Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Phytochemicals are dedicated to Phytochemicals and phyto derived chemical components.Phytochemicals have been used as drugs for millennia. Hippocrates may have prescribed willow tree leaves to abate fever. Salicin, having anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties, was originally extracted from the white willow tree and later synthetically produced become the staple over-the-counter drug called Aspirin!
Phytochemicals are chemical compounds such as beta-carotene that occur naturally in plants. The term is generally used to refer to those chemicals that may affect health, but are not yet established as essential nutrients.While there is abundant scientific and government support for recommending diets rich in fruits and vegetables, there is only limited evidence that health benefits are due to specific phytochemicals.
There is evidence from laboratory studies that phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer, possibly due to dietary fibers, polyphenol antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. Specific phytochemicals, such as fermentable dietary fibers, are allowed limited health claims by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Contents: e- (prefix) | early wood | echinate | echinate | Echinacin:[8001-18-1] | Echinacoside:[82854-37-3] | echinacoside | ectexine | ectomycorrhiza | ectophloic | egg apparatus | egg cell | Eicosanoids | Eicosane [112-95-8] | ektexine | elaiosome | elaters | Electrocardiogram (ECG) | Electroencephalogram (EEG) | Electrolytes | Electron | Electron transport chain | Element | Eleutheroside A | Eleutheroside B | Eleutheroside B4 | Eleutheroside e[39432-56-9] | Eleutheroside M | ellagic acid | ellagitannins | elliptic | emarginate | embedded | embryo | embryo sac | embryotega | emersed | Emodin:[518-82-1] | Emphysema | enantiomorphous | enantiostyly | enation | encyclocytic | end | endarch | endemic | endexine | endo- (prefix) | endoaperture | endocarp | endodermis | endogenous | endomycorrhiza | endophytism | endoscopic | endosperm | endosporic | endostomal | endothecium | endothelium | Endymion | enrichment zone | enrichment branch | enrichment zone | ensiform | entire | entomophily | eophyll(s) | ephemeral | epi- (prefix) | Epiafzelechin | epiblast | epicalyx | epicarp | Epicatechin [490-46-0] | Epicatechin gallate[863-03-6] | Epigallocatechin gallate[989-51-5] | epichile | epicormic | epicotyl | epicuticular wax | epidermis | epigeal | epigynous | epihydrophily | epilithic | Epimedin B:[110623-73-9] | Epimedin C:[110642-44-9] | Epimedin K:[174286-13-6] | epimedoside A:[39012-04-9] | epinasty | epipetalous | epiphyllous | epiphytic | epipodium | episperm | epistase | epistomatic | epithelium | epithem | epitropous | equitant | erect | Eremophilene [10219-75-7] | ergastic substances | ericoid | erucic acid | erose | Erythropoietin | Escin[6805-41-0] | esculetin | ethereal oils | essential fatty acids | essential oils | Ester:[105583-82-2 ] | Estradiol [50-28-2] | Estrogen | Ethyl gallate[831-61-8] | eu- (prefix) | euanthium | eucamptodromous | Eugenol [97-53-0] | euphyll | eusporangium | eustele | even-pinnate | evergreen | eviction | ex- (prefix) | exalbuminous | exarch | excentric | exfoliatinf | exine | exmedial | exo- (prefix) | exocarp | exodermis | exogenous | exon | exoscopic | exosporic | exostomal | exothecium | expansigenous | exserted | exstipulate | extra | extrafloral nectary | extragynoecial compitum | extranuptial nectary | extravaginal | extrorse |
e- (prefix):without, lacking.
early wood:the wood, strictly speaking xylem, formed early in the growing period, typically relatively low in density, pale in colour, and with large xylem elements, cf. late wood.
echinate:bearing stiff, stout, prickly hairs, cf. muricate, prickly, verrucose.
echinate:a term used to describe a pollen surface with long, pointed tapering elements more than 1μm long, cf. baculate, fossulate, gemmate, foveolate, pilate, lophate, psilate, reticulate, retipilate, rugulate, scabrate, striate, verrucose.
Chemical Name:Echinacin (extract)
Chemical Name:Glucopyranoside, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl O-6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl-(1-3)-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6))-, 4-(3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate), beta-D-
Formula: C35 H40 O20. CAS RN:82854-37-3
ectexine:the outer part of the exine, which stains positively with basic fuchsin in optical microscopy and has higher electron density in conventionally prepared TEM sections, includes the foot layer, infratectum, tectum, and supractectal structures (some of these may be not be present), cf. endexine, cf. also nexine, sexine.
ectomycorrhiza:mutualistic association between fungi and roots in which fungal hyphae invest the roots and weave between between the cells, but do not penetrate them, see Hartig net, cf. endomycorrhiza, endophyte.
ectophloic:a variant of a siphonostele in which the vascular bundles have phloem only outside the xylem, cf. amphiphloic or dictyostele.
egg apparatus:in flowering plants, the egg cell or female gamete and two associated synergid cells at the apex of the embryo sac immediately adjacent to the micropyle, cf. antipodals, central cell, polar nuclei.
egg cell:a non-motile female gamete, in angiosperms a cell at the apex of the embryo sac immediately adjacent to the micropyle, cf. antipodals, central cell, egg apparatus, polar nuclei, primary endosperm nucleus, synergid cells, in most other embryophytes in an organised structure called an archegonium, cf. archegonial chamber, neck, venter.
Eicosanoids:chemical messengers derived from 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Eicosanoids play critical roles in immune and inflammatory responses.
Eicosane [112-95-8]:Synonyms:10006107;112-95-8;19002.7;25730.19;AI3-28404;CCRIS 663;eicosan;Eicosane;EINECS 204-018-1;Icosane;LFA;n-Eicosane;NISTC112958;NSC 62789;NSC62789;SQU
Formula: C20 H42. CAS RN:112-95-8 Molecular Weight:282.547 g/mol Melting Point:36.8 deg C Boiling Point:343 deg C
elaiosome:an appendage of a seed (Esau 1976 suggests also fruit) rich in oil, attractive to animals, especially ants, cf. aril, caruncle, coma, strophiole.
elaters:structures of various origins either part of and associated with individual pollen grains, or mixed among them, which by their movements as they dry out cause the pollen to be dispersed.
Electrocardiogram (ECG):a recording of the electrical activity of the heart, used to diagnose cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction.
Electroencephalogram (EEG):a recording of the electrical activity of the brain, used to diagnose neurological conditions such as seizure disorders (epilepsy).
Electrolytes:ionized (dissociated into positive and negative ions) salts in the body fluids. Major electrolytes in the body include sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate.
Electron:a stable atomic particle with a negative charge.
Electron transport chain:a group of electron carriers in mitochondria that transport electrons to and from each other in a sequence, in order to generate ATP.
Element:One of the 103 chemical substances that cannot be divided into simpler substances by chemical means. For example, hydrogen, magnesium, lead, and uranium are all chemical elements. Trace elements are chemical elements that are required in very small (trace) amounts in the diet to maintain health. For example, copper, selenium, and iodine are considered trace elements.
Eleutheroside A:See Lyoniside.
Eleutheroside B:See Syringin.
Eleutheroside B4:See Sesamin.
Eleutheroside e[39432-56-9]:Synonyms:Eleutheroside e
Chemical Name:Eleutheroside E CAS RN:39432-56-9
Eleutheroside M:See Hederacolchiside C.
ellagic acid:a lactone, a hydroxy acid formed by the hydrolysis of some tannins, for the combined state, see ellagitannins.
Ellagic acid, C14 H6 O8.
ellagitannins:hydrolyzable tannins, ester involving dimers of gallic acid.
Potentillen, C41 H28 O26.
elliptic:a term used for outlines and plane shapes, with a length:breadth ratio 2.5:1 - 3:2, the widest part at about the middle, the apex and base are more or less pointed, technically "a plane figure such that the sum of the distances from any point on its circumference to two fixed points is a constant" (Rickett 1954a), see broadly, broad-transverse, narrowly, transverse, cf. obovate, oblongovate, rhombic, triangular, trullate.
emarginate:of the apex of any laminar structure, e.g., petal, leaf blade, divided 5-25% the length of the structure, cf. in particular lobed, retuse, cf. also acute, attenuate, acumen, apiculum, arista, awn, cuneate, caudate, cuspidate, mucronate, muticous, obtuse, retuse, rounded, truncate, cf. also cordate, hastate, oblique, runcinate, sagittate (esp. of lamina base).
embedded:of an anther when the thecae are surrounded by and embedded in a well-developed connective for more or less their entire length, cf. basifixed, dorsifixed, versatile.
embryo:a young plant contained within a seed, more particularly, the embryo proper is made up of all the derivates of the apical cell of the very early proembryo (i.e. at the 2-celled stage), and also of the hypophysis, the apical cell of the suspensor (the resulting structure is called the embryo sphere or embryo body), cf. somatic embryo, see coleoptile, coleorhiza, collet, cotyledon, eophyll, epiblast, epicotyl, hypocotyl, mesocotyl, plumule, primary leaf, radicle, scutellum (parts of the mature embryo), see also accumbent, conduplicate, diplecolobous, incumbent (folding of the embryo), see also macropodial (storage type), see also proembryo, zygote (earlier stages).
embryo sac:part of the ovule, a large, multi-nucleate structure, the whole making up the female gametophyte, in which an embryo begins to develop, for variations, see Adoxa, Allium, Drusa, Endymion, Fritillaria, Oenothera, Penaea, Peperomia, Plumbagella, Plumbago, Polygonum, for the main components, see antipodals, central cell, egg apparatus, female gamete or egg cell, polar nuclei, synergid cells.
emersed:of leaves, flowers, etc., rising above the surface of water in which the plant is rooted.
Emodin:[518-82-1]:Synonyms:1,3,8-Trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone; 6-methyl-1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone; 9,10-anthracenedione, 1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl-; C.I. 75440; C.I. natural yellow 14; emodin; emodol; frangula emodin; persian berry lake; rheum emodium; schuttgelb;Aloe Emodin;Frangula Emodin;Rheum Emodin;NSC622947;1,3,8-Trihydroxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthracenedione;1,3,8-Trihydroxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone;1,3,8-Trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone;3-Methyl-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone; 4,5,7-Trihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone; 4-08-00-03575 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);6-Methyl-1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone;AI3-38286;Anthraquinone, 1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl-;BRN 1888141;C.I. 75440;C.I. Natural Yellow 14;CCRIS 3528;EINECS 208-258-8;Emodin;Emodol;Frangula emodin;HSDB 7093;NSC 408120;NSC 622947;Persian Berry Lake;Rheum emodin;Schuttgelb
Formula: C15 H10O5. Molecular Weight:270.24 CAS RN:518-82-1
Chemical Name:1,3,8-Trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone;9,10-Anthracenedione, 1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl- (9CI); Anthraquinone, 1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl- (8CI);Anthraquinone, 6-methyl-1,3,8-trihydroxy- ; Emodin
CAS Type 1 Name:9,10-Anthracenedione, 1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl-
Emphysema:a chronic obstructive pulmonary (lung) disease, characterized by damage to the small air sacs (alveoli) and difficulty breathing. Damage to the alveoli decreases their elasticity and results in hyperinflation of the lungs, which impairs gas exchange. Smoking is the most common cause of emphysema.
enantiomorphous:asymmetric flowers with mirror image morphologies, as of the flowers borne along the stem of species of Chamaechrista or the paired flowers in inflorescences of Marantaceae, cf. enantiostylous, haplomorphic.
enantiostyly:styles in flowers alternately twisted towards the right and left along the inflorescence, a kind of herkogamy/hercogamy, cf. asymmetric, enantiomorphic, haplomorphic.
enation:an outgrowth from the plant surface often involving both epidermal and subepidermal tissues, but not vascularised (but microphylls are often described as being enations), see prickle, cf. trichome.
end:- (prefix, before a vowel): inner, inside.
endarch:of a procambial strand in which the first-differentiated elements are in the inside, i.e. towards the centre of the stem, cf. exarch, mesarch.
endemic:having a natural distribution restricted to the geographical region mentioned, cf. adventive, native, introduced, naturalised.
endexine:the inner part of the exine, which stains, cf. ectexine.
endo- (prefix):inner, inside.
endoaperture:(of a pollen grain) = os.
endocarp:the innermost histologically distinct layer of the fruit wall or pericarp, in a drupe, the stony layer surrounding the seed, cf. exocarp, mesocarp.
endodermis:the innermost layer of the cortex, consisting of a single layer of cells without intercellular spaces and with a waxy Casparian band around the anticlinal walls, see passage cells, cf. exodermis.
endogenous:deep-seated in origin, cf. exogenous.
endomycorrhiza:mutualistic association between zygomycetous (usually) fungi and roots in which the fungal hyphae penetrate the root cells, see VAM, arbuscular mycorrhiza, cf. ectomycorrhiza.
endophytism:symptomless association of other living organisms, often fungi, that grow within living plants, hence endophyte, cf. ectomycorrhiza, endomycorrhiza.
endoscopic:used in describing the polarity of the embryo, when the stem apex develops away from the neck of the archegonium or the micropyle of the ovule, cf. exoscopic.
endosperm:nutritive tissue in an angiosperm seed, usually triploid and formed after fertilisation by the fusion of one gamete with the polar nucleus, sometimes diploid or polyploid, cf. chalazosperm, primary endosperm, perisperm, see cellular, helobial, nuclear, see aleurone layer, chalazal cyst, haustorium.
endosporic:development of the gametophytic generation from a spore after germination entirely within the confines of the spore wall, cf. exosporic.
endostomal:where the micropyle of an ovule is formed from the inner integument alone, cf. amphistomal, bistomal, exostomal, naked, zigzag.
endothecium:the hypodermis of an anther sac with distinctively thickened walls and involved in its dehiscence, especially when this is by slits, ultimately derived from the archesporium cf. exothecium, placentoid, tapetum, see baseplate.
endothelium:cells of the inner epidermis of the inner (or only) integument of the ovule that are radially elongated and metabolically very active, cf. epithelium, cf. also nucellar endothelium.
Endymion:an embryo sac type, the types based on variation in megasporogensis and megagametogenesis, bisporic (the two spores micropylar), 8-nucleate, the nuclei all haploid, cf. Adoxa, Allium, Drusa, Fritillaria, Oenothera, Penaea, Peperomia, Plumbagella, Plumbago, Polygonum.
enrichment zone:the cluster of flowers that terminates a lateral branch of a synflorescence, cf. coflorescence, florescence, paraclade, cf. inflorescence.
enrichment branch:= paraclade.
enrichment zone:that part of a synflorescence bearing lateral branches (strictly: bearing paraclade below the florescence).
entire:having a smooth margin, not dissected, toothed, or with black spots ("glands"), cf. biserrate, crenate, dentate, serrate; entire leaves can be sinuate or undulate.
entomophily:a variant of zo?philous pollination where insects are the pollinating agents, see cantharophily, mellitophily, myophilous, sapromyophily, sphigophily.
eophyll(s):the first leaf or leaves produced by the seedling, cf. coleoptile, coleorhiza, collet, cotyledon, epiblast, epicotyl, hypocotyl, mesocotyl, plumule, primary leaf, radicle, scutellum.
ephemeral:of plant duration, short-lived, particularly of plants that live only for a brief period after rains, but nevertheless flower and fruit, cf. annual, biennial, perennial, of flowering with respect to architecture, hapaxanthic, monocarpic, pleonanthic.
epi- (prefix):borne on, outside or above another structure.
Epiafzelechin:Chemical Name: (-)-Epiafzelechin;epi-Afzelechin
Formula: C15 H14 O5. MW::274.0841
epiblast:an flap of tissue in an embryo or seedling arising opposite to the insertion of the cotyledon/scutellum, cf. also coleoptile, coleorhiza, collet, eophyll, epicotyl, hypocotyl, mesocotyl, plumule, primary leaf, radicle.
epicalyx:a whorl of structures just below a flower, looking like a second calyx, cf. calyx, corolla, perianth, tepals.
Epicatechin [490-46-0]:Synonyms:(-)-(2R:3R)-5,7,3',4'-Tetrahydroxyflavan-3-ol;(-)-Epicatechin;(-)-Epicatechol;(2R,3R)-(-)-Epicatechin;CCRIS 7097;EINECS 207-710-1;Epicatechin;Epicatechol;Epicatechol, (-)-;L-Epicatechin;NSC 81161;epi-Catechin;epi-Catechol;l-Acacatechin;l-Epicatechin;l-Epicatechol;2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-3,5,7-triol; (-)-Epicatechin; L-Epicatechin;
CAS Type 1 Name:Epicatechol, (-)- Chemical Name:2H-1-Benzopyran-3,5,7-triol, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-, (2R-cis)- Equivalent Terms:(-)-Epicatechin;.alpha. Catechin Melting Point:240 deg C
Formula: C15 H14O6 CAS RN:490-46-0 Other RN:2545-08-6 Molecular Weight:290.272
Epicatechin gallate[863-03-6]:Synonyms:Epicatechin gallate;Epicatechin-3-gallate;Epicatechin-3-galloyl ester;epicatechin gallate, (2R-cis)-isomer;epicatechin-3-gallate;epicatechin-3-galloyl ester;epicatechin-3-O-gallate
CAS Type 1 Name:Epicatechin gallate Chemical Name:Benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-5,7- dihydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-3-yl ester, (-)-cis- Equivalent Terms:(-)-Epicatechin gallate;(-)-Epicatechin-3-O-gallate
Formula: C22 H18O10 CAS RN:863-03-6 Molecular Weight:442.37
Epigallocatechin gallate[989-51-5]:Synonyms:EGCg;Catechin deriv.;(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate;EGCG;(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-o-gallate;(-)-Epigallocatechol gallate;CCRIS 3729;Epigallocatechin 3-gallate;Epigallocatechin gallate; Tea catechin;EGCG cpd;epigallo-catechin gallate;epigallocatechin-3-gallate
CAS Type 1 Name:(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate;Epigallocatechol, 3-gallate, (-)-;EGCG Chemical Name:Benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-, (2R,3R)-3,4-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-3-yl ester
Formula: C22 H18O11 CAS RN:989-51-5 Molecular Weight:458.37
epichile:the apical or distal part of the labellum of an orchid, hypochile.
epicormic:of buds, shoots or flowers, borne on the old wood of trees, applied especially to shoots arising from dormant buds after injury or fire.
epicotyl:the internode between the cotyledon/s) and the first foliage leaf of an embryo or seedling, (sometimes also used to refer to what is here called plumule, cf. also coleoptile, coleorhiza, collet, eophyll, epiblast, hypocotyl, mesocotyl, primary leaf, radicle, scutellum.
epicuticular wax:wax of variable composition and morphology found on the outer surfaces of the above-ground parts of plants.
epidermis:the outermost layer of cells of a plant and its organs that surrounds the cortex, usually only one cell thick and produced from the protoderm, see bulliform cells, stomata, cf. exodermis, hypodermis, cf. also ground tissue, periderm, vascular tissue.
epigeal:of germination, the seedling with a well-developed hypocotyl and often also epicotyl, cf. hypogeal, see also cryptocotylar, phanerocotylar (cotyledon exposure, not synonyms of the first pair).
epigynous:of flowers with the floral parts attached above the level of insertion of the ovary, arising from tissue that is fused to the ovary wall, cf. hypogynous, perigynous; note that inferior, a term describing the ovary in reference to the insertion of other floral parts is generally used in the descriptions here, cf. superior.
epihydrophily:a variant of hydrophilous pollination in which pollen grains or staminate flowers float on the surface of the water to reach the stigma, cf. hypohydrophily.
epilithic:of the general habitat, a plant growing on rock surfaces, cf. amphibious, aquatic, epiphytic, epiphyllous, terrestrial.
Epimedin B:[110623-73-9]:Synonyms:epimedin B
CAS Type 1 Name :4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 3-((6-deoxy-2-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl)oxy)-7-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-
Formula: C38 H48 O19. CAS RN: 110623-73-9
CAS Type 1 Name :4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 3-((6-deoxy-2-O-(6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl)-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl)oxy)-7-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-
Formula: C39 H50 O19. CAS RN: 110642-44-9
Epimedin K:[174286-13-6]:Synonyms:epimedin K;Korepimedoside B
CAS Type 1 Name :4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 3-((4-O-acetyl-6-deoxy-3-O-(2,6-di-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl)oxy)-7-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-
Formula: C45 H56O23. CAS RN:174286-13-6 Other RN:186499-39-8
CAS Type 1 Name :4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 3-((6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl)oxy)-7-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-
Formula: C32 H38 O15. CAS RN:39012-04-9
epinasty:describing the growth response of a plant part where the upper side grows faster than the lower side with the result that the part curves downwards, cf. hyponasty.
epipetalous:esp. of stamens, borne on or adnate to the petals.
epiphyllous:growing on/from leaves, e.g. flowers or inflorescences, or the plantlets of some Crassulaceae; of the general habitat, small plants, lichens, fungi, etc., growing upon leaves but not parasitic, cf. amphibious, aquatic, epilithic, epiphytic, terrestrial.
epiphytic:of the general habitat, a plant growing on, but not parasitic on, another plant, cf. amphibious, aquatic, epilithic, epiphyllous, terrestrial.
epipodium:the first internode above the prophyll(s), cf. hypopodium, mesopodium.
episperm:a term that I have seen used only for the seedcoat of a unitegmic angiosperm.
epistase:a structure in the ovule made up of thick-walled cells at the tip of the nucellus, cf. antiraphe, chalaza, epistase, female gametophyte, funicle, hypostase, integument (see also endothelium), nucellar beak, nucellar cap, nucellar endothelium, nucellar pad, obturator, raphe (parts).
epistomatic:of leaves in which stomata are borne on the upper or adaxial side only, cf. amphistomatic and hypostomatic.
epithelium:a compact layer of cells, often secretory, lining a cavity or covering a surface, cf. endothelium.
epithem:mesophyll of an hydathode involved in the secretion of water.
epitropous:of the curvature of an ovule with respect to the ovary axis, adaxial, cf. apotropous, pleurotropous, see also antitropous, syntropous.
equitant:of leaf vernation in the strict sense, a leaf as if folded in half along the midline so that the adaxial surface disappears from view, and the two edges both outside a similarly folded leaf on the opposite side of the stem (at least at the base), which in turn similarly encloses the next leaf, and so on, usually occuring when leaves are two ranked or distichous, equitant leaves are often isobifacial, cf. obvolute.
erect:held at right angles to the surface, cf. antrorse, retrorse; of ovules, especially those attached at or near the base of the loculus and so borne (sub)erect on a basal placenta, cf. pendulous.
Eremophilene [10219-75-7]:Synonyms: (+)-Valencene;10219-75-7;3-Isopropenyl-4a,5-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,7-octahydronaphthalene;4.alpha., 10.alpha.-Dimethyl-6.beta.-isopropyl-.DELTA.1,9-octalin;4.beta.H, 5.alpha.-Eremophila-1 (10),11-diene;4630-07-3;4alpha,10alpha-Dimethyl-6beta-isopropyl-delta1,9-octalin;4betaH,5alpha-Eremophila-1(10),11-diene;Eremophila-1(10),11-diene;Eremophilene;Naphthalene, 1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1, 8a-dimethyl-7- (1-methylethenyl)-, [1R-(1.alpha.,7.beta., 8a.alpha.)]-;Naphthalene, 1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,8a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethenyl)-, [1R-(1alpha,7beta,8aalpha)]-;Naphthalene, 1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,8a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethenyl)-, [1S-(1alpha,7alpha,8aalpha)]-;NIST10219-75-7;NISTR127676;NSC148969;Valencen;Valencene;Valencene 85;Valensene
Chemical Name:1,8a-dimethyl-7-prop-1-en-2-yl-2,3,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-naphthalene Formula:C15H24. CAS RN:10219-75-7 M.W.204.351 g/mol
ergastic substances:metabolic products of the protoplast such as starch grains, crystals, fat globules, fluids, etc., that are found in various parts of the cell, including the cell wall, either as storage, waste products, protection, etc.
ericoid:a xeromorphic leaf, rather small, narrow, and with recurved margins.
erucic acid:a type of unsaturated fatty acid, a major constituent of most rapeseed and mustard oils.
Erucic acid, C22 H42 O2.
erose:of a margin, finely and irregularly eroded or incised.
Erythropoietin:a hormone produced by specialized cells in the kidneys that stimulates the bone marrow to increase the production of red blood cells. Recombinant erythropoietin is used to treat anemia in patients with end stage renal failure.
Escin[6805-41-0]:Synonyms:Aescusan;Reparilu [Czech];Escina [Italian];Amorphous aescin;Aescin [German];2-Butenoic acid, 2-methyl-, (3.beta.,4.beta.,16.alpha.,21.beta.,22.alpha.)-22-(acetyloxy)-3-[[O-.beta.-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->2)-O-[.beta.-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->4)]-.beta.-D-glucopyranuronosyl]oxy]-16,23,28-trihydroxyolean-12-en-21-yl ester, (2E)-;2-Butenoic acid;2-methyl-, (3.beta.,4.beta.,16.alpha.,21.beta.,22.alpha.)-22-(acetyloxy)-3-[[O-.beta.-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->2)-O-[.beta.-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->4)]-.beta.-D-glucopyranuronosyl]oxy]-16,23,28-trihydroxyolean-12-en-21-yl ester,(2Z)-,6805-41-0,Aescin,AIDS-108246,AIDS-108247,AIDS108246,AIDS108247,C08921,Cyclic triterpenoid,Cyclic triterpenoid;escine Ib,Escin,Escine Ia
CAS Type 1 Name:Escin Equivalent Term:Aescin;beta-Escin;Beta-Escin,beta-Reparil, beta-Aescinu
Formula: C55 H86O24 CAS RN:6805-41-0 Other RN:1394-90-7 25255-37-2 37-02-5 47918-34-3 55125-87-6 Molecular Weight:1131.26 g/mol
Note:Aescigenin-(2-methyl-3-acetoxybutyrate)-(2-xylosido 4-glucosidoglucuronoside). Saponin occurring in the seed of the horse chestnut tree. Inhibits edema formation and decreases vascular fragility.
ethereal oils:more or less volatile and often aromatic susbtances made up of various kinds of terpenes, including diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, etc..
essential fatty acids:Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), meaning they contain more than one cis double bond.1 In all omega-3 fatty acids, the first double bond is located between the third and fourth carbon atom counting from the methyl end of the fatty acid (n-3). Similarly, the first double bond in all omega-6 fatty acids is located between the sixth and seventh carbon atom from the methyl end of the fatty acid (n-6). Scientific abbreviations for fatty acids tell the reader something about their structure. One scientific abbreviation for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is 18:3n-3. The first part (18:3) tells the reader that ALA is an 18-carbon fatty acid with 3 double bonds, while the second part (n-3) tells the reader that the first double bond is in the n-3 position, which defines it as an omega-3 fatty acid.
Although humans and other mammals can synthesize saturated and some monounsaturated fatty acids from carbon groups in carbohydrate and protein, they lack the enzymes necessary to insert a cis double bond at the n-6 or the n-3 position of a fatty acid. Consequently, omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are essential nutrients. The parent fatty acid of the omega-6 series is linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6) and the parent fatty acid of the omega-3 series is ALA. Humans can synthesize long-chain (20 carbons or more) omega-6 fatty acids, such as dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) from LA and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) from ALA (see Metabolism and Bioavailability below). It has been estimated that the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids in the diet of early humans was 1:1, but the ratio in the typical Western diet is now almost 10:1 due to increased use of vegetable oils rich in LA and declining fish consumption. A large body of scientific research suggests that increasing the relative abundance of dietary omega-3 fatty acids may have a number of health benefits.
essential oils:= ethereal oils.
Ester:[105583-82-2 ]:the product of a reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol that involves the elimination of water. For example a cholesterol ester is the product of a reaction between a fatty acid and cholesterol.
Chemical Name: 17,19-Dinoratis-15-ene-4,13,14-tricarboxylic acid, 16-(1-methylethyl)-, (4alpha,8alpha,12alpha,13R,14S)-, polymer with 1,2,3-propanetriol, ammonium salt
Formula: (C24-H34-O6.C3-H8-O3)x-.x-H3-N CAS RN:105583-82-2
Molecular Formula Fragments: C24-H34-O6;C3-H8-O3;COMPONENT;H3-N
Estradiol [50-28-2]:Synonyms:1,3,5-Estratriene-3,17-beta-diol;17-beta-Estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol;17-beta-OH-estradiol;17-beta-OH-oestradiol;17-beta-Oestra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol;17beta-Oestra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol;3,17-Epidihydroxyestratriene;3,17-Epidihydroxyoestratriene;3,17-beta-Dihydroxy-1,3,5(10)-oestratriene;3,17-beta-Dihydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-triene;3,17-beta-Dihydroxyoestra-1,3,5-triene;3,17-beta-Estradiol;3,17-beta-Oestradiol;3,17beta-Dihydroxyestra-1,3,5-triene;3,17beta-Dihydroxyoestra-1,3,5-triene;Aerodiol;Alora;Altrad;Aquadiol;Bardiol;Beta-estradiol;CCRIS 280;Climaderm;Climara;Climara Forte;Compudose;Compudose 200;Compudose 365;Corpagen;D-3,17-beta-Estradiol;D-3,17-beta-Oestradiol;D-3,17beta-Estradiol;D-3,17beta-Oestradiol;D-Estradiol;D-Oestradiol;Dermestril; Dihydrofollicular hormone;Dihydrofolliculin;Dihydromenformon;Dihydrotheelin;Dihydroxyestrin;Dihydroxyoestrin;Dimenformon;Diogyn;
Formula: C18 H24O2 CAS RN:50-28-2 M.W.:272.39
Note:Generally refers to the 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries and the PLACENTA. It is also produced by the adipose tissue of men and postmenopausal women. The 17-alpha-isomer of estradiol binds weakly to estrogen receptors (RECEPTORS, ESTROGEN) and exhibits little estrogenic activity in estrogen-responsive tissues. Various isomers can be synthesized.
Estrogen:hormones that bind to estrogen receptors in the nuclei of cells and promote the transcription of estrogen-responsive genes. Endogenous estrogens are steroid hormones produced by body. Exogenous estrogens are synthetic or natural compounds that have estrogenic activity (i.e., bind the estrogen receptor and promote estrogen-responsive gene transcription).
Ethyl gallate[831-61-8]:Synonyms:Ethyl gallate;Nipagallin A;Phyllemblin;Progallin A;NIPA 48;NSC402626;3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester;4-10-00-02002 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);BRN 2116014;EINECS 212-608-5;Ethyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate;Ethyl gallate;Ethyl-3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate;Ethylester kyseliny gallove [Czech];Gallic acid ethyl ester;NIPA 48;NSC 402626;Nipa No. 48
CAS Type 1 Name:Benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-, ethyl ester;Ethyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate;Gallic acid, ethyl ester Chemical Name:Benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-, ethyl ester
Formula: C9 H10O5 CAS RN:831-61-8 Other RN:52441-13-1 Molecular Weight:198.17
eu- (prefix):true, normal, typical.
euanthium:a structure representing a single, simple flower, cf. pseudanthium.
eucamptodromous:of leaf venation, pinnate venation in general and camptodromous venation in particular, in which the secondary veins do not terminate at the margins but which gradually diminish inside the margin, connected to the superadjacent secondary veins by a series of cross-veins without forming prominent marginal loops, in particular cf. brochidodromous, reticulodromous, also cf. acrodromous, campylodromous, craspedodromous, dichotomous,flabellate, parallelodromous, semicraspedodromous, simple-craspedodromous.
Eugenol [97-53-0]:Synonyms:1,3,4-eugenol; 1-Allyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzene; 1-allyl-4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzene; 1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene; 1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-prop-2-enylbenzene; 1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-propenylbenzene; 1-hydroxy-4-allyl-2-methoxybenzene; 2-methoxy-1-hydroxy-4-allylbenzene; 2-methoxy-4-(2-propen-1-yl)phenol; 2-Methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenol; 2-Methoxy-4-allylphenol; 2-methoxy-4-prop-2-enylphenol; 4-allyl-1-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzene; 4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenol; 4-allylcatechol-2-methyl ether; 4-Allylguaiacol; p-eugenol; 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyallylbenzene; 5-allylguaiacol; Allylguaiacol; Caryophyllic acid; Eugenic acid; Eugenol; Eugenol Special; FA 100; fema no. 2467;
Formula: C10 H12O2 CAS RN:97-53-0 Other RN:8013-25-0 78630-16-7 75398-78-6 37228-54-9 30049-52-6 29796-42-7 Melting Point:15.44 deg C Melting Point:487 deg C at 0 mm M.W.:164.2036 Water Solubility:<0.1 g/100 mL at 20 C
eusporangium:esp. used in ferns, but applicable across all vascular plants, a sporangium that develops from a series of superficial cells, the walls of the sporangium being two or more cell layers thick, cf. leptosporangium.
eustele:a variant of a stele that is medullated and with highly dissected vascular tissue, the vascular bundles being either collateral or bicollateral, cf. atactostele, dictyostele, protostele, siphonostele.
even-pinnate:of a pinnately compound leaf, the leaflets in more or less opposite pairs or more or less alternate, the rachis not being terminated by a leaflet, the total number of leaflets tending to be even rather than odd, cf. binate, odd-pinnate. (paripinnate in the image).
evergreen:bearing green leaves for more than one growing season, i.e. throughout the year, cf. deciduous.
eviction:of growth, the process by which a terminal inflorescence becomes lateral and leaf-opposed by the vigorous growth of an axillary bud immediately below it.
ex- (prefix):outside, or lacking, without, e.g. exstipulate, without stipules..
exalbuminous:= without endosperm.
exarch:of a procambial strand in which the first-differentiated elements are towards the outside, i.e. towards the outside of the stem, cf. endarch, mesarch.
excentric:to one side, off centre.
exfoliatinf:as of bark, peeling off in layers or flakes.
exine:the outer layer of the pollen grain wall, highly resistant to strong acids and bases, and composed primarily of sporopollenin, see baculum, columella, ectexine (incl. nexine), endexine and saccus/sacci.
exmedial:away from the midline of the lamina, cf. admedial.
exo- (prefix):outer, outside..
exocarp:the outer layer of a fruit wall or pericarp, i.e. the 'skin', developing from the ovary/carpel wall, cf. endocarp, mesocarp.
exodermis:outermost layer or layers of the cortex in some roots, sometimes with a Casparian band, see passage cells, cf. endodermis, hypodermis.
exogenous:superficial in origin, cf. endogenous.
exon:that part of a gene sequence that is transcribed and translated, cf. intron.
exoscopic:used in describing the polarity of the embryo, when the stem apex emerges through the neck of the archegonium, cf. endoscopic.
exosporic:development of the gametophytic generation after germination of a spore that takes place at least in part outside the spore wall, cf. endosporic.
exostomal:where the micropyle of an ovule is formed from the outer integument alone, cf. amphistomal, bistomal, endostomal, naked, zigzag.
exothecium:the epidermis of an anther sac with distinctively thickened walls and involved in its dehiscence, usually only when this is poricidal, see endothecium, microsporocyte, placentoid, tapetum.
expansigenous:of cavities in plants, formed by cells expanding differentially by cell division and extension of walls lining the enlarging spaces, cf. lysigenous, rhexigenous, schizogenous.
exserted:protruding, e.g. of anthers held outside of the mouth of a corolla tube, cf. included.
extra:- (prefix): borne outside the structure that this prefix qualifies.
extrafloral nectary:a nectary gland found on the outside of the flower or elsewhere on the plant (and either an extranuptial or a nuptial nectary) that is supplied both by tracheids and phloem, cf. domatium, hydathode.
extragynoecial compitum:mucilage outside the stigmas that allows pollen grains landing on the mucilage to fertilise ovules in any of the carpels, in the strict sense applied to a cup at the apex of the gynoecium, see also hyperstigma, cf. intragynoecial compitum.
extranuptial nectary:a nectary gland found on the outside of the flower or elsewhere on the plant that is not involved in attracting pollinators, cf. nuptial.
extravaginal:of a shoot, arising from an axillary bud which breaks through the sheath of the subtending leaf.
extrorse:of anthers, opening abaxially, away from the centre of the flower, cf. introrse, latrorse.
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