into a compound.
Carcinogena cancer-causing agent; adjective: carcinogenic.
Carcinogenesisthe formation of cancer cells from normal cells.
cardenolidessubclass of triterpenoids (nortriterpenoids), basically C30 compounds made up of 6 isoprene units, composed of 23 carbon atoms, inc. cardiac glycosides (heart poisons and toxins) that are taken up by monarch and danaid butterflies, also some aphids.
Cardenolide, C23 H36 O2.
cardiac glycosidesa kind of cardenolide.
carinate= keeled, with a median ridge or fold on the abaxial surface of the structure, in particular, carinate aestivation of caesalpinioid Fabaceae, where the keel petals enclose the rest, a variant of cochleate or imbricate aestivation; the carina of the flower of some Fabaceae = keel.
CarnitineL-Carnitine is a derivative of the amino acid, lysine. Its name is derived from the fact that it was first isolated from meat (carnus) in 1905. Because L-carnitine appeared to act as a vitamin in the mealworm (Tenebrio molitor), it was called vitamin BT. Vitamin BT turned out to be a misnomer when scientists discovered that humans and other higher organisms synthesize L-carnitine. Under certain conditions, the demand for L-carnitine may exceed an individual's capacity to synthesize it, making it a conditionally essential nutrient .
Chemical Name:4a(2H)-Phenanthrenecarboxylic acid, 1,3,4,9,10,10a-hexahydro-5,6-dihydroxy-1,1-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl)-, (4aR-trans)-
Formula: C20 H28O4 CAS RN:3650-09-7
Classification Note: Anti-infective agents, local;Antioxidants
Carnosol[5957-80-2]Synonyms:CCRIS 7122;Carnosol;carnosol, sodium salt, (4aR-(4aalpha,9alpha,10abeta))-isomer
Chemical Name:2H-9,4a-(Epoxymethano)phenanthren-12-one, 1,3,4,9,10,10a-hexahydro-5,6-dihydroxy-1,1-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl)-,(4aR-(4aalpha,9alpha,10abeta))-
Formula: C20 H26O4 CAS RN:5957-80-2
Classification Note:Anti-infective agents;Anticarcinogenic agents
Carotenoidssubclass of fat-soluble terpenes that consist of two diterpene phytol-like units (C40 compounds, 8 isoprene units), the most familiar tetraterpenoids and occurring as carotenes and xanthophylls; yellow to red pigments.
Carotenoids are a class of more than 600 naturally occurring pigments synthesized by plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. These richly colored molecules are the sources of the yellow, orange, and red colors of many plants. Fruits and vegetables provide most of the carotenoids in the human diet. Alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene are the most common dietary carotenoids. Alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin are provitamin A carotenoids, meaning they can be converted by the body to retinol. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene cannot be converted to retinol, so they have no vitamin A activity.
CAS Type 1 Name:Carotenes and Carotenoids CAS RN:36-88-4
Equivalent Term:Carotenes;Carotene;Carotenoids,dietary intake;Phytoxanthins
Description:The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Lutein, C40 H56 O2.
carpelmegasporophyll, a unit of the gynoecium, usually two or more in number and almost always at the centre of a flower, more or less tubular and their margins more or less fused together (see ascidiate, conduplicate) and/or with other carpels to enclose the ovule(s), and consisting of an ovary, stigma and usually a style.
carpellate(e.g. of a flower) with functional carpels only, cf. neuter, perfect, staminate.
carpellodea non-functional carpel, cf. pistillode.
carpidiophorea persistent woody fruit base of a capsule or schizocarp.
carpophorethe central axis that persists between the carpels in a schizocarp where the ovary is inferior, e.g. remaining after the mericarps are shed in Apiaceae, cf. columella.
carpopodiuma term used by synantherologists to refer to the basal abscission zone of the cypsela/achene and consisting of one or two rows of cells that are distinct morphologically from other cells of the cypselal wall.
Carthamin[36338-96-2] 36338-96-2, 4-Cyclohexene-1,3-dione, 6-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2-((3-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2,3,4-trihydroxy-5-(3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl)-6-oxo-1,4-cyclohexadien-1-yl)methylene)-5,6-dihydroxy-4-(3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl)-, Carthamin, Carthamine, EINECS 252-981-1
CAS Type 1 Name:4-Cyclohexene-1,3-dione, 6-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2-((3-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2,3,4-trihydroxy-5-(3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl)-6-oxo-1,4-cyclohexadien-1-yl)methylene)-5,6-dihydroxy-4-(3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl)-
Chemical Name:Carthamin Carthamine Formula: C43 H42O22. Molecular Weight:910.78 g/mol CAS RN:36338-96-2
carunclea more or less fleshy excrescent outgrowth from the surface of a seed, usually near the hilum or micropyle, cf. aril, coma, elaiosome, strophiole.
Carvacrol[499-75-2]Synonyms:5-isopropyl-2-methyl-phenol; carvacrol; Cymenol; Hydroxy-p-cymene; Isopropyl-o-cresol; Isothymol; Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)phenol; Phenol, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-;
Formula: C10 H14O. Molecular Weight:150.22 CAS RN:499-75-2 ACX Number:X1009628-5.
Carvone[99-49-0]1'carvone (?); 6,8-p-Menthadien-2-one; Carvone; D-Cavone;1-Carvone;2-Cyclohexen-1-one, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl)-;2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-one;2-Methyl-5-isopropenyl-2-cyclohexenone;4-07-00-00316 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);6,8(9)-p-Menthadien-2-one;AI3-08877; BRN 1364206;Carvol;Carvone;Carvone (natural);EINECS 202-759-5;FEMA No. 2249;FEMA Number 2249;HSDB 707;Karvon;NCI-C55867;NSC 6275;delta(sup 6,8)-(9)-terpadienone-2;delta-1-Methyl-4-isopropenyl-6-cyclohexen-2-one;p-Mentha-6,8-dien-2-one
CAS Type 1 Name:2-Cyclohexen-1-one, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl)-;d-p-Mentha-1(6),8-dien-2-one;p-Mentha-6,8-dien-2-one
Chemical Name:Carvone Formula: C10 H14O. Molecular Weight:150.22 CAS RN:99-49-0 Boiling Point:279 ACX Number:X1000384-2 Density0.959
caryophyllaceous(of stomata) = diacytic.
Caryophyllene [87-44-5]Synonyms:1-caryophyllene; 2-Methylene-6,10,10-trimethyl bicyclo[7.2.0]undec-5-ene; 8-methylene-4,11,11-(trimethyl)bicyclo[7.2.0]undec-4-ene; beta-caryophyllene; (-)-beta-caryophyllene; Bicyclo[7.2.0]undec-4-ene, 4,11,11-trimethyl-8-methylene-, [1R-(1R*,4E,9S*)]-; bicyclo[7.2.0]undec-4-ene, 4,11,11-trimethyl-8-methylene-, (E)-(1R,9S)-(-)-; bicyclo[7.2.0]undec-4-ene, 8-methylene-4,11,11-trimethyl-, (E)-(1R,9S)-(-)-; caryophyllene; (-)-caryophyllene; trans-caryophyllene; (-)-trans-caryophyllene;beta-caryophyllene;caryophyllene, (R*,4Z,9S*)-(+-)-isomer;caryophyllene, (R-(R*,4E,9S))-isomer;caryophyllene, (R-(R*,4Z,9S*))-isomer;caryophyllene, (S-(R*,4E,9S*))-isomer;caryophyllene, (S-(R*,4Z,9S*))-isomer;2-Methylene-6,10,10-trimethylbicyclo(7.2.0)undec-5-ene ; 4,11,11-Trimethyl-8-methylenebicyclo(7.2.0)undec-4-ene, (1R-(1R*,4E,9S))- ; 8-Methylene-4,11,11-(trimethyl)bicyclo(7.2.0)undec-4-ene ; AI3-36121 ; Bicyclo(7.2.0)undec-4-ene, 4,11,11-trimethyl-8-methylene-,(1R-(1R*,4E,9S*))-; CARYOPHYLLENE ,ALPHA + BETA MIXT.; Caryophyllene; Caryophyllene (VAN); EINECS 201-746-1; FEMA No. 2252; L-Caryophyllene; NSC 11906; beta-Caryophyllen; beta-Caryophyllene (natural) ; l-Caryophyllene
Chemical Name:Bicyclo(7.2.0)undec-4-ene, 4,11,11-trimethyl-8-methylene-,(1R,4E,9S)- ; Bicyclo(7.2.0)undec-4-ene, 8-methylene-4,11,11-trimethyl-,(E)-(1R,9S)-(-)- ; Caryophyllene
Formula: C15 H24 CAS RN:87-44-5 Other RN: 13877-93-5 8007-38-3 1407-53-0 Molecular Weight:204.3546
ACX Number:X1009668-9. Water Solubility:<0.1 g/100 mL at 21 C Boiling Point:129 - 130
Caryophyllene epoxide [1139-30-6]Synonyms:(-)-Epoxydihydrocaryophyllene ; 4,11,11-Trimethyl-8-methylene-5-oxatricyclo(220.127.116.11(4,6))dodecane; 4,12,12-Trimethyl-9-methylene-5-oxatricyclo(8.2.0.04,6)dodecane, (1R,4R,6R,10S)- ; 5-Oxatricyclo(18.104.22.168(4,6))dodecane, 4,12,12-trimethyl-9-methylene-, (1R,4R,6R,10S)- ; Caryophylene oxide ; Caryophyllene epoxide ; Caryophyllene oxide; EINECS 214-519-7; Epoxycaryophyllene; HSDB 5466
Chemical Name:(1R-(1R*,4R*,6R*,10S*))-4,12,12-Trimethyl-9-methylene-5-oxatricyclo(8.2.0.04,6)dodecane ; 5-Oxatricyclo(22.214.171.124(sup 4,6))dodecane, 4,12,12-trimethyl-9-methylene-, (1R,4R,6R,10S)- ; 5-Oxatricyclo(8.2.0.04,6)dodecane, 4,12,12-trimethyl-9-methylene-, (1R,4R,6R,10S)- ;
Formula: C15 H24O CAS RN:1139-30-6 Other RN: 105120-46-5 11023-55-5 32095-03-7
caryopsisdry, indehiscent, one-seeded fruit in which the seed coat is closely fused to the fruit wall (characteristic of grasses), a variant of an achene s. str., cf. cypsela, nut, utricle.
Casparian banda waxy band-like formation within primary walls that contains lignin and suberin located in the anticlinal walls, especially in endodermis, see also exodermis.
castanosperminea polyhydroxy alkaloid.
casuarininea polyhydroxy alkaloid.
cata-(prefix, of pollen apertures), located at or towards the proximal pole, a very uncommon arrangement, cf. ana-, rugate, zono-.
Catalpola route II iridoid.
Synoms:(1AS-(1aalpha,1bbeta,2beta,5abeta,6beta,6aalpha))-1a,1b,2,5a,6,6a-hexahydro-6-hydroxy-1a-(hydroxymethyl)oxireno(4,5)cyclopenta(1,2-c)pyran-2-yl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 2415-24-9, beta-D-Glucopyranoside, 1a,1b,2,5a,6,6a-hexahydro-6-hydroxy- 1a-(hydroxymethyl)oxireno(4,5)cyclopenta(1,2-c)pyran-2-yl, (1aS-(1a-alpha,1b-beta,2-beta,5a-beta,6-beta,6a-alpha))-, beta-D-Glucopyranoside, 1a,1b,2,5a,6,6a-hexahydro-6-hydroxy-1a-(hydroxymethyl)oxireno(4,5)cyclopenta(1,2-c)pyran-2-yl, (1aS-(1aalpha,1bbeta,2beta,5abeta,6beta,6aalpha))-, C09773, Catalpinoside, Catalpol, Catalposide, des-p-hydroxybenzoyl-, De(p-hydroxybenzoyl)catalposide, EINECS 219-324-0
CAS Type 1 Name:Catalpol Equivalent Terms:Catalpinoside;Catalpol;Catalposide, des-p-hydroxybenzoyl-; De(p-hydroxybenzoyl)catalposide; EINECS 219-324-0
Formula: C15 H22O10 CAS RN:2415-24-9 Molecular Weight:362.329 g/mol
Note:Component of dihuang.
Catalyzeincrease the speed of a chemical reaction without being changed in the overall reaction process. See enzyme.
cataphylla modified, reduced and more or less non-photosynthetic leaf, found e.g. on vegetatively propagating organs such as a rhizome or perennating bud, or near the base of plant, shoot, or innovation, sometimes referring specifically to such leaves on a seedling, probably can be replaced scale leaf or bud scale, cf. also hypsophyll, perula.
Catechin [154-23-4] Synonyms:(+)-CATECHIN; Catechin; Cianidanol;(+)-Cyanidan-3-ol;(+)-Cyanidanol;(+)-Cianidanol;(+)-Catechin;3, 3', 4', 5, 7-Flavanpentol;2-(3, 4-Dihydroxyphenyl)chromane-3, 5, 7-triol;D-(+)-Catechin;ND-0342;NSC2819;(+)-(2R,3S)-5,7,3',4'-Tetrahydroxyflavan-3-ol;(+)-3',4',5,7-Tetrahydroxy-2,3-trans-flavan-3-ol;(+)-Catechin;(+)-Catechol;(+)-Cyanidan-3-ol;(+)-Cyanidanol;3-Cyanidanol, (+)-;AI3-22757;Biocatechin;CCRIS 6855;Catechin (flavan);Catechinic acid;Catechol (flavan);Catechuic acid;Catergen;Cianidanol;Cianidanolum [INN-Latin];Cianidol;Cyanidanol;D-(+)-Catechin;D-Catechin;D-Catechol;EINECS 205-825-1;KB-53;NSC 2819;d-Catechin
CAS Type 1 Name:(+)-Catechol;Catechin;Cianidanol Chemical Name: 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-3,5,7-triol, (2R-trans) Equivalent Terms:Catechinic Acid;Catechuic Acid Melting Point:214 deg C
Formula: C15 H14O6 CAS RN:154-23-4 Other RN:321-01-7 4211-28-3 5323-80-8 16198-00-8 Molecular Weight:290.272
Note:An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.3,3',4',5,7-Flavanpentol. Extracted from Uncaria gambier, Acacia catechu and other plants; it stabilizes collagen and is therefore used in tanning and dyeing; it prevents capillary fragility and abnormal permeability, but was formerly used as an antidiarrheal.
(-)-Catechin gallate [154-23-4]Synonyms:(-)-Catechin gallate;CG
Chemical Name:Benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-, (2R,3S)-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-3-yl ester Formula: C22 H18O10 Molecular Weight:442.37
Catecholamine[97-59-6]Definition:any of several compounds occurring naturally in the body that serve as hormones or as neutrotransmitters in the sympathetic nervous system . The catecholamines include such compounds as epinephrine , or adrenaline, norepinephrine, and dopamine. They resemble one another chemically in having an aromatic portion (catechol) to which is attached an amine, or nitrogen-containing group. Epinephrine and norepinephrine, which are also hormones, are secreted by the adrenal medulla, and norepinephrine is also secreted by some nerve fibers. These substances prepare the body to meet emergencies such as cold, fatigue, and shock, and norepinephrine is probably a chemical transmitter at nerve synapses. Dopamine is an intermediate in the synthesis of epinephrine; in addition, a deficiency of dopamine in the brain is responsible for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease . Medical administration of the drug L-dopa, which is presumed to be converted to dopamine in the brain, relieves the symptoms. Epinephrine is used medically to stimulate heartbeat and to treat emphysema, bronchitis, and bronchial asthma and other allergic conditions, as well as in the treatment of the eye disease glaucoma.
Formula: C6 H7NO2
Note:An amine derived from the amino acid tyrosine -- examples include epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and dopamine -- that act as hormones or neurotransmitters. There are a number of disorders involving catecholamines, including neuroblastoma, pheochromocytoma, chemodectina, the familial paraganglioma syndrome, dopamine-?hydroxalase deficiency, and tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency
Catecholaminessubstances with a specific chemical structure (a benzene ring with two adjacent hydroxyl groups and a side chain of ethylamine) that function as hormones or neurotransmitters. Examples include epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
catkina dense spike-like inflorescence, often with cymose branches, in which the flowers are imperfect and lack a perianth (or the perianth is inconspicuous), finally deciduous as a whole.
caudateof an appendage at the apex of a leaf, etc. - narrow, rather flexible, terminal and tail-like, cf. acumen, acute, apiculate, attenuate, arista, awn, cuspidate, cuneate, emarginate, mucronate, muticous, obtuse, retuse, rounded, truncate.
caudexa ± short, thick, erect trunk or stem, somewhat above to somewhat below ground level, cf. bulb, bulbil, corm, lignotuber, pseudobulb, rhizome, runner, tuber, turion.
cauliflorouswith flowers (and fruits) borne on a well-developed trunk or major branch, commonly used to describe general inflorescence position, cf. axillary, leaf-opposed, ramiflorous, supra-axillary, terminal.
caulinee.g. of leaves, borne on an aerial stem, usually separated by elongated internodes, cf. basal and rosette leaves.; of flowers or fruits, borne on old wood, see cauliflorous above.
caulomea collective term for all stems of a plant and their modifications, cf. hadrom(e), leptom(e), phyllome, stereom(e).
caveatea term for all pollen in which the columellae in the regions between the apertures become separated from the foot layer, i.e. it as if the foot layer had split periclinally.
cellthe basic unit of plant structure consisting of a protoplast with a single nucleus and surrounded by a wall.when referring to anthers ("anthers 2-celled"), better to use sporangium/ia or theca(e).
of endosperm formation, where all nuclear divisions of the endosperm are accompanied by cell wall formation, cf. helobial, nuclear.
cellulosea more or less straight polysaccharide chain formed by hundreds of Beta-glucose molecules, a major component of the plant cell wall, cf. callose, hemicellulose, inulin, pectin, starch, see also lignin.
central cellthe large cell initially usually containing two nuclei (polar nuclei) that makes up the bulk of the eight-nucleate embryo sac, see also antipodals, egg cell, synergids.
centrifugaldirected, or developing, from the centre or axis outwards, cf. centripetal, see also basipetal.
centripetaldirected, or developing, from the outside towards the centre or axis, cf. centrifugal, see also acropetal.
centromeresite on the chromosome where spindle fibers attach during nuclear division.
Ceramides [100403-19-8]Note:Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
Cetene [629-73-2]Synonyms:1-Cetene;1-Hexadecene;1-n-Hexadecene;AI3-06556;Cetene;Cetylene;Dialene 16;EINECS 211-105-8;Gulftene 16;HSDB 5730;Hexadecylene-1;NSC 60602;alpha-Hexadecene;alpha-Hexadecylene;n-Hexadec-1-ene
Formula: C16 H32. Molecular Weight:224.4288 CAS RN:629-73-2 Melting Point:4. Boiling Point:274. Flashing Point:132
C-glucosyl- or C-glycosyl-of e.g. flavonoids in which linkage of a carbon-carbon bond involves the anomeric carbon of the sugar and position 6, 8, or both, of a flavone (vertical bond on left-hand side between the benzene ring and the sugar), difficult to hydrolyse, cf. O-glycosyl.
Maysin, C27 H28 O14.
chaffyof texture, thin and membranous, cf. chartaceous, coriaceous, papyraceous, scarious; chaff, the bracts subtending flowers in some Asteraceae, or the glumes, etc., of some fruiting Poaceae.
chalazathat part of an ovule to which the end of the funicle is attached and below the insertion of the integuments, cf. also antiraphe, embryo sac, lagenostome, megaspore, micropyle, nucellus, pollen chamber, obturator, raphe.
chalazogamyfertilisation during which the pollen tube penetrates the ovule by way of the chalaza, cf. mesogamy, porogamy.
chalazal cysta more or less sac-like part of the endosperm at the chalazal end surrounded by transfer cells and involved in the transfer of nutrient to the developing seed, cf. primary endosperm, perisperm.
chalazospermnutritive tissue in a seed, developed from persistent chalazal cells, cf. chalazal cyst, endosperm, primary endosperm, perisperm.
chalconesintermediates in the production of all flavonoids, but rarely accumulated, isomeric with flavanones, the A ring being derived from acetate and with a phloroglucinol oxidation pattern, the B ring from a phenylpropanoid precursor, and with an allyl bridge (-CH:CH.CO) separating the two rings, yellow in colour and most often found in flowers, cf. chalcones; they are anthochlors.
Isosalipurposide, C21 H22 O10.
chamaephyteof life forms, plants with resting buds between ground level and 25cm, cf. cryptophyte (geophyte, hemicryptophyte, hydrophyte), helophyte, phanerophyte, therophyte.
characterany feature of the organism, see character state (the two are sometimes used interchangeably), polarization.
character statea division of a character, e.g. ovary, superior versus inferior.
chartaceouspapery in texture, cf. coriaceous, papyraceous, scarious.
chasmogamousflowers that open and are pollinated then, cf. cleistogamous.
chelidonic acidan organic acid derived from a condensation of C3 and C4 units related to phosphoenolpyruvic acid and erythrose-4-phosphate.
Chelidonic acid, C7 H4 O6.
Chicoric acid:[70831-56-0]Synonyms:(R-(R*,R*-(E,E)))-2,3-Bis((3-(3,4-dihydroxphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy)butanedioic acid 2,3-Bis((3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy)butanedioic acid NSC 699173 ;[S-(R*, R*)]-2, 3-Bis[[3-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy]butanedioic acid;L-Chicoric acid;L-DCTA;Dicaffeoyl-L-tartaric acid;L-CA;NSC699173 ;2,3-bis((3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy)butanedioic acid;cichoric acid;dicaffeoyltartaric acid
Chemical Name:Butanedioic acid, 2,3-bis[[(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy]-, (2R,3R)-; Butanedioic acid, 2,3-bis(((2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy)-, (2R,3R)- Butanedioic acid, 2,3-bis((3-(3,4-dihydroxphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy)-, (R-(R*,R*-(E,E)))-
Formula: C22 H18O12 CAS RN:70831-56-0 Molecular Weight:474.37
chiropterophilousa kind of zo?philous pollination, flowers pollinated by bats, with a distinctive morphological syndrome (e.g. dull color; robust; presented so access is easy), cf. entomophilous (cantharophilous, mellitophilous, sapromyophilous, sphigophilous), ornithophilous.
-chlamydeous(part of a compound): covering, a set of stuctures.
chloranthoida leaf tooth with a clear persistent swollen cap, medial secondary or tertiary vein accompanied by (1)2 higher-order laterals that enter the apex or fuse with the medial, cf. begonioid, cucurbitoid, cunonioid, dillenioid, malvoid, monimioid, platanoid, rosoid, salicoid, spinose, theoid, urticoid, violoid.
Chlorine [7782-50-5]Synonyms:7782-50-5;Bertholite;Bertholite /warfare gas/;Caswell No. 179;CCRIS 2280;Chloor;Chloor [Dutch];Chlor;Chlor [German];Chlore;Chlore [French];Chlorinated water (chlorine), Chlorine, Chlorine gas, Chlorine mol., Chlorine [UN1017] [Poison gas], Cl2, Cloro, Cloro [Italian], EINECS 231-959-5;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 020501;HSDB 206;Molecular chlorine;NISTC7782505;UN 1017;UN1017
Chemical Name:Chlorine CAS Type 1 Name:Chlorine
Formula: CI2 CAS RN:7782-50-5 Molecular Weight:70.9054 g/mol Melting Point:-100.96 Boiling Point:-34.06 Water Solubility:Slightly sol. (0.7 g/100 mL).
Description:A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
chlorogenic acid[327-97-9]type of phenylpropanoid; caffeic acid linked to quinic acid.
Synonyms:3-[[3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy] 1,4,5-trihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid; Chlorogenic acid; Chlorogenic acid, predominantly trans (ex coffee seeds);3-(3,4-Dihydroxycinnamoyl)quinic acid;3-Caffeoylquinic acid;3-O-Caffeoylquinic acid;CCRIS 1400; Chlorogenic acid; EINECS 206-325-6; Hlorogenic acid; NSC 407296 ; NSC 70861 ;Chlorogenic acid;3-Caffeoylquinic acid;Heriguard;3-(3, 4-Dihydroxycinnamoyl)quinic acid;NSC70861; NSC407296
Chemical Name: Cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, 3-[[3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy]-1,4,5-trihydroxy-, (1S,3R,4R,5R)-;5-O-(3,4-Dihydroxycinnamoyl)-L-quinic acid ; Chlorogenic acid (8CI) ; Cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, 3-((3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy)-1,4,5-trihydroxy-, (1S-(1-alpha,3-beta,4-alpha,5-alpha))-
CAS Type 1 Name: Cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, 3-((3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy)-1,4,5-trihydroxy-, (1S-(1alpha,3beta,4alpha,5alpha))-
Formula: C16 H18O9 CAS RN:327-97-9 Molecular Weight:354.3128
Description:A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).
Chemical Name:5alpha-Spirostan-3beta,6alpha-diol, (25R)-
CAS TYPE 1 Name:3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone-3-glucoside
Formula: C27 H44O4 CAS RN:562-34-5
ChlorophyllChlorophyll is the pigment that gives plants and algae their green color. Plants use chlorophyll to trap light needed for photosynthesis. The basic structure of chlorophyll is a porphyrin ring similar to that of heme in hemoglobin, although the central atom in chlorophyll is magnesium instead of iron. The long hydrocarbon (phytol) tail attached to the porphyrin ring makes chlorophyll fat-soluble and insoluble in water. Two different types of chlorophyll (chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b) are found in plants (structures of natural chlorophylls). The small difference in one of the side chains allows each type of chlorophyll to absorb light at slightly different wavelengths. Chlorophyllin is a semi-synthetic mixture of sodium copper salts derived from chlorophyll. During the synthesis of chlorophyllin, the magnesium atom at the center of the ring is replaced with copper and the phytol tail is lost. Unlike natural chlorophyll, chlorophyllin is water-soluble.
Chlorophyllide a[83869-98-1]Synonyms:14897-06-4;18517-08-3;24860-62-6;24860-63-7;26402-21-1;83869-98-1;Chlorophyllide a;Magnesate(1-), (9-ethenyl-14-ethyl-21-(methoxycarbonyl)-4,8,13,18-tetramethyl-20-oxo-3-phorbinepropanoato(3-)-N23,N24,N25,N26)-, hydrogen, (SP-4-2-(3S-(3alpha,4beta,21beta)))-
Chemical Name:Magnesate(1-), (9-ethenyl-14-ethyl-21-(methoxycarbonyl)-4,8,13,18-tetramethyl-20-oxo-3-phorbinepropanoato(3-)-N23,N24,N25,N26)-, hydrogen, (SP-4-2-(3S-(3alpha,4beta,21beta)))-
Formula:C35-H33-Mg-N4-O5.H CAS RN:14897-06-4 Related RN:83869-98-1;18517-08-3;24860-62-6;24860-63-7;26402-21-1;83869-98-1 Molecular Weight:614.973 g/mol
Description:Important intermediate in the chlorophyll a biosynthetic pathway.
Chlorophyllide b[14428-12-7]Synonyms:14428-12-7;Chlorophyllide b;Magnesate(1-), (9-ethenyl-14-ethyl-13-formyl-21-(methoxycarbonyl)-4,8,18-trimethyl-20-oxo-3-phorbinepropanoato(3-)-N23,N24,N25,N26)-, hydrogen, (SP-4-2-(3S-(3alpha,4beta,21beta)))-
Chemical Name:Magnesate(1-), (9-ethenyl-14-ethyl-13-formyl-21-(methoxycarbonyl)-4,8,18-trimethyl-20-oxo-3-phorbinepropanoato(3-)-N23,N24,N25,N26)-, hydrogen, (SP-4-2-(3S-(3alpha,4beta,21beta)))-
Formula:C35-H31-Mg-N4-O6.H CAS RN:14428-12-7 Molecular Weight:628.957 g/mol
chloroplasta plastid in which photosynthesis occurs, found in most plants, cf. amyloplast, chromoplast, sieve tube plastid, see pyrenoid.
Choline [123-41-1]Although choline is not by strict definition a vitamin, it is an essential nutrient. Despite the fact that humans can synthesize it in small amounts, choline must be consumed in the diet to maintain health. The majority of the body's choline is found in specialized fat molecules known as phospholipids, the most common of which is called phosphatidylcholine or lecithin
Synonyms:Choline; CHOLINE (48-50% IN WATER); Ethanaminium, 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, hydroxide;Bursine;Fagine;Vidine
CAS Type 1 Name:Ethanaminium, 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-
Formula: C5 H14NO++. Molecular Weight:104.1717 CAS RN:123-41-1 Other RN:62-49-7 139741-81-4 ACX Number:X1006513-7.
Description:A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
-chorous, -chory, -chore (suffix),
refers to the dispersal syndrome/mechanism of seed or fruit.
Chroman ring, C9 H10 O.
Chromium:[7440-47-3]Although trivalent chromium is recognized as a nutritionally essential mineral, scientists are not yet certain exactly how it functions in the body. The two most common forms of chromium are trivalent chromium (III) and hexavalent chromium (VI). Chromium (III) is the principal form in foods, as well as the form utilized by the body. Chromium (VI) is derived from chromium (III) by heating at alkaline pH and is used as a source of chromium for industrial purposes. It is a strong irritant and is recognized as a carcinogen when inhaled. At low levels, chromium (VI) is readily reduced to chromium (III) by reducing substances in foods and the acidic environment of the stomach, which serve to prevent the ingestion of chromium (VI).
Synonyms:CCRIS 159;Chrom [German];Chrome;Chrome [French];Chromium;Chromium metal;EINECS 231-157-5;HSDB 910
Formula:Cr. Molecular Weight:51.996 CAS RN:7440-47-3 Melting Point:1900. ACX Number:X1002501-1. Boiling Point:2642.
Description:A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
chromonesa type of coumarin consisting of a benzene ring fused to a pyrone ring with a methyl group at the C2 position and oxygenated at the C5 and C7 positions.
Chromone, C9 H6 O2.
chromoplasta plastid with abundant yellow or orange carotenoids, cf. amyloplast, chloroplast, sieve tube plastid.
chromosomea thread-like structure in the nucleus or chloroplasts of a cell, containing a linear sequence of genes, see centromere.
Chrysanthemin (6CI,8CI)[7084-24-4]See Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside.
Chrysanthemol[5617-92-5]Synonyms:18383-58-9;18383-59-0;2,2-Dimethyl-3-(2-methylpropenyl)cyclopropanemethanol;5617-92-5;AI3-20836;Chrysanthemol;Chrysanthemyl alcohol;cis-Chrysanthemol;cis-Chrysanthenol;Cyclopropanemethanol, 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methyl-1-propenyl)-;Cyclopropanemethanol, 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methyl-1-propenyl)-, (cis,trans-(+/-))-;EINECS 227-045-0;NISTC18383590;trans-Chrysanthemol;[2,2-Dimethyl-3-(2-methyl-1-propenyl)cyclopropyl]methanol
Cas Type 1 Name:2,2-Dimethyl-3-(2-methylpropenyl)cyclopropanemethanol Substance Name:chrysanthemol
Formula: C10 H18O CAS RN:5617-92-5 Molecular Weight:154.249 g/mol Note:Anti-inflammatory agents, non-steroidal
Chrysanthenyl acetate[54324-99-1]Synonyms:(+)-trans-Chrysanthenyl Acetate;2,7,7-Trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-en-6-yl acetate;50764-55-1;54324-99-1;Bicyclo(3.1.1)hept-2-en-6-ol, 2,7,7-trimethyl-, acetate;Bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-en-6-ol, 2,7,7-trimethyl-, acetate, [1R-(1alpha,5alpha,6beta)]-;Bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-en-6-ol, 2,7,7-trimethyl-, acetate, [1S-(1alpha,5alpha,6beta)]-;Chrysanthenyl acetate;Chrysanthenyl acetate (cis);cis-Chrysanthenyl acetate;NISTC54324991;NISTR72490;NISTR81332;trans-Chrysanthenyl acetate
Cas Type 1 Name:Bicyclo(3.1.1)hept-2-en-6-ol, 2,7,7-trimethyl-, acetate Substance Name:Chrysanthenyl acetate
Formula: C12 H18O2 CAS RN:54324-99-1 Molecular Weight:194.27 g/mol Note:Cyclooxygenase inhibitors
Chrysanthetriol[143086-40-2]Synonyms: 1,5-Cyclodecanediol, 9-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2,6-bis(methylene)-,(1R*,5R*,9S*)-(-)-;143086-40-2;Chrysanthetriol;
Cas Type 1 Name:1,5-Cyclodecanediol, 9-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2,6-bis(methylene)-, (1R*,5R*,9S*)-(-)- Substance Name:Chrysanthetriol
Formula: C15 H26O3 CAS RN:143086-40-2 Molecular Weight:254.365 g/mol Note:Anti-inflammatory agents, non-steroidal
chrysophanic acid[481-74-3]Synonyms:1,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthracenedione; 1,8-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone; 2-methyl-4,5-dihydroxyanthraquinone; 3-methyl-1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone; 3-methylchrysazin; 4,5-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone; chrysophanic acid; chrysophanol; C.I. 75400; C.I. natural yellow 23; rhenic acid; turkey rhubarb;
Chemical Name: 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone;9,10-Anthracenedione, 1,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl- (9CI);Anthraquinone, 1,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-;Chrysophanol
Substance Name:Chrysophanic acid
Formula: C15 H10O4 CAS RN:481-74-3 Molecular Weight:254.2416 Melting Point:196 Water Solubility:<0.1 g/100 mL at 18 C
chrysophanolan anthraquinone.See Chrysophanic acid.
Chylomicronstriglyceride-rich lipoproteins that deliver dietary triglycerides from the intestine to the tissues immediately after a meal. Chylomicrons release their triglycerides to tissue through the activity of lipoprotein lipase enzymes in tissue capillary beds. When they are depleted of most of their triglycerides, chylomicron remnants are taken up by the liver, where the lipids and cholesterol that remain are excreted in bile or incorporated into other lipoproteins.
Cimicifugoside [66176-93-0]Systematic Name:beta-D-Xylopyranoside, (3beta,12beta,16beta)-12-(acetyloxy)-16,23:23,26:24,25-triepoxy-26-hydroxy-9,19-cyclolanost-7-en-3-yl
Formula: C37 H54 O11. CAS RN:66176-93-0.
Cinnamic acid derivativesFormula:(C6-C3)
Cinnamic acid;p-Coumaric acid;Caffeic acid;Ferulic acid;etc.
cincinnus= scorpioid cyme.
Cineole:[470-82-6]Synonyms:1,3,3-Trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo(2.2.2)octane;1,8-Cineol;1,8-Cineole;1,8-Epoxy-p-menthane;1,8-Oxido-p-menthane;2-Oxa-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo(2.2.2)octane;2-Oxabicyclo(2.2.2)octane, 1,3,3-trimethyl-;AI3-00578;CCRIS 3727;Cajeputol;Cineole;Cineole (VAN);EINECS 207-431-5;Eucalyptol;Eucalyptol (natural); Eucalyptole;Eucapur;Eukalyptol [Czech];FEMA No. 2465;HSDB 991;NCI-C56575;NSC 6171;Terpan;Zineol;p-Cineole ;p-Menthane, 1,8-epoxy-
CAS Type 1 Name:1,8-epoxy-p-menthane
Chemical Name: 1,3,3-Trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo(2.2.2)octane;1,8-Cineole;1,8-Epoxy-p-menthane;2-Oxabicyclo(2.2.2)octane, 1,3,3-trimethyl-;Cineole ;p-Menthane, 1,8-epoxy-
Formula: C10 H18O CAS RN:470-82-6
cinereousash-grey, as of wood ash.
Cinnamaldehyde:[104-55-2]Synonyms:beta-phenylacrolein;cinnamaldehyde;cinnamic aldehyde, (E)-isomer;(2E)-3-Phenyl-2-propenal;(E)-3-Phenyl-2-propenal;(E)-3-Phenylpropenal;(E)-Cinnamaldehyde;104-55-2;14371-10-9;2-07-00-00273 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);2-Propenal;3-phenyl-, 2-Propenal, 3-phenyl-, (E)-;2-Propenal, 3-phenyl-, (E)- (9CI);3-Fenylpropenal;3-Fenylpropenal [Czech];3-Phenyl-2-propen-1-al;3-Phenyl-2-propenal;3-PHENYL-2-PROPENAL (TRANS);3-Phenyl-2-propenaldehyde;3-Phenylacrolein;3-Phenylacrylaldehyde;3-Phenylpropenal;4-07-00-00984 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);57194-69-1;Abion CA;Acrolein, 3-phenyl-;AI3-00473;AI3-33275;AIDS-097032;AIDS097032;Aldehyd skoricovy;Aldehyd skoricovy [Czech];Benzylideneacetaldehyde;beta-Phenylcrolein;BRN 0605737;BRN 1071571;C00903;Cassia aldehyde;Caswell No. 221A;CCRIS 3189;CCRIS 6222;Cinnamal;CINNAMALDEHYDE;Cinnamaldehyde;(E)-, Cinnamic aldehyde;Cinnamic aldehyde (natural);Cinnamyl aldehyde;Cinnamylaldehyde;Cinnemaldehyde;EINECS 203-213-9;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 040506;FEMA No. 2286;FEMA Number 2286;Hefty Dog and Cat Repellent;HSDB 209;NCI-C56111;NISTC104552;NISTC14371109;NSC 16935;NSC16935;NSC40346;Phenylacrolein;trans-3-Phenyl-2-propenal;trans-Cinnamaldehyde;trans-Cinnamic aldehyde;trans-Cinnamylaldehyde; Zimtaldehyde
CAS Type 1 Name:2-Propenal, 3-phenyl-;Cinnamaldehyde Chemical Name: trans-Cinnamaldehyde
Formula: C9 H8O CAS RN:104-55-2 M.W.:132.159 g/mol Melting Point: -7.50E+00 deg C Boiling Point: 246 deg C Water Solubility: 1420 mg/L at 25 deg C
Note:A flavoring agent; an antimutagen but recent studies showed that high doses of cinnamaldehyde in the liver may produce a clastogenic and possibly a promoting effect for hepatocarcinogenesis.Antimutagenic agents;Flavoring agents;Mutation data;Repellent;Reproductive Effect;Skin / Eye Irritant
cinnamic acid:[63938-16-9]a simple phenol derived from L-phenylalanine, involved in formation of phenylpropanoids, occurring in various aromatic resins.
Synonyms:cinnamic acid, (trans)-(E)-isomer;cinnamic acid, (Z)-isomer;cinnamic acid, 13C-labeled cpd;cinnamic acid, 14C-labeled cpd;cinnamic acid, 14C-labeled cpd (E)-isomer;cinnamic acid, 2-(13)C-labeled cpd;cinnamic acid, 2-(14)C-labeled cpd;cinnamic acid, 3-(14)C-labeled cpd;cinnamic acid, 3H-labeled cpd (E)-isomer;cinnamic acid, 3H-labeled cpd (Z)-isomer;cinnamic acid, ion(1-);cinnamic acid, ion(1-)-(E)-isomer;cinnamic acid, nickel (+2) salt;cinnamic acid, potassium salt;cinnamic acid, sodium salt;cinnamic acid, sodium salt(E)-isomer;cinnamic acid, sodium salt(Z)-isomer;cinnamic acid, zinc salt(E)-isomer;2-Propenoic acid, 3-phenyl-;3-Phenyl-2-propenoic acid;3-Phenylacrylic acid;3-Phenylpropenoic acid;AI3-00891;Acidum cinnamylicum;BRN 0507757;Benzenepropenoic acid;Benzylideneacetic acid;Cinnamic acid;Cinnamic acid (natural);Cinnamylic acid;EINECS 210-708-3;FEMA No. 2288;Kyselina skoricove [Czech];NSC 9189;Phenylacrylic acid;Zimtsaeure [German]; trans-3-Phenylpropensaeure;(2E)-3-Phenyl-2-propenoic acid;(2Z)-3-Phenyl-2-propenoic acid;(E)-3-Phenyl-2-propenoic acid;(E)-Cinnamic acid;(Z)-3-Phenyl-2-propenoic acid;(Z)-Cinnamic acid;102-94-3;140-10-3;16089-48-8;2-Propenoic acid;3-phenyl-;2-Propenoic acid;3-phenyl-, (E)-;2-Propenoic acid, 3-phenyl-, (Z)-;3-Phenyl-2-propenoic acid;3-Phenylacrylic acid;3-Phenylpropenoic acid;4-09-00-02002 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);538-42-1;621-82-9;63938-16-9;Acidum cinnamylicum;AI3-00891;AI3-23709;AIDS-017619;AIDS017619;Allocinnamic acid;b-Phenylacrylic acid;Benzenepropenoic acid;Benzylideneacetic acid;beta-Phenylacrylic acid;BRN 0507757;BRN 1905952;C00423;C10438;CCRIS 3190;Cinnamic acid;Cinnamic acid (natural);Cinnamic acid, (E)-;Cinnamic acid, (Z)-;Cinnamylic acid;cis-.beta.-Carboxystyrene;cis-beta-Carboxystyrene;cis-Cinnamic acid;EINECS 205-398-1;EINECS 210-708-3;FEMA No. 2288;Isocinnamic acid;Kyselina skoricove;Kyselina skoricove [Czech];Nickel cinnamate;Ni(OOCC8H7)2;NISTC102943;NISTC140103;NISTC621829;NSC 44010;NSC 9189;NSC174025;NSC30118;NSC44010;NSC623441;NSC9189;Phenylacrylic acid;tert-.beta.-Phenylacrylic acid;tert-beta-Phenylacrylic acid;trans-.beta.-Carboxystyrene;trans-3-Phenyl-2-Propenoic acid;trans-3-Phenylacrylic Acid;trans-3-Phenylpropensaeure;trans-beta-Carboxystyrene;trans-Cinnamate;trans-Cinnamic acid;Zimtsaeure;Zimtsaeure [German]
CAS Type 1 Name:2-Propenoic acid, 3-phenyl- ;Cinnamic acid Chemical Name: Cinnamic acid Formula: C9 H8O2 CAS RN:63938-16-9 Related RN:16089-48-8 (potassium salt) 538-42-1 (hydrochloride salt) 63938-16-9 (nickel(+2) salt) M.W.:148.159 g/mol Melting Point:133 deg C Boiling Point.:300 deg C
Cinnamic aldehydeSee Cinnamaldehyde.
Cinnamyl acetate:[103-54-8]Synonyms:1-Acetoxy-3-phenyl-2-propene;2-06-00-00527 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);2-Propen-1-ol, 3-phenyl-, acetate;3-Phenyl-2-propen-1-ol acetate;3-Phenyl-2-propen-1-yl acetate;3-Phenyl-2-propenyl acetate;3-Phenylallyl acetate;AI3-01265;Acetic acid, cinnamyl ester;BRN 2046000;Cinnamyl acetate;Cinnamyl alcohol, acetate;EINECS 203-121-9;FEMA No. 2293;NSC 46109;gamma-Phenylallyl acetate;(2E)-3-Phenyl-2-propenyl acetate;.gamma.-Phenylallyl acetate;1-Acetoxy-3-phenyl-2-propene;103-54-8;2-06-00-00527 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);2-Propen-1-ol, 3-phenyl-, acetate;2-Propen-1-ol, 3-phenyl-, acetate, (E)-;21040-45-9;3-Phenyl-2-propen-1-ol acetate;3-Phenyl-2-propen-1-yl acetate;3-Phenyl-2-propenyl acetate;3-Phenylallyl acetate; Acetic acid cinnamyl ester;Acetic acid, cinnamyl ester;AI3-01265;BRN 2046000;C12299;Cinnamyl acetate;Cinnamyl acetate;Cinnamyl alcohol, acetate;EINECS 203-121-9;FEMA No. 2293;gamma-Phenylallyl acetate;NISTC103548;NSC 46109;NSC46109
CAS Type 1 Name:2-Propen-1-ol, 3-phenyl-, acetate;Cinnamyl acetate;Cinnamyl alcohol, acetate Chemical Name: Acetic acid, cinnamyl ester;Cinnamyl acetate Formula: C11 H12O2 CAS RN:103-54-8 M.W.:176.212 g/mol
circinateof leaf ptyxis, spirally coiled downwards from the apex, with the tip innermost, cf. conduplicate, conduplicate-flat, conduplicate-involute, conduplicate-plicate, curved, flat, involute, plicate, revolute, supervolute, supervolute-curved, supervolute-involute.
circinotropousof an ovule, with a long funicle curved so that the ovule is held upside-down, cf. amphitropous, anatropous, atropous, campylotropous, hemitropous.
circumscissileesp. of capsules, breaking open along a transverse line around the circumference, cf. loculicidal, poricidal, septicidal, septifragal.
cirrus=tendril, see also cirrhose, cirrhous, cirrhus, cirriferous, cirrose, and cirrous!
Cistanoside A:[93236-42-1]Synonyms:93236-42-1;beta-D-Glucopyranoside;2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl O-6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl-(1-3)-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6))-, 4-(3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate), (E)-;Cistanoside A;Glucopyranoside, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl O-6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl-(1-3)-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6))-, 4-(3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate), (E)-beta-D-
Cas Type 1 Name:Glucopyranoside, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl O-6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl-(1-3)-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6))-, 4-(3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate), (E)-beta-D- ;beta-D-Glucopyranoside, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl O-6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl-(1-3)-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6))-, 4-(3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate), (E)-
Formula: C36 H48O20. Molecular Weight:800.754 g/mol CAS RN:93236-42-1
Cistanoside C:[94492-22-5]Synonyms:94492-22-5;BRN 4898592;Cistanoside C;Glucopyranoside, 2-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl 3-O-(6-deoxy-alpha-L- mannopyranosyl)-, 4-(3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate), (E)-beta-D-
Cas Type 1 Name:Glucopyranoside, 2-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl 3-O-(6-deoxy-alpha-L- mannopyranosyl)-, 4-(3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate), (E)-beta-D-
Formula: C31 H38O15. Molecular Weight:650.624 g/mol CAS RN:94492-22-5
Citral [5392-40-5]Synonyms:(E)-citral;(Z)-citral;citral A;citral B;geranial;neral;3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienal; cis-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienal; cis-Citral; cis/trans-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienal; Citral; Citral A; citral-b; Citral, mixture of cis and trans; CITRAL NATURAL; CITRAL SINTETICO; geranal; Geranial; geranialdehyde; Lemarome n; Neral; trans-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienal;(2E)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienal; (E)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienal; (E)-3,7-Dimethylocta-2,6-dienal;(E)-Citral; (E)-Geranial;(E)-Neral;(Z)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienal;(Z)-3,7-Dimethylocta-2,6-dienal;(Z)-Citral;(Z)-Neral;106-26-3;141-27-5;2, 6-Octadienal, 3,7-dimethyl-;2,6-Dimethyloctadien-2,6-al-8;2,6-Octadienal, 3,7-dimethyl-, 2,6-Octadienal, 3,7-dimethyl-, (2E)-, 2,6-Octadienal, 3,7-dimethyl-, (2Z)-, 2,6-Octadienal, 3,7-dimethyl-, (E)-, 2,6-Octadienal, 3,7-dimethyl-, (Z)-, 3,7-Dimethyl-1,2, 6-octadienal, 3,7-Dimethyl-1,2,6-octadienal, 3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienal, 3,7-Dimethyl-trans-2,6-octadienal;3-01-00-03053 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);37350-34-8;4-01-00-03569 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);5392-40-5;8022-94-4;96680-15-8;AI3-01011;AI3-28518;AI3-28519;AIDS-032463;AIDS032463;alpha-Citral;beta-Citral;beta-Geranial;BRN 1721871;BRN 1721873;C01499;C09847;Caswell No. 221B;CCRIS 1043;cis,trans-Citral;cis-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienal;cis-Citral;cis/trans-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienal;Citral;Citral (cis and trans);Citral (natural);Citral a;Citral acis-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal;Citral alpha;Citral b;Citral,c&t;EINECS 203-379-2;EINECS 205-476-5;EINECS 226-394-6;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 040510;FEMA No. 2303;FEMA Number 2303;Genanial;Geranaldehyde;Geranial;HSDB 993;Lemarome n;Lemsyn GB;NCI-C56348, Neral, Neral (Z-citral orcitral B), NISTC106263, NISTC141275, NISTC5392405, NSC 6170, NSC6170, trans-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienal, trans-Citral, Z-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadiene-1-al;Z-Citral
Cas Type 1 Name:3,7-dimethyl-trans-2,6-octadienal Chemical Name: trans-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienal
Formula:C10 H16O. Molecular Weight:152.2358 CAS RN:5392-40-5 Other RN:141-27-5 Boiling Point:229 deg C. Water Solubility:0.01-0.1 g/100 mL at 18 C
Citric acid [77-92-9]Synonyms:2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid; 2-Hydroxytricarballylic acid; aciletten; beta-hydroxytricarballylic acid; Citralite; Citric acid; citrate ion; citretten; Citro; hydrocerol a; Hydroxytricarballylic acid; 1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-;2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid;2-Hydroxypropanetricarboxylic acid;2-Hydroxytricarballylic acid;3-Carboxy-3-hydroxypentane-1,5-dioic acid; 4-03-00-01272 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);AI3-06286;Aciletten;Anhydrous citric acid;BRN 0782061;CCRIS 3292;Caswell No. 221C;Chemfill;Citretten;Citric acid;Citric acid, anhydrous;Citro;EINECS 201-069-1;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 021801;F0001 (polycarboxylic acid);FEMA No. 2306;FEMA Number 2306;HSDB 911;Hydrocerol A;Kyselina 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propantrikarbonova [Czech];Kyselina citronova [Czech];NSC 30279;NSC 626579
Cas Type 1 Name:1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-; Citric acid Chemical Name: 1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-
Formula:C6 H8O7. Molecular Weight:192.12 CAS RN:77-92-9 Other RN:12262-73-6 245654-34-6 43136-35-2 Melting Point:153 deg C. Water Solubility:>=10 g/100 mL at 22 deg C. 5.92E+05 mg/L at 20 deg C.
Description:A Compound from citrus fruits that is an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid (Krebs) cycle. It is used as an acidifying agent in foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. Citrate chelates calcium ions and prevents blood clotting. It is also used as an anticoagulant for stored whole blood and red cells and also for blood specimens. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Note:Anticoagulants;Chelating agents:A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
Citronellyl acetate:[150-84-5]Synonyms: 1-02-00-00065 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);1-Acetoxy-3,7-dimethyloct-6-ene;2-Octen-8-ol, 2,6-dimethyl-, acetate;3,7-Dimethyl-6-octen-1-yl acetate;3,7-Dimethyl-6-octen-1-yl ethanoate;6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, acetate;AI3-02039;Acetic acid, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-yl ester;Acetic acid, citronellyl ester;BRN 1723886;Citronellol acetate;Citronellyl acetate;Citronellyl ethanoate;Ctronellyl acetate (natural);EINECS 205-775-0;EINECS 266-837-0;FEMA No. 2311;FEMA No. 2981;NSC 4893;Natural rhodinol, acetylated;Rhodinyl acetate
Cas Type 1 Name:3,7-Dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol acetate;6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, acetate;Acetic acid, citronellyl ester;Citronellyl acetate
Formula: C12 H22O2. Molecular Weight:198.3046 CAS RN:150-84-5 Boiling Point:229. ACX Number:X1010222-0. Density0.89
Citronellol:[106-22-9]Synonyms:citronellol, (+-)-isomer;citronellol, (R)-isomer;citronellol, (S)-isomer;citronellol, titanium (+4) salt;2,6-Dimethyl-2-octen-8-ol;3,7-Dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol;4-01-00-02188 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);AI3-25080;BRN 1721507;CCRIS 7452;Cephrol;Citronellol;Citronellol (ex. Java citronella oil) (natural);Citronellol (natural);EINECS 203-375-0;Elenol;FEMA No. 2309;NSC 8779;Rhodinol;Rodinol
Cas Type 1 Name:3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol
Formula: C10 H20O2. Molecular Weight:198.3046 CAS RN:106-22-9 Boiling Point:229. ACX Number:X1010222-0. Density0.89
cladeany monophyletic group of organisms, cf. grade, see lineage, also apomorphy-based, node-based, stem-based (ways of naming), also crown group, stem group (parts of clade), and also in group, outgroup, sister group.
cladodea photosynthetic stem of a plant whose foliage leaves are absent or much reduced, cf. phyllode, phylloclade.
cladoptosisloss of whole branches or branchlets by abscission at the base, cf. deciduous.
classa rank in the taxonomic hierarchy with the termination -ales, a group of orders that is hypothesised to be monophyletic, placed in a division/phylum, cf. family, genus, species.
clathratelatticed or pierced with apertures like a trellis.
clavateclub-shaped, rather gradually widening towards the apex, cf. capitate, of elements of pollen sculpturing, = pilate.
clawa sharply narrowed and stalk-like basal portion of a petal, sepal or bract, cf. limb.
cleavage polyembryonywhere more than one embryo per ovule develops because of the subdivision and separation of several embryos from one proembryo, cf. adventitious (poly)embryony, simple polyembryony.
cleistogamousflowers that never open but are self-pollinated and set fertile seed, cf. chasmogamous.
clockwiseof the direction of twining, the stem taking an ascending clockwise course when viewed from above, cf. counterclockwise.
clonea set of organisms produced from one parent by vegetative reproduction.
closed meristemof a root apical meristem in which one or more tissue regions of the root can be traced to separate initials, cf. intermediate meristem, open meristem.
closedof a vascular bundle in which all the cells differentiate, cf. open.of a leaf sheath, one which forms an uninterrupted cylinder around the stem, cf.open.
Coagulase[9001-13-2]Synonyms:9001-13-2;Coagulase;Coal dust;EINECS 232-583-4;Enzyme obtained from the venom of the viper Bothrops jararca;HEMOCOAGULASE;Hemocoagulase [JAN];Heptocoagulase;Plasma coagulase;Plasmocoagulase;Reptilase S;RP-093;Staphylocoagulase;Thrombin coagulase
Chemical Name:Coagulase;Enzyme obtained from the venom of the viper Bothrops jararca.
Equivalent Terms:Staphylocoagulase;Staphylococcal Clumping Factor CAS RN:9001-13-2 Note:Any bacterial component or product which causes coagulation in plasma containing an anticoagulant such as citrate, heparin or oxalate. Coagulases are produced by certain staphylococci and by Yersinia pestis. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Cobalt:[7440-48-4]Synonyms:aquacat; C.I. 77320; Cobalt; Cobalt? Cobalt-59; super cobalt;
CAS Type 1 Name:Cobalt
CAS RN:7440-48-4 Other RN: 177256-35-8; 184637-91-0; 195161-79-6; Formula:Co
Description: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
cocarcinogeninsphorbol ester diterpenes, a type of carcinogen that promotes neoplastic growth only after its initiation by another substance.
cochleate, cochlearcoiled like a snail-shell; of imbricate aestivation, one petal with both its edges outside those of the adjacent petals, one with the two edges both inside, and the other petals with one edge outside and the other inside, see ascending, descending, cf. contorted, contortiplicate, crumpled, decussate, quincuncial.
coenocarpous= syncarpous s.l., i.e. including syncarpous s. str. and paracarpous.
coenocytea cell in which the nuclei divide, but not the cytoplasm, resulting in a cell containing several nuclei, see also plasmodium, syncytium.
Coenzymea molecule that binds to an enzyme and is essential for its activity, but is not permanently altered by the reaction. Many coenzymes are derived from vitamins.
Coenzyme Q10belongs to a family of compounds known as ubiquinones. All animals, including humans, can synthesize ubiquinones, so coenzyme Q10 cannot be considered a vitamin. The name ubiquinone refers to the ubiquitous presence of these compounds in living organisms and their chemical structure, which contains a functional group known as a benzoquinone. Ubiquinones are fat-soluble molecules with anywhere from 1 to 12 isoprene (5-carbon) units. The ubiquinone found in humans, ubidecaquinone or coenzyme Q10, has a "tail" of 10 isoprene units (a total of 50 carbons) attached to its benzoquinone "head" (diagram)
Cofactora compound that is essential for the activity of an enzyme.
coflorescencethe cluster of flowers that terminates a lateral branch of a synflorescence, cf. enrichment zone, florescence, paraclade, cf. inflorescence.
coherentfloral parts of the same kind that are stuck together, but without organic fusion, n. cohesion, cf. adherent, adnate, appressed, connate, connivent, fasciate, fasciculate, fastigiate, phalangiate.
coleoptilea tubular structure (ligule!!) developed at the junction of the cotyledonary sheath and surrounding the plumule of a monocot embryo or seedling, cf. also coleorhiza, collet, cotyledon, eophyll, epiblast, epicotyl, hyperphyll, hypocotyl, mesocotyl, radicle, scutellum.
coleorhizatissue surrounding the radicle in the embryo or seedling of some monocots, cf. coleorhiza, collet, cotyledon, eophyll, epiblast, epicotyl, hyperphyll, hypocotyl, mesocotyl, radicle, scutellum.
Collagena fibrous protein that is the basis for the structure of skin, tendon, bone, cartilage and all other connective tissue.
Collagenous matrix (of bone)The organic (nonmineral) structural element of bone. Collagen is a fibrous protein that provides the organic matrix upon which bone mineralize crystallizes.
collateralof buds, ovules, situated side by side, and therefore not on the same radius, cf. supernumerary, superposed.of vascular bundles, with phloem on the abaxial side only (the common condition), cf. amphicribral, amphivasal, bicollateral, cf. also internal phloem, intraxylary phloem.
collenchymamechanical tissue, the cells are often elongated, their walls may be heavily thickened at the angles and are made up of pectic and cellulosic material, cf. aerenchyma, parenchyma, sclerenchyma.
colletthe junction, sometimes marked by an external line, between the radicle and hypocotyl in the embryo or seedling, cf. also coleoptile, coleorhiza, cotyledon, eophyll, epiblast, epicotyl, mesocotyl, plumule, primary leaf, scutellum.
colleteroften obviously mucilaginous secretory hair, not vascularised, commonly found in groups or tufts near or at the adaxial base of the leaf and on the calyx, cf. dendritic, malpighiaceous, pearl gland, snail gland, stellate, T-shaped hair.
colpate (colpi, sing. colpus)of pollen grains, having elongate apertures with a length:width ratio >2:1, cf. colpate, forate, porate, polycolpate, rugate, sulcate, trichotomosulcate, and ulcerate apertures.
of pollen grains, having elongate compound apertures with a length:width ratio >2:1 (colpi) and inside that more or less circular apertures (pori), cf. fororate, pororate, rugorate.
columellaliterally "a little column", the central, persistent axis of a capsular fruit derived from a superior ovary, cf. carpophore, or central sterile tissue in the capsule of a moss; of a pollen grain, a rod-like element of the sexine/ectexine, either supporting the tectum or a caput, cf. baculum, intectate.
Columbianetin [1147-29-1][3804-70-4 ]Synonyms:columbianetin, (+-)-isomer;columbianetin, (S)-isomer
Systematic Name:2H-Furo(2,3-h)-1-benzopyran-2-one, 8,9-dihydro-8-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-, (S)-
Formula: C14 H14 O4. CAS RN:1147-29-1 3804-70-4
Chemical Name:2-Butenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1-(8,9-dihydro-2-oxo-2H-furo(2,3-h)-1-benzopyran-8-yl)-1-methylet- hyl ester, (S-(Z))-
Formula: C19 H20 O5. CAS RN:5058-13-9
columnthe lower part of an awn in grasses, when distinctly different in form from the upper part; a structure in e.g. Orchidaceae and Stylidiaceae, extending above the ovary and incorporating stigma, style and stamens, = gynostemium.
comaa tuft of hairs at one end of a seed, adj. comose, cf. aril, caruncle, elaiosome, strophiole, cf. also plumose.
commissurea joint or seam, e.g. the interface of two fused carpels of an ovary or two petals of a corolla, used as a positional term, e.g. commissural stigma.
companion cella cell in phloem tissue of angiosperms, elongated, nucleate, metabolically very active and derived from the same mother cell that produces the closely associated sieve tube.
compituma tract of tissue in the gynoecium that is common to all the carpels of the one flower and down which the pollen tubes grow, so allowing pollen landing on any one stigma or part of a stigma to fertilise ovules in any carpel, strictly speaking = intragynoecial compitum, cf. extragynoecial compitum, hyperstigma.
compound apertureof pollen where there is a distinctly delimited area (or areas) of the aperture membranes known as os (pl. ora), cf. simple aperture, see colporate, fororate, pororate, and rugorate apertures.
compound fruit= aggregate fruit.
compound leafa leaf having two or more distinct leaflets that are evident as such from early in development, the main types being pinnate (even-pinnate, odd-pinnate) and palmate, cf. simple.
compressedflattened in one plane, either dorsally (bringing the adaxial and abaxial surfaces closer together) or laterally (bringing the sides closer together).
compression wooda kind of reaction wood with much-thickened fibers that are round in cross section and produced on the lower or abaxial side of the branch-stem junction, in general, there is more lignin and less cellulose than in normal wood, cf. tension wood.
concaulescentof axillary branching, a kind of metatopic growth when the bud as it were shifted up the stem, being borne way above the subtending leaf, cf. recaulescent.
concolorouscoloured uniformly, of leaves, the same colour on both surfaces, cf. discolorous.
condensed tannins= proanthocyanidins.
C-C bond or C-0 bond of flavonoids (e.g. catechin, epicatechin and leucocyanidin) to form polymers which contain 2-10 monomeric units.
Lignin is a macropolymer mainly of cinnamic acid derivatives monomers. A typical trimer of catechin is shown here:
conduplicatefolded together along the midrib, the sides flat and facing one another, as of leaf ptyxis, cf. circinate, conduplicate-flat, conduplicate-involute, conduplicate-plicate, curved, flat, involute, plicate, revolute, supervolute, supervolute-curved, supervolute-involute; also of young carpels, cf. ascidiate, and of cotyledons in a seed, cf. accumbent, incumbent.
conduplicate-flatof leaf ptyxis, folded together at an angle of about 90o along the midrib, the sides flat, cf. circinate, conduplicate-flat, conduplicate-involute, conduplicate-plicate, curved, flat, involute, plicate, revolute, supervolute, supervolute-curved, supervolute-involute.
conduplicate-involuteof leaf ptyxis, folded together at an angle of about 90o along the midrib, the margins incurved,cf. circinate, conduplicate-flat, conduplicate-involute, conduplicate-plicate, curved, flat, involute, plicate, revolute, supervolute, supervolute-curved, supervolute-involute.
conduplicate-plicateof leaf ptyxis, folded together along the midrib, the two sides folded like a concertina in cross section, cf. circinate, conduplicate-flat, conduplicate-involute, conduplicate-plicate, curved, flat, involute, plicate, revolute, supervolute, supervolute-curved, supervolute-involute.
condyleinward projection of the endocarp around which the seed is folded, as in Menispermaceae, cf.rumination.
conein conifers, a compact group of reduced branches to which the ovules are attached, cf. strobilus.
conferruminate"fused, joined" (from Stearn) - seems imprecise and/or redundant.
congenitalof fusion of parts from the very beginning of development, cf. postgenital.
congested= densely crowded.
coniinea pyridine alkaloid.
Conjugationthe formation of a water-soluble derivative of a chemical by its combination with another compound, such as glutathione, glucuronate, or sulfate.
connatefused to another organ (or other organs) of the same kind, cf. adnate, adherent, appressed, coherent, connivent, fasciate, fasciculate, fastigiate, phalangiate.
connectivethe part of the stamen that connects the pollen sacs/sporangia, cf. anther, filament.
conniventcoming into contact, closely converging, but not fusing, cf. adnate, adherent, appressed, coherent, connivent, fasciate, fasciculate, fastigiate, phalangiate.
contact parastichyof the arrangement of parts at the stem apex, a regular oblique line formed by joining a primordia to the next youngest primordium initiated in contact with it, see parastichy, cf. genetic spiral.
contorted, contorta variant of imbricate aestivation, e.g. of a corolla, in which each segment has one edge overlapping the adjacent segment, like a furled umbrella, cf. cochleate, contortiplicate, crumpled, decussate, quincuncial.
contortiplicatea variant of imbricate aestivation, e.g. of a corolla, in which each segment has one edge overlapping the adjacent segment, like a furled umbrella, but the corolla is connate, cf. cochleate, contortiplicate, crumpled, decussate, quincuncial.
convolute (of imbrication)= contorted, (of ptyxis) = supervolute.
Cas Type 1 Name:8-Isopropyl-1,3-dimethyltricyclo(4.4.0.02,7)dec-3-ene Substance Name:Copaene
Formula: C15H24 CAS RN:3856-25-5 Boiling Point:248.5 deg C
Copolymer- a polymer consisting of two or more different monomers.
CopperCopper (Cu) is an essential trace element for humans and animals. In the body, copper shifts between the cuprous (Cu1+) and the cupric (Cu2+) forms, though the majority of the body's copper is in the Cu2+ form. The ability of copper to easily accept and donate electrons explains its important role in oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions and the scavenging of free radicals. Although Hippocrates is said to have prescribed copper compounds to treat diseases as early as 400 B.C., scientists are still uncovering new information regarding the functions of copper in the human body.
coralloiddensely branched, the branches short and stout.
cordateof a leaf blade, broad and notched at the base; heart-shaped, cf. acute, attenuate, acumen, apiculum, arista, awn, cuneate, caudate, cuspidate, emarginate, mucronate, muticous, obtuse, retuse, rounded, truncate, cf. also hastate, oblique, runcinate, sagittate (esp. of lamina base).
coriaceousleathery in texture, cf. chaffy, chartaceous, papyraceous, scarious.
corksuberised tissue cut off externally from the cork cambium.
cork cambiuma lateral meristem cutting off cork externally and phelloderm internally, cf. polyderm, vascular cambium.
corma fleshy, swollen stem base, usually underground and growing vertically, in which food reserves are stored between growing seasons, cf. bulb, bulbil, caudex, pseudobulb, lignotuber, rhizome, runner, tuber, turion.
cornosidescompounds that occur in taxa where there are no iridoids, even though these might be expected.
Cornoside, C14 H20 O8.
corollathe petals of a flower collectively, cf. androecium, calyx, gynoecium, perianth.
coronaa sometimes interrupted ring of tissue arising from the corolla, perianth or similar part of a flower and standing between the perianth lobes and the stamens, cf. ligule.
corpusthe inner part of the shoot apical meristem of flowering plants and Gnetales in which cell divisions are not oriented, cf. tunica.
corpusculumthe central part of a pollinarium, characteristic of Orchidaceae and Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae, to which the thin translators attach, cf. pollinium, viscidium.
cortexthe region of a stem or root surrounding the stele but inside the epidermis and produced by differentiation of the ground meristem, cf. pith, a cortical bundle is a vascular bundle traversing the cortex, cf. also medullary bundle.
Corticosteroidany of the steroid hormones made by the cortex (outer layer) of the adrenal gland. Cortisol is a corticosteroid. A number of medications are analogs of natural corticosteroid hormones.
corymba racemose inflorescence in which the pedicels of the lower flowers are longer than those of the flowers above, bringing all flowers to about the same level, cf. fascicle, panicle, spadix, spike, thyrse, umbel.
costaa prominent, raised rib-like structure, costate, with prominent raised lines, cf. striae, sulcate; of a lamina = midrib.
cotyledonone or more leaves produced at the first node of an embryo or seedling, see accumbent, conduplicate, incumbent (ptyxis), see also coleoptile, coleorhiza, collet, eophyll, epiblast, epicotyl, hypocotyl, mesocotyl, plumule, primary leaf, radicle, scutellum (other parts of embryo or seedling).
coumarinslactones of phenylpropanoic acids with a H-benzopyran-one nucleus, occuring as glycosides, sometimes located in secretory ducts called vittae, produce the characteristic new-mown hay smell of many grasses.
Coumarin, C9 H6 O2.
Esculetin, C9 H6 O4.
Scopoletin, C10 H8 O4.
Umbelliferone, C9 H6 O3.
coumestansclass of flavonoids derived from isoflavones, which have a coumarin structure.
Coumestan, C15 H8 O3.
Coumestrol, C15 H8 O5.
Coumestrol [479-13-0]Synonyms: 3,9-Dihydroxy-6H-benzofuro(3,2-c)(1)benzopyran-6-one;3-Benzofurancarboxylic acid, 2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-6-hydroxy-, delta-lactone (6CI);5-19-06-00405 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);BRN 0266702;CCRIS 7311;Coumestrol;Cumoesterol;Cumoestrol;Cumostrol;EINECS 207-525-6;NSC 22842;CAS# 479-13-0;Coumestrol
Chemical Name:3,9-Dihydroxy-6H-benzofuro[3,2-c]chromen-6-one Formula: C15 H8O5 Molecular Weight:268.22 Melting Point:385 dec deg C
Note:3,9-Dihydroxy-6H-benzofuro(3,2-c)(1)benzopyran-6-one. A coumarin derivative occurring naturally in forage crops which has estrogenic activity. A daidzein derivative occurring naturally in forage crops which has some estrogenic activity.
counterclockwiseof the direction of twining, the stem taking an ascending counterclockwise course when viewed from above, cf. clockwise.
craspedodromousof pinnate venation in which the secondary veins terminate at the margins, often as teeth, cf. semicraspedodromous, simple-craspedodromous in particular, also cf. acrodromous, actinodromous, brochidodromous, dichotomous, eucamptodromous, flabellate, reticulodromous, parallelodromous.
crassinucellatean ovule in which one or more layers of cells (not epidermally derived) separate the megasporocyte(s)/embryo sac from the epidermis, cf. incompletely tenuinucellate, nucellar cap, nucellar endothelium, nucellar pad, tenuinucellate, weakly crassinucellate (different degrees of development of the nucellus or of the epidermis covering it).
C-reactive protein (CRP)a protein that is produced in the liver in response to inflammation. CRP is a biomarker of inflammation that is strongly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke.
Creatine phosphatea high-energy compound found in muscle cells which is used to convert ADP into ATP by donating phosphate molecules to the ADP. ATP is the molecule which is converted into ADP with a release of energy that the body then uses.
crenateof margins with small, rounded teeth or scalloped, dim. crenulate, cf. biserrate, dentate, entire, serrate, sinuate, undulate.
Cresol [1319-77-3]Synonyms:m-,p-cresol mixture; Coal tar acids; Coal tar cresols; Coal tar phenols; Cresylic acid; Cresylic acid, coal tar acids, coal tar phenols, or coal tar cresols; Crysylol; Hydroxytoluene; Cresol; Cresol; Cresol (All Isomers); Cresol (mixed isomers); cresols; CRESOLS [CRESYLIC ACID - METHYL PHENOL]; Mixed cresols; Tricresol; Tricresol?
Cas Type 1 Name:Cresol;Cresylic acid;Phenol, methyl-
Formula: C21 H24O3. CAS RN:1319-77-3 Other RN:116804-25-2 52037-47-5 8003-33-6 8006-62-0 8026-94-6 Related RN:12002-51-6 (potassium salt) 28503-70-0 (titanium(4+) salt) 34689-46-8 (hydrochloride salt) Molecular Weight:324.4188 Melting Point:-1 - 2 deg C Boiling Point:88 - 94 deg C Flashing Point:82 deg C
cristarque cellssclereids, the lignin deposited excentrically in a U-shape, that also contain a druse.
cross pollinationpollination of one plant by another, cf. allogamy, cf. also autogamy, geitonogamy, self pollination.
crotonoidof pollen grains in which supratectal processes are oriented around the brochi of the tectum.
crownthe part of a tree or shrub above the level of the lowest branch, cf. bole.
crown groupthat part of a clade circumscribed by the extant members of the group and their common ancestor, cf. stem group.
crownshaftin palms, a conspicuous cylinder formed by the tubular bases of leaf sheaths at the apex of the stem or trunk.
crozierthe coiled portion of a leaf with circinate ptyxis, especially used for the leaves of many ferns.
cruciferous(of stomata) = anisocytic.
Cruciferous vegetablesCruciferous or Brassica vegetables are so named because they come from plants in the family known to botanists as Cruciferae or alternately, Brassicaceae. Many commonly consumed cruciferous vegetables come from the Brassica genus, including broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collard greens, kale, kohlrabi, mustard, rutabaga, turnips, bok choy and Chinese cabbage. Arugula, horse radish, radish, wasabi and watercress are also cruciferous vegetables.
Cruciferous vegetables are unique in that they are rich sources of glucosinolates, sulfur-containing compounds that are responsible for their pungent aromas and spicy (some say bitter) taste. The hydrolysis (breakdown) of glucosinolates by a class of plant enzymes called myrosinase results in the formation of biologically active compounds, such as indoles and isothiocyanates. Myrosinase is physically separated from glucosinolates in intact plant cells. However, when cruciferous vegetables are chopped or chewed, myrosinase comes in contact with glucosinolates and catalyzes their hydrolysis. Scientists are currently interested in the potential for high intakes of cruciferous vegetables as well as several glucosinolate hydrolysis products to prevent cancer (see Indole-3-Carbinol and Isothiocyanates).
crumpledof vernation of petals in particular, when they are all crumpled in bud, unlike the normal gradually curving arrangement; although the following are strictly speaking not alternatives (i.e. crumpled petals could also be contorted), cf. cochleate, contorted, contortiplicate, decussate, imbricate, induplicate, open, quincuncial, reduplicate, valvate.
cryptocotylarof germination, when the cotyledon/s is/are not exposed and photosynthetic, cf. phanerocotylar, see also epigeal, hypogeal (hypocotyl/epicotyl development, not synonyms of the first pair).
cryptogamliterally a plant whose sexual reproductive parts are not conspicuous; a plant that produces free spores, even if they are of different sizes; among vascular plants, ferns and fern allies, cf. phanerogam.
cryptophyteof life forms, plants with resting buds below the surface of the ground or in water, see geophyte, helophyte, hydrophyte, cf. hemicryptophyte, phanerophyte, therophyte.
CAS Type 1 Name:beta,beta-Caroten-3-ol, (3R)- Equivalent Terms:beta-cryptoxanthin
Formula: C40 H56O CAS RN:472-70-8 Other RN:1638-03-5 22004-24-6 28368-05-0 34182-32-6Melting Point:< 25 deg C M.W.:660.03636
crystal sandsee sand.
cucullate= hooded or hood-shaped.
cucurbitacinstriterpenoids, sometimes coloured, bitter in taste.
Cucurbitacin, C32 H46 O8.
cucurbitoida leaf tooth in which there is a translucent apical pad of densely packed cells, the two lateral veins either fusing or connivent with the apical vein, cf. begonioid, chloranthoid, cunonioid, dillenioid, malvoid, monimioid, platanoid, rosoid, salicoid, spinose, theoid, urticoid, violoid.
CurcuminTurmeric is a spice derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). Rhizomes are horizontal underground stems that send out shoots as well as roots. The bright yellow color of turmeric comes mainly from polyphenolic pigments, known as curcuminoids. Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid found in turmeric, and is generally considered its most active constituent. Other curcuminoids found in turmeric include demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. In addition to its use as a spice and a pigment, turmeric has been used in India for medicinal purposes for centuries. More recently, evidence that curcumin may have anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities has renewed scientific interest in its potential to prevent and treat disease.
culman aerial stem, in grasses, sedges, rushes, etc., a local term for the stem bearing the inflorescence, cf. tiller.
cuneatewedge-shaped, the sides straight and coming to a point, the angle made being less than 90o, cf. acute, attenuate, acumen, apiculum, arista, awn, caudate, cuspidate, emarginate, mucronate, muticous, obtuse, retuse, rounded, truncate, cf. also cordate, hastate, oblique, runcinate, sagittate (esp. of lamina base).
cunonioida leaf tooth in which the principal vein branches below the tooth, one branch proceeding to the sinus or towards the tooth above, the other proceeding along the upper edge of the tooth to the small glandular apex, cf. begonioid, chloranthoid, cucurbitoid, dillenioid, malvoid, monimioid, platanoid, rosoid, salicoid, spinose, theoid, urticoid, violoid.
cupulelike a small cup, cupuliform, nearly hemispherical, shaped like a cupola or dome, as in acorns (Quercus), or more generally investing, as in the cupule of some pteridosperms, which has only a small opening.
curcuminsdimers of hydroxycinnamic acid, i.e. with hydroxy (and other) groups attached to the phenolic ring of cinnamic acid, orange-yellow in colour.
Curcumin, C21 H20 O6.
curvedof leaf ptyxis, the leaf surface with the margins broadly curved in an adaxial direction, i.e. adaxially concave, cf. circinate, conduplicate, conduplicate-flat, conduplicate-involute, conduplicate-plicate, flat, involute, plicate, revolute, supervolute, supervolute-curved, supervolute-involute.
cuspidateof the apex of a structure, tapering into a sharp, rigid point, but it has other meanings as well, and overall it is better replaced (along with apiculate) by a suitably-qualified mucronate (see Rickett 1956), cf. acute, attenuate, acumen, arista, awn, caudate, cuneate, emarginate, muticous, obtuse, retuse, rounded, truncate, cf. also cordate, hastate, oblique, runcinate, sagittate (esp. of lamina base).
cuticlethe water-repellent covering of the outer walls of the epidermis, consisting of wax and cutin.
cutinpolymer of fatty acids and hydroxy fatty acids, occuring in the cuticle.
C-valuea measure of genome size, the amount of DNA in the unreplicated gametic nucleus, measured in picograms.
Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside[7084-24-4]Synonyms:Asterin;Chrysontemin;Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside;Cyanidin 3-glucoside;Cyanidin 3-monoglucoside;Cyanidin-3-glucoside chloride;Cyanidine 3-glucoside;Cyanidol 3-glucoside;EINECS 230-384-7;Glucocyanidin
Cas Type 1 Name:1-Benzopyrylium, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-5,7-dihydroxy-, chloride Substance Name:Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside Formula: C21 H21O11.Cl CAS RN:7084-24-4
cyanogenesisthe production of hydrocyanic acid, HCN, by hydrolysation of cyanogenic glycosides.
cyathiuman inflorescence (pseudanthium) of highly reduced staminate and carpellate flowers surrounded by a cup-shaped structure formed by involucral bracts, as in Euphorbia.
cycasincycad toxin with glucose molecule.
Cycasin, C8 H16 N2 O7 .
cyclicof floral organs = whorled; of chemical compounds, when atoms form rings.
Chemical Name:1-(1,5-Dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-3a,6,6,12a-tetramethyltetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]cyclopropa[e]phenanthren-7-ol; 9,19-Cyclo-9.beta.-lanost-24-en-3.beta.-ol; 9,19-Cycloart-24-ene, 3.beta.-ol Substance Name:Cycloartenol Formula: C30 H50O M.W.:426.717 g/mol CAS RN:469-38-5 Note:Found in chlorophyll-containing plants.
cyclocyticof stomata, with five or more small subsidiary cells entirely surrounding the guard cells, but not radially elongated, see actinocytic, allelocytic, anisocytic, anomocytic, diacytic, helicocytic, laterocytic, paracytic, staurocytic, tetracytic.
cyclopentenoidscyanogenic glycosides producing HCN, often found as cyclopentenyl fatty acids, e.g. hydnocarpic acid below.
Gynocardin, C12 H17 N O8. Hydnocarpic acid, C16 H28 O2.
cymeof an sympodial inflorescence, with the apex of the stem axis converted into a flower, but further flowers arising successively from the axils of the bracteole/prophyll (monocots) or bracteoles/prophylls (most BLAs) immediately below it, and so on, adj. cymose, a cymule is a diminutive cyme, often used for part of an inflorescence, usually few-flowered, see dichasia and monochasia (basic types), and bicolor unit, drepanium, helicoid cyme, rhipidium, scorpioid cyme (particular variants), see also corymb, fascicle, cf. raceme.
Cymene [99-87-6]Synonyms:1-Methyl-4-isopropylbenzene; 1-methyl-4-(methylethyl)-benzene; para-cymene; 4-isopropyltoluene; p-methyl cumene; 4-methyl isopropylbenzene; Cymene; Cymol; Dolcymene; Methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)benzene;
Formula: C10 H14. Molecular Weight: 134.2206 CAS RN:99-87-6 Melting Point:-67. ACX Number:X1002904-2. Boiling Point:176 - 178. Density 0.86 Flashing Point:47 Refractive Indez: 1.49 Water Solubility:insoluble
Cynarin [1182-34-9]Synonyms:1,4-Dicaffeylquinic acid; 3,4-Dihydroxycinnamic acid 1-carboxy-3,5-dihydroxy-1,4-cyclohexylene ester;Acido, 1,4-dicaffeilchinico [Italian]; CIN [Italian];CYN;Cinarcaf;Cinarine Cynarin;Cynarine; EINECS 214-655-7; Listrocol; NSC 91529; Plemocil;Cynarin;1, 3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid;Cynarine;Cinarine;Listrocol;Plemocil
Chemical Name:1,3-di-O-Caffeoylquinic acid;2-Allyl-1,4-bis((3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo)oxy)-3,5-dihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid Cinnamic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy-, 1-carboxy-3,5-dihydroxy-1,4-cyclohexylene ester (VAN) (8CI) Cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, 1,4-bis((3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy)-3,5-dihydroxy-, (1alpha,3alpha,4alpha,5beta)- (9CI)
Formula: C25 H24O12 C25 H24O12.H2-O CAS RN:1182-34-9 Other RN: 1884-23-7 1884-24-8 Molecular Weight:516.4574 ACX Number:X1062677-8.
Molecular Formula Fragments: C25 H24O12 COMPONENT H2-O
cypselaa dry, indehiscent, one-seeded fruit formed from an inferior ovary, an achene s.l., cf. also caryopsis, nut, utricle.
Cysteine [52-90-4]Synonyms:(+)-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropionic acid; 2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid; C; Cys; CySH; Cysteine; L-beta-mercaptoalanine; L-Cysteine; L-CYSTEINE FREE BASE CRYSTALLINE; (S)-(-)-Cysteine;(R)-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid;(R)-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropionic acid;(R)-Cysteine;2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid, (R)-;2-Amino-3-mercaptopropionic acid;AI3-26559;CCRIS 912;Cisteina [INN-Spanish];Cisteina [Spanish];Cisteinum [Latin];Cystein;Cysteine;Cysteinum [INN-Latin];EINECS 200-158-2;FEMA No. 3263;HSDB 2109;Half cystine;Half-cystine;L-(+)-Cysteine;L-Alanine, 3-mercapto-;NSC-8746;Propanoic acid, 2-amino-3-mercapto-, (R)-;Thioserine;alpha-Amino-beta-mercaptopropanoic acid, L-;alpha-Amino-beta-mercaptopropionic acid, L-;alpha-Amino-beta-thiolpropionic acid;alpha-Amino-beta-thiolpropionic acid, L-;beta-Mercaptoalanine;beta-Mercaptoalanine, L-
CAS Type 1 Name:L-Cysteine Chemical Name:2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid
Formula: C7 H3NO2S. Molecular Weight:121.16 CAS RN:52-90-4 Other RN:4371-52-2 Related RN: 7048-04-6 (Hydrochloride) ACX Number:X1000365-7. Melting Point:220
Cystine [56-89-3]Synonyms:(2S,7S)-(-)-Cystine; 3,3'-Dithiobis(2-aminopropionic acid); alpha-Diamino-beta-dithiolactic acid; Dicysteine; Cys-SCy; Cystine; L-(-)-3,3'-Dithiobis(2-aminopropanoic acid); L-alpha-Diamino-beta-dithiolactic acid; L-Dicysteine; L-Cystine; L-(-)-cystine; L-CYSTINE SIGMA GRADE CRYSTALLINE;
Formula: C6 H12N2O4S2. Molecular Weight:240.2918 CAS RN:56-89-3 ACX Number:X1000359-9.
Cystine disulfoxide [30452-69-8]Synonyms:EINECS 250-206-1
Formula: C6 H12N2O6S2. CAS RN:30452-69-8
cystolitha stalked structure growing from the cell wall into the cell cavity, encrusted with calcium carbonate, borne in a lithocyst.
cystisinea quinolizidine alkaloid.
Cytidine[65-46-3]Synonyms: 1-beta-D-Ribofuranosylcytosine;1-beta-Ribofuranosylcytosine;1beta-2'-Ribofuranosylcytosine, d-;1beta-Ribofuranosylcytosine;2(1H)-Pyrimidinone, 4-amino-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-;2(1H)-Pyrimidinone, 4-amino-1beta-D-ribofuranosyl-;4-Amino-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone;4-Amino-1beta-D-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone;Cyd;Cytidine;Cytosine riboside;Cytosine, 1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-;EINECS 200-610-9;NSC 20258;beta-D-Ribofuranoside, cytosine-1
Chemical Name:4-Amino-1-.beta.-D-ribofuranosyl-2-(1H)-pyrimidinone Substance Name:Cytidine Formula: C19 H13N3O5 M.W.:243.22 g/mol Melting Point:230.5 dec deg C CAS RN:65-46-3 4395-95-3 Note:A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base cytosine linked to the five-carbon sugar D-ribose.
Cytochrome P450a family of Phase I biotransformation enzymes that play an important role in the metabolism and elimination of drugs, toxins, carcinogens and endogenous compounds, such as steroid hormones.
Cytokinea protein made by cells that affects the behavior of other cells. Cytokines act on specific cytokine receptors in the cells they affect.
Cytoplasmthe contents of a cell, excluding the nucleus.
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