Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Phytochemicals are dedicated to Phytochemicals and phyto derived chemical components.Phytochemicals have been used as drugs for millennia. Hippocrates may have prescribed willow tree leaves to abate fever. Salicin, having anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties, was originally extracted from the white willow tree and later synthetically produced become the staple over-the-counter drug called Aspirin!
Phytochemicals are chemical compounds such as beta-carotene that occur naturally in plants. The term is generally used to refer to those chemicals that may affect health, but are not yet established as essential nutrients.While there is abundant scientific and government support for recommending diets rich in fruits and vegetables, there is only limited evidence that health benefits are due to specific phytochemicals.
There is evidence from laboratory studies that phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer, possibly due to dietary fibers, polyphenol antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. Specific phytochemicals, such as fermentable dietary fibers, are allowed limited health claims by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Contents: PABA(para-Aminobenzoic Acid):[150-13-0] |pachycaul |palea |palisade |palmate |palmatifid |palmate |palmatinerved |palmatisect |palmitic acid |Palmitoleic acid:[2091-29-4] |Palustrine:[22324-44-3] |palynology |p-Aminobenzoic acid:[150-13-0] |Pangamic acid:[13149-69-4] |panicle |panto- |Pantothenic acid:[79-83-4] |papaverine |papilionoid |papilla |pappus |papyraceous |para-Aminobenzoic Acid:[150-13-0] |paracarpous |paraclade |paracytic |parallel |parallelocytic |parallelodromous |parapatric |paraphyletic |parasite |parasorbic acid |parastichy |paratact |paratracheal |parenchyma |parenchyma sheath |parietal |parietal cell |paripinnate |Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhiza |-partite |parthenocarpy |p-coumaric acid |passage cells |patent |patrinoside |pauci- (prefix) |paxillate |p-cymene |pearl gland |pectin |pectinate |pedate |pedicel |peduncle |pelargonidin |Pelletierine[2858-66-4] |pellucid |peloria |peltate |Penaea |pendulous |penicillate |penninerved |penta- (prefix) |penta |Pentadecane [629-62-9] |Pentadecanoic Acid [1002-84-2] |pentamerous |Pentenal [31424-04-1 |pentose |Peperomia |pepo |Peptide |peptide |Peptide hormones |perennating |perennial |perfect |perfoliate |perforation plate |Perhydroxyl radical[3170-83-0] |peri- (prefix) |perianth |periblem |pericarp |pericarpel |periclinal |pericycle |periderm |perigenous |perigon(e), perigonium |Perilla alcohol [536-59-4] |Perillaldehyde [2111-75-3] |periporate |perigynium |perigynous |perisperm |persistent |personate |perula, pl. perulae |petal |petalomania |petaloid |petiole |petiolule |petroselinic acid |phalange |phanerocotylar |phanerogam |phanerophyte |phaseollin |Phellandrene [99-83-2] |phellem |phelloderm |phellogen |Phenol[108-95-2] |Phenolic acid:[29656-58-4] |Phenolic compounds |phenotype |Phenylacetone[103-79-7] |Phenylacetaldehyde[122-78-1] |Phenylalanine [63-91-2] |Phenylalanine [673-06-3] |Phenylcarboxylic acid |Phenyl salicylate[118-55-8] |L-phenylalanine |Phenylethanol |2-Phenylethyl acetate[103-45-7] |Phenylethyl Alcohol[60-12-8] |phenylphenalenones |Phenylpropyl acetate[122-72-5] |3-Phenylpropanal[104-53-0] |phenylpropanoids |Pheophorbide a[15664-29-6] |pherophyll |phlobaphene |phloem |phloroglucinol |phorbol |Phosphate [14265-44-2] |Phospholipids |Phosphorus:[7723-14-0] |Phosphorylation |photoperiodism |phototropism |Phthalic anhydride [85-44-9] |Phthalide [87-41-2] |p-hydroxybenzoic acid |phyllary |phylloclade |phyllode |phyllome |phyllosporous |phyllotaxis |phylogeny |Physalien:[144-67-2] |Physcione [521-61-9] |Phytic acid [83-86-3] |Phytic acid [63903-51-5] |phytoalexins |Phytochemicals |Phytoestrogens |phytoferritin |phytomelan |phytosterols |Pigment |pilum |pin |Pinene:[1330-16-1] |Pinitol[484-68-4] |Pinitol, (+)-[10284-63-6] |pinna, pl. pinnae |pinnate |pinnate |pinnatifid |pinnatinerved |pinnatipartite |pinnatisect |pinnule |pistil |pit |pit, |pit pair |pith |pith ray |placenta |placentation |placentoid |plagiotropic |planate |Plantagoside [78708-33-5] |Plantamajoside [104777-68-6] |Plasma |plasmodesmata |plasmodial |plasmodium |plastid |plastochrone |platanoid |plectostele |pleiochasium |pleonanthic |plerome |plesiomorphic |pleurotropous |plicate |Plumbagella |plumbagin |Plumbago |plumose |plumule |pneumatophore |pod |poikilo- (prefix) |polarisation |polar nuclei |pollen chamber |pollen grain |pollen kitt |pollen mother cell |pollen presenter |pollen-sac |pollinarium |pollination |pollination chamber |pollinium |poly- (prefix) |polyacetylenes |polyad |polyadelphous |Polyamide |polyclave |polycolpate |Polydatin [ 65914-17-2] |polyderm |polyembryony |polyfructosans |polygamodioecious |polygamomonoecious |polygamous |Polygonum |polyhydroxy alkaloids |polyisoprenes |polyketides |Polymer |polymeric amide |polymeric compounds |polymerous |polymorphic |Polymorphism |polypetalous |Polyphenol |Polyphenol Oxidase |polyphyletic |polyploid |polysaccharide |polysepalous |polysymmetric |polytelic |polytypic |polyxylic |Polyunsaturated fatty acid |Ployurethan |pome |pontoperculum |porate (porus, pl. pori) |pore |porous |poricidal |porogamy |pororate |posterior |postgenital |posticous |Potash |Potassium [7440-09-7] |Potassium carbonate [584-08-7] |Potassium hydroxide [1310-58-3] |P-protein |praemorse |Precursor |preformation |prenylation |prepollen |prickle |primary |primary endosperm cell |primary growth |primary leaf |primary meristem |primary root |primary tissue |primary thickening meristem |primary wall |primordium |primitive |primitive tannins |proanthocyanidins |procambium |Procarcinogen |procumbent |Procyanidin [4852-22-6] |Procyanidin A2 [41743-41-3] |Procyanidin B2 [29106-49-8] |Procyanidin B3 |Procyanidin B4 |Procyanidin B5 |Procyanidin B6 |Procyanidin B7 |Procyanidin C1 |proembryo |Progesterone:[57-83-0] |prolate |prolepsis |proliferation |proliferation tissue |proliferous |Proline [147-85-3] |prominent |Prooxidant |propagule |prophyll |Propionic acid[79-09-4] |Propyl Gallate[121-79-9] |prosenchyma |prostrate |protandrous |Prostaglandins |prothallus |Protein |Proteoglycan |protoalkaloid |Protocatechuic acid[99-50-3] |protoderm |Protodioscin[60478-69-5] |protogynous |Proton |protonema |protoplast |protostele |protoxylem |proximal |pseudanthium |pseudo- (prefix) |pseudoalkaloids |pseudobulb |pseudocarp |pseudocrassinucellate |Pseudohypericin:[55954-61-5] |pseudomonomerous |Pseudopelletierine[2858-66-4] |pseudopetiole |pseudopollen |pseudoverticillate |psilate |psoralen |pterocarpans |Pterospermum |ptyxis |puberulous |pubescent |Puerarin[3681-99-0] |pulverulent |pulvinus |pump presentation |punctate |pungent |punicotannic acid |pustulate |p-xylene[106-42-3] |pyranochromones |pyrene |pyrenoid |pyridine |pyriform |Pyrocatechol [120-80-9] |Pyridoxine[58-56-0] |pyrrolidine |pyrrolizidine |pyxidium, pyxis |
PABA(para-Aminobenzoic Acid):[150-13-0]:See p-Aminobenzoic acid.
pachycaul:of trees, with particularly stout trunk and branches, cf. leptocaul.
palea:in a grass floret, the upper of the two bracts enclosing a flower, possibly a prophyll/bracteole, cf. glume (of a spikelet), lemma, lodicule.
palisade:especially of leaf mesophyll, but of tissues in general, where the cells are elongated, closely packed, and upright, cf. spongy.
palmate:a once-compound leaf divided into several leaflets which arise at the same point, there being no rachis, cf. pinnate.
palmatifid:of a leaf, deeply (but not completely) divided into several lobes which arise (almost) at the same level, cf. pinnatifid.
palmate:of venation, a general term used in the descriptions for situations where there is a more or less well developed midrib and the secondary veins depart at the base, but are not notably close and do not converge at the apex, see acrodromous, actinodromous, cf. parallel, pinnate.
palmatinerved:= actinodromous venation in particular, palmate venation in general.
palmatisect:a condition intermediate between palmate and palmatifid, with the green tissue of the lamina completely divided into several segments, but the segments not fully separated at the base.
palmitic acid:a 16-carbon saturated fatty acid found in most fats and oils, particularly associated with stearic acid.
Synonyms: 1-Pentadecanecarboxylic acid; Hexadecylic acid; Palmitic acid; n-Hexadecanoic Acid;
Formula: C16 H32 O2. Molecular Weight: 256.4276 CAS RN:57-10-3 Melting Point: 62. ACX Number:X1000917-1. Density0.852 Flashing Point:206 Boiling Point:271.4 at 100 mm Hg
Palmitoleic acid:[2091-29-4]:Synonyms:9-Hexadecenoic acid;palmitoleate;palmitoleic acid, (E)-isomer;palmitoleic acid, (Z)-isomer;palmitoleic acid, potassium salt, (Z)-isomer;palmitoleic acid, sodium salt, (Z)-isomer
CAS Type 1 Name:9-hexadecenoic acid
Formula: C16 H30 O2. Molecular Weight:254.4118 CAS RN:2091-29-4
Chemical Name: Pyrido(2,1-d)(1,5,9)triazacyclotridecin-2(3H)-one, 1,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,13,14,16a-dodecahydro-13-(1-hydroxypropyl)-, (13S-(13R*(R*),16aR*))-
Formula: C17 H31N3O2 CAS RN:22324-44-3
palynology:the scientific study of pollen.
p-Aminobenzoic acid:[150-13-0]:Synonyms:1-amino-4-carboxybenzene; P-AMINOBENOZOIC ACID; 4-Aminobenzoic acid; p-carboxyaniline; p-carboxyphenylamine; Paraminol; Paranate; Amben; anticanitic vitamin; Anti-chromotrichia factor; Bacterial Vitamin H; bacterial vitamin h1; Chromotrichia factor; PAB; PABA; pabanol; Papacidium; Sunbrella; trichromogenic factor; Vitamin Bx; gamma-aminobenzoic acid;
CAS Type 1 Name:Super Shade by Coppertone;Trichochromogenic factor;Vitamin BX;Vitamin H';p-Aminobenzoic acid;p-Carboxyaniline;p-Carboxyphenylamine;para-Aminobenzoic acid;1-Amino-4-carboxybenzene;4-27-00-07875 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);4-Aminobenzoic acid;4-Carboxyaniline;AI3-02436;Acido p-aminobenzoico [Italian];Acidum paraminobenzoicum;Amben;Anti-chromotrichia factor;Anticanitic vitamin;BRN 0471605;Bacterial vitamin H1;Benzoic acid, 4-amino-;Benzoic acid, p-amino-
Equivalent Terms:p-Aminobenzoic Acid;PABA;para-Aminobenzoic Acid;4-Aminobenzoic Acid
Formula:C7H7NO2. CAS RN:150-13-0 Other RN:8014-65-1M.W.:137.1378 g/mol Melting Point.:188.5~189 deg C Water Solubility:6110 mg/L 30
Note:A member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. It used to be a common sunscreening agent until found to also be a sensitizer. The potassium salt is used therapeutically in fibrotic skin disorders.
Pangamic acid:[13149-69-4]:Synonyms:Dimethyl-amino-acetylgluconic acid;EINECS 236-088-4;Kyselina pangamova [Czech];Pangamic acid;Vitamin B15
CAS Type 1 Name: 6-(Bis(bis(isopropyl)amino)acetate)-D-gluconic acid;D-Gluconic acid, 6-(bis(1-methylethyl)amino)acetate);Gluconic acid, 6-(bis(diisopropylamino)acetate);Pangamic acid
Formula:C20H40N2O8. CAS RN:13149-69-4 Other RN:14513-57-6
panicle:of an inflorescence, a compound raceme, an indeterminate inflorescence in which the flowers are borne on branches of the main axis or on further branches of these, adj. paniculate, indeterminate and much branched, cf. also corymb, fascicle, spadix, spike, thyrse, umbel.
panto-:of a pollen grains with apertures, usually more than three, globally over the surface of the grain, cf. poly-, as in polycolpate.
Pantothenic acid:[79-83-4]:Synonyms:(D,+)-N(alpha-gamma-Dihydroxy-beta,beta-dimethylbutyryl)-beta-alanine;4-04-00-02569 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);BRN 1727064;Chick antidermatitis factor;D(+)-N-(2,4-Dihydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutyryl)-beta-alanine;D-Pantothenic acid;EINECS 201-229-0;HSDB 1020;Kyselina pantothenova [Czech] ;N-(2,4-Dihydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutyryl)-beta-alanine;Pantothenic acid;Vitamin B5;beta-Alanine, N-(2,4-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutyl)-,(R)-
CAS Type 1 Name:beta-Alanine, N-(2,4-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutyl)-,(R)- (9CI)
Formula:C9H17NO5. CAS RN:79-83-4 Other RN:3563-85-7M.W.:219.237
papaverine:an isoquinoline alkaloid.
papilionoid:of a monosymmetric flower, butterfly-like, with keel, standard, and wings, cf. bilabiate, personate, slit-monosymmetric.
papilla:a small, elongated protuberance on the surface of an organ, usually projection from an epidermal cell, adj. papillose.
pappus:a tuft of hairs on a fruit; in Asteraceae, a tuft (or ring) of hairs or scales borne above the inferior ovary and outside the corolla and possibly representing the calyx.
papyraceous:like parchment in texture, cf. chaffy, chartaceous, coriaceous, scarious.
para-Aminobenzoic Acid:[150-13-0]:See p-Aminobenzoic acid.
paracarpous:of a syncarpous gynoecium where the carpellary units are congenitally united only by their margins, the placentation thus being parietal, cf. coenocarpous.
paraclade:lateral branches of a synflorescence which has the same structure as the whole inflorescence, cf. coflorescence, enrichment zone, florescence, cf. also inflorescence.
paracytic:of stomata, with two cells surrounding and parallel to the guard cells, cf. laterocylic, brachyparacytic, see also actinocytic, allelocytic, anisocytic, anomocytic, cyclocytic, diacytic, helicocytic, laterocytic, staurocytic, tetracytic.
parallel:of leaf venation, as used in the descriptions a general term for leaves in which there are several veins approximately equal in prominence that run more or less parallel the length of the blade, whether initially recurved or not or converging at the apex of the blade or not, inc. actinodromous, paralleldromous, cf. palmate, pinnate.
parallelocytic:of stomata, with an alternating complex of three or more C-shaped subsidiary cells of graded sizes parallel to guard cells, i.e., a variant of allelocytic, cf. diallelocytic.
parallelodromous:of leaf venation, with all veins approximately equal in prominence and running closely parallel to the apex of the blade, cf. acrodromous, actinodromous, brochidodromous, campylodromous, craspedodromous, dichotomous, eucamptodromous, flabellate, semicraspedodromous, simple-craspedodromous.
parapatric:of distributions of two taxa or populations, having non-overlapping but contiguous ranges, cf. allopatric, sympatric.
paraphyletic:a taxon made up of members which, given a particular phylogenetic tree and classification based on it, include only but not all the descendents a common ancestor, likely to be a grade, cf. monophyletic, polyphyletic.
parasite:a heterotroph living on or in a different organism and deriving nourishment from it, see facultative, obligate, cf. hemiparasite, hyperparasite, mycotroph, saprophyte, also biotroph and necrotroph, cf. saprophyte.
parasorbic acid:a lactone.
parastichy:a spiral linking primordia by some constant in their order of development, see contact parastichy, genetic spiral, cf. orthostichy.
paratact:of cochleate aestivation, the petal with its two edges outside those of the adjacent petals immediately next to the one with the two edges both inside, cf. ascending, descending, and apotact.
paratracheal:of axial parenchyma, associated with the vessels, cf. apotracheal, see aliform, banded.
parenchyma:plant tissue consisting of little-elongated living cells that are relatively compactly arranged and unspecialised in function and usually have cellulosic walls, sometimes rather more elongated and with tapering ends (and then called prosenchyma), cf. aerenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, see also xylem parenchyma.
parenchyma sheath:a parenchymatous, single-layered bundle sheath surrounding a vascular bundle, homologous to the endodermis, cf. mestome sheath, starch sheath.
parietal:attached to the margins of a structure; of placentation, having the ovules attached to placentae on the wall of the ovary, cf. apical, axile, basal, free central, intrusive-parietal, laminar, marginal.
parietal cell:of ovule, development, referring to the cell(s) cut off from the archesporial cell(s) prior to meiosis and forming part of the nucellus (in the ovule) and the endothecium (in the anther).
paripinnate:= even pinnate.
Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhiza:an arbuscular mycorrhiza association between a fungus and a plant root where the fungal hyphae form coils and arbusculate coils within the plant cell, see also Arum type.
-partite:divided almost to the base into segments (commonly applied to a style or leaf blade).
parthenocarpy:development of a mature fruit without fertilisation of ovules.
p-coumaric acid:a hydroxy acid derived from L-phenylyalanine, involved in formation of phenylpropanoids, readily convertible into salicylic acid.
Coumaric acid, C9 H8 O3.
passage cells:cells of the endodermis opposite the protoxylem that remain thin-walled and retain their Casparian band, or a similar cell in the exodermis.
patrinoside:a route II iridoid
paxillate:of fine venation in which the areoles occur in oriented fields, often appearing as if laid down by a series of brush strokes.
pearl gland:a small sessile spherical multicellular gland, cf. colleter, dendritic, malpighiaceous, pearl gland, snail gland, stellate, T-shaped hair.
pectin:a highly hydrophilic polysaccharide built up of monomers of alpha-galacturonic acid, an important component of cell walls, cf. callose, cellulose, hemicellulose, inulin, starch.
pedate:of a palmate or palmately-lobed leaf, having the lateral segments divided again.
pedicel:the "stalk" of a flower, i.e. the basal part of the ultimate branch of the inflorescence, often subtended by a bract and bearing one or two bracteole(s), cf. inflorescence axis, peduncle, rachis, rachilla.
peduncle:that part of the axis of an inflorescence below the insertion of any flowers or inflorescence branches and above the uppermost node with a foliage leaf or leaves, loosely, the "stalk" of the inflorescence, and in that sense to be compared with the pedicel, the "stalk" of the flower, see also scape, cf. inflorescence axis, rachis, rachilla.
Pelletierine[2858-66-4]:Synonyms:1-(2-Piperidinyl)-2-propanone;2-Acetonylpiperidine;2-Propanone, 1-(2-piperidyl)-;5-21-06-00522 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);BRN 0080973;EINECS 220-673-6;Pelletierine, (R)-(-)-;Punicine
Formula: C8 H15NO. CAS RN:2858-66-4 CAS Type 1 Name:(R)-1-(2-Piperidyl)acetone;Pelletierine Boiling Point:195 deg C
peloria:of a flower, although polysymmetric, in its immediate phylogenetic and/or morphological context, it would be expected to be monosymmetric, e.g. flowers of some species of Plantaginaceae, including the flowers of the eponymous mutant of Linaria vulgaris, or the terminal flowers borne at the end of a raceme in Digitalis purpurea.
peltate:of any stalked structures, having the stalk attached to the lower surface, not to the margin.
Penaea:an embryo sac type, the types based on variation in megasporogensis and megagametogenesis, tetrasporic, 16-celled (all haploid, four peripheral groups of three cells each and four polar cells), cf. Adoxa, Allium, Drusa, Endymion, Fritillaria, Oenothera, Peperomia, Plumbagella, Plumbago, Polygonum.
pendulous:drooping; of ovules, especially those attached at or near the apex of the loculus and so borne pendulous on an apical placenta, cf. erect.
penicillate:tufted, rather like an artist's brush.
penninerved:= pinnate venation.
penta- (prefix):five of whatever is qualified by the prefix.
Pentadecane [629-62-9]:Synonyms:n-Pentadecane; pentadecane; Pentadecane-d32; pentadecane (n);
Formula: C15 H32. Molecular Weight:212.4178 CAS RN:629-62-9 Melting Point:9.9. ACX Number:X1007190-8. Boiling Point:270.63. Refractive Index:1.4319 Flashing Point:132
Pentadecanoic Acid [1002-84-2]:Synonyms:n-Pentadecane; pentadecane; Pentadecane-d32; pentadecane (n);
Formula: C5 H30 O2. Molecular Weight:242.4008 CAS RN:1002-84-2 Melting Point:51 - 53 . ACX Number:X1007191-5. Boiling Point:339. RETCS:RZ1925000
pentamerous:especially of a flower, having five segments or parts in each perianth whorl, often stamens in five or multiples of five, and quite often carpels also, cf. tetramerous and trimerous in particular.
Pentenal [31424-04-1:Synonyms:5-Ethyl-5-cyclopentenyl-barbituric acid; Pentenal
Formula: C5 H8 O. Molecular Weight:242.4008 CAS RN:31424-04-1
pentose:a five-carbon sugar, e.g. xylose, cf. hexose.
Peperomia:an embryo sac type, the types based on variation in megasporogensis and megagametogenesis, tetrasporic, 16-nucleate (all haploid, 8 polar, 6 peripheral-antipodal, 2 polar), cf. Adoxa, Allium, Drusa, Endymion, Fritillaria, Oenothera, Penaea, Plumbagella, Plumbago, Polygonum.
pepo:not used here, a fruit (derived from an inferior ovary) that has a firm skin, pulpy interior, many seeds and a single locule, as in some cucurbits, a kind of berry.
Peptide:a chain of amino acids. A protein is made up of one or more peptides.
Peptide hormones:hormones that are proteins, as opposed to steroid hormones, which are made from cholesterol. Insulin is an example of a peptide hormone.
perennating:maintaining a dormant, vegetative state throughout the non-growing seasons.
perennial:of plant duration, a plant whose life span extends over more than two growing seasons, cf. annual, biennial, ephemeral, of flowering with respect to architecture, hapaxanthic, monocarpic, pleonanthic
perfect:a flower with functional stamens and carpels, cf. imperfect, cf. also carpellate, neuter, staminate, cf. also androdioecious, andromonoecious, dioecious, gynodioecious, gynomonoecious, monoecious.
perfoliate:of a sessile leaf or bract, completely encircling and adnate to the stem which appears to grow through it, cf. amplexicaul.
perforation plate:of a vessel in particular, the end wall between vessel elements that is variously broken down, see scalariform, simple.
Perhydroxyl radical[3170-83-0]:Synonyms: perhydroxyl radical, anion (1-);peroxyl radical;Hydroperoxo
CAS Type 1 Name:Peroxyl radical;Perhydroxyl radical Formula:H-O2. CAS RN:3170-83-0 Other RN:12280-99-8
perianth:a single whorl of non-fertile parts surrounding the fertile organs of a flower (see perigon(e)), or collectively the calyx and corolla, or all the protective parts surrounding the flower, and although often also used where there are two similar whorls, the term tepal is then to be preferred (see also semaphyll), cf. androecium, gynoecium, see achlamydeous, dichlamydeous, heterochlamydeous, homochlamydeous, monochlamydeous (use of these can generally be avoided).
periblem:a now little-used term for the middle of the three histogen layers that were supposed to make up the apical meristem, giving rise to the cortex, cf. dermatogen and plerome.
pericarp:the wall of a fruit, developed from the ovary/carpel wall, see endocarp, exocarp, mesocarp.
pericarpel:the stem tissue surrounding the carpels, as in Cactaceae-Opuntioideae.
periclinal:e.g. of cell walls, those parallel to the surface, cf. anticlinal.
pericycle:the outermost part of the stele, often parenchymatous, but fibers and/or sclereids are often also found in this general area.
periderm:all the tissue derived from the activity of the cork cambium, i.e. the cork and phelloderm, see also rhytidome, cf. epidermis, ground tissue, vascular tissue.
perigenous:of stomatal ontogeny in which the subsidiary cells are not produced from the same cell (meristemoid, initial) that gives rise to the guard cell initials, cf. mesogenous, mesoperigenous.
perigon(e), perigonium:a collective term used to refer to the two whorls of an undifferentiated perianth when these cannot be distinguished, cf. tepals.
Perilla alcohol [536-59-4]:Para-mentha-1,8-dien-7-ol; Dihydrocuminic alcohol; Hydrocumin alcohol; Iso-carveol; L(-)-Perillyl alcohol; Perilla alcohol; Perillyl alcohol; (-)-Perillyl alcohol; Perillol;4-isopropenyl-cyclohex-1-ene-1-methanol;cyclohex-1-ene-1-methanol, 4(1-methylethenyl);dihydrocuminyl alcohol;NSC 641066;p-mentha-1,8-dien-7-ol;perilla alcohol, (R)-isomer;perilla alcohol, (S)-isomer;perillyl alcohol
CAS Type 1 Name:1-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, 4-(1-methylethenyl)-;4-Isopropenylcyclohex-1-en-1-ylmethanol ;p-Mentha-1,8-dien-7-ol
Chemical Name:Perilla alcohol Formula: C10 H16O. Molecular Weight:152.2358 CAS RN:536-59-4 Other RN:1406-56-0 66141-69-3 7644-38-4
Perillaldehyde [2111-75-3]:4-mentha-1,8-dien-7-al;p-mentha-1,8-dien-7-al;perilla aldehyde;perillaldehyde, (+)-isomer;1-Cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde, 4-(1-methylethenyl)- ; 1-Cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde, 4-isopropenyl-;4-(1-Methylethenyl)-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde;4-Isopropenyl-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde;CCRIS 9128;Dihydrocuminyl aldehyde;EINECS 218-302-8;FEMA No. 3557;NSC 138642;P-Mentha-1,8-dien-7-al;Perilla aldehyde;Perillal;Perillaldehyde;Perillic aldehyde;Perillyl aldehyde;p-Mentha-1,8-dien-7-al (natural);para-Mentha-1,8-dien-7-al
CAS Type 1 Name:1-Cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde, 4-(1-methylethenyl)-; 1-Cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde, 4-isopropenyl- ;4-Isopropenylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde
Chemical Name:Perillaldehyde Formula: C10 H14O. Molecular Weight:150.22 CAS RN:2111-75-3 Other RN:21090-66-4 6611-91-2
periporate:of pollen grains in which...
perigynium:the sac-like prophyll that surrounds the carpellate flower of Carex, see utricle, which is then a kind of anthocarp.
perigynous:of floral architecture, stamens and perianth arising from a cup or tube (hypanthium) that is free from the ovary but extends above its base, cf. epigynous, hypogynous, see also inferior, superior.
perisperm:diploid nutritive tissue in an angiospermous seed, derived from nucellar tissue, cf. chalazosperm, chalazal cyst, endosperm, primary endosperm.
persistent:remaining attached to the plant, albeit withered, beyond the expected time of falling, e.g. of sepals not falling after flowering, cf. accrescent, caducuous, deciduous, deliquescent, fugacious, marcescent.
personate:a monosymmetric flower with a bilabiate corolla in which the adaxial lip is arched and the abaxial lip is well-developed and pressed against it, so when pressed the corolla opens to look like the mopen mouth of some animal (remember snapdragons!), cf. papilionoid, slit-monosymmetric.
perula, pl. perulae:a bud scale, a reduced often scale-like leaf surrounding a bud, the term perulate, referring to such a bud, is often contrasted with naked.
petal:a member of the corolla, the inner whorl of non-fertile parts surrounding the fertile organs of a flower, usually soft and coloured conspicuously, cf. sepal.
petalomania:= doubling of petals.
petaloid:like a petal, soft in texture and conspicuously coloured.
petiole:the stalk of a leaf, i.e. that part below the blade or, if the leaf is compond, below the point of insertion of the lowest leaflets or rachis branches, cf. hyperphyll, lamina, leaf base, stipule.
petiolule:the stalk of a leaflet, cf. stipel.
petroselinic acid:a mono-unsaturated fatty acid with the double bond in the delta-6 position.
Petroselinic acid, C18 H34 O2.
phalange:a bundle made up several similar structures fused together, e.g. a phalangiate androecium, cf. diadelphous, fascicle, monadelphous, syngenesious.
phanerocotylar:of germination, when the cotyledon/s is/are exposed and photosynthetic, whether or not the hypocotyl is elongated, cf. cryptocotylar, see also epigeal, hypogeal (hypocotyl/epicotyl development, not synonyms of the first pair).
phanerogam: (literally) a plant with conspicuous reproductive parts, a plant with seeds as its main dispersal units, cf. cryptogam.
phanerophyte:of life forms, plants with resting buds 25 cm or more above the surface of the ground, cf. chamaephyte, cryptophyte (geophyte, helophyte, hydrophyte), hemicryptophyte, therophyte, see also habit.
phaseollin:a phytoalexin that is a kind of isoflavonoid (a pterocarpan).
Phellandrene [99-83-2]:See alpha-Phellandrene or Beta-Phellandrene
phelloderm:tissue derived from the activity of the cork cambium, the cells being parenchymatous (usually) and cut off internally, cf. cork.
phellogen:= cork cambium.
Phenol[108-95-2]:Synonyms:baker's p and s; benzenol; Carbolic acid; Hydroxybenzene; monohydroxy benzene; monophenol; oxybenzene; Phenyl alcohol; Phenic Acid; Phenic; Phenol; Phenol? phenol alcohol; Phenol, liquid; Phenol, molten; PHENOL REAGENT; Phenol, solid; phenyl hydrate; phenyl hydroxide; Phenylic acid; phenylic acid, phenyl hydroxide; phenylic alcohol;
Formula: C6 H6O. Molecular Weight:94.1128 CAS RN:108-95-2 ACX Number:X1001304-8. Melting Point:40.5. Boiling Point:181.7. Density1.07 Vapor Density3.24 Vapor Pressure0.35 Refractive Index:1.5418 Flashing Point:79. Water Solubility:Slightly sol. 8.28 g/100 mL. EPA Code:K050; U188
Note:An antiseptic and disinfectant. It is active against a wide range of micro-organisms including some fungi and viruses, but is only slowly effective against spores. It has been used to disinfect skin and to relieve itching. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p801)
Phenolic acid:[29656-58-4]:Synonyms:Hydroxybenzoic acid
CAS Type 1 Name:Phenolic acid
Chemical Name: Benzoic acid, hydroxy-
Formula: C7 H6N O3 CAS RN:29656-58-4
Phenolic compounds:a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. An aromatic hydrocarbon has a ring structure like that of benzene. Polyphenolic compounds contain more than one phenolic group.
phenotype:the physical characteristics of an organism, cf. genotype.
Phenylacetone[103-79-7]:Synonyms:1-Phenyl-2-propanone;3-Phenyl-2-propanone;AI3-02938;Benzyl methyl ketone;EINECS 203-144-4;Methyl benzyl ketone;NSC 9827;Phenyl-2-propanone;Phenylacetone;Phenylmethyl methyl ketone
Chemical Name:benzyl methyl ketone;phenylacetone Boiling Point:100 at 13 mm Hg
CAS RN:103-79-7 Other RN:136675-26-8 Formula:C9H10O M.W:134.1774
Phenylacetaldehyde[122-78-1]:Synonyms:1-Oxo-2-phenylethane;2-Phenylethanal; AI3-02175;Acetaldehyde, phenyl-;Benzeneacetaldehyde;Benzylcarboxaldehyde;EINECS 204-574-5;FEMA No. 2974;Hyacinthin;NSC 406309;Oxophenylethane;Phenylacetaldehyde;Phenylacetaldehyde (natural);Phenylacetic aldehyde;Phenylethanal;alpha-Tolualdehyde;alpha-Toluic aldehyde;1-Oxo-2-phenyl ethane; alpha-Tolualdehyde; Alpha-toluic aldehyde; Benzeneacetaldehyde; Benzyl carboxaldehyde; Hyacinthin; Phenylacetaldehyde; Phenyl acetic aldehyde; phenylethanal;
Formula: C8 H8O. Molecular Weight:120.1506 CAS RN:122-78-1 ACX Number:X1012804-0. Melting Point:33.5. Boiling Point:195 Density0.939 Flashing Point:86.
Phenylalanine [63-91-2]:Synonyms:2-Amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid; 3-phenylalanine; alpha-amino-beta-phenylpropionic acid; alpha-aminohydrocinnamic acid; antibiotic fn 1636; beta-phenyl-alpha-alanine, L-; beta-phenylalanine; F; L-2-Amino-3-phenylpropionic acid; L-beta-phenylalanine; L-Phenylalanine; L-(-)-Phenylalanine; PAL; Phe; phenyl-alpha-alanine; Phenylalanine; phenyl-L-alanine; (S)-alpha-aminobenzenepropanoic acid; (S)-Phenylalanine ; (S)-(-)-Phenylalanine;
Formula: C9 H11N O2. Molecular Weight:165.1914 CAS RN:63-91-2 Melting Point:283 ACX Number:X1000374-6. Boiling Point:295 Density1.29 Water Solubility1-5 g/100 mL at 25 C
Phenylalanine [673-06-3]:Synonyms:D-alpha-amino-beta-phenylpropionic acid; D-alpha-aminohydrocinnamic acid; D-beta-phenyl-alpha-aminopropionic acid; D-PHE; D-Phenylalanine; (R)-Phenylalanine ;CCRIS 6267;D-Phenylalanine; EINECS 211-603-5; NCI-C60195; NSC 25005; Sabiden
Name of Substance:Phenylalanine D-form
Formula: C9 H11N O2. Molecular Weight:165.1914 CAS RN:673-06-3 Other RN:10549-11-8 Melting Point:283 - 284 ACX Number:X1002000-9. Boiling Point:295
Phenylcarboxylic acid:See Benzoic acid .
Phenyl salicylate[118-55-8]:Synonyms:2-Phenoxycarbonylphenol;4-10-00-00154 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);AI3-00195;BRN 0393969;CCRIS 4859;EINECS 204-259-2;Fenylester kyseliny salicylove [Czech];Musol;NSC 33406;Phenol salicylate;Phenyl 2-hydroxybenzoate;Phenyl salicylate;Salol;Salphenyl
Chemical Name:2-Hydroxybenzoic acid, phenyl ester;Benzoic acid, 2-hydroxy-, phenyl ester;Phenyl salicylate;Phenyl-2-hydroxybenzoate;Salol;Salicylic acid, phenyl ester
Equivalent Term:Carbonic Anhydride CAS Type 1 Name:Carbon dioxide
Formula: C13H10O3 Molecular Weight:214.2202 CAS RN:118-55-8
Melting Point:130.5 deg C Boiling Point:172 - 173 at 12 mm Hg log P (octanol-water):3.820 Water Solubility:150 mg/L at 25 deg C; Vapor Pressure:8.17E-06 mm Hg at 25 deg C Henry's Law Constant:1.68E-06 atm-m3/mole at 25 deg C Atmospheric OH Rate Constant:3.25E-11 cm3/molecule-sec at 25 deg C
L-phenylalanine:a non-protein amino acid from which e.g. isoquinoline alkaloids are derived via decarboxylation.
L-phenylalanine, C9 H11 N O2.
Phenylethanol:See Phenylethyl Alcohol[60-12-8].
2-Phenylethyl acetate[103-45-7]:Synoms:2-Phenethyl acetate;2-Phenylethyl acetate;4-06-00-03073 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);AI3-03878;Acetic acid, 2-phenylethyl ester;Acetic acid, phenethyl ester;BRN 0638179;Benzylcarbinyl acetate;EINECS 203-113-5;Ethanol, 2-phenyl-, acetate;FEMA No. 2857;NSC 71927;Phenethyl acetate;Phenethyl acetate (natural);Phenethyl alcohol, acetate;beta-Phenylethyl acetate
CAS Type 1 Name:2-Phenylethyl acetate;Acetic acid, 2-phenylethyl ester;Phenethyl acetate Chemical Name:Acetic acid, 2-phenylethyl ester;Acetic acid, phenethyl ester;Phenethyl acetate
Formula: C10 H12O2. CAS RN:103-45-7 Melting Point:-3.11E+01 deg C Boiling Point:232.6 deg C Water Solubility: 711 mg/L at 25 deg C
Phenylethyl Alcohol[60-12-8]:Para-mentha-1,8-dien-7-ol; Dihydrocuminic alcohol; Hydrocumin alcohol; Iso-carveol; L(-)-Perillyl alcohol; Perilla alcohol; Perillyl alcohol; (-)-Perillyl alcohol; Perillol;4-isopropenyl-cyclohex-1-ene-1-methanol;cyclohex-1-ene-1-methanol, 4(1-methylethenyl);dihydrocuminyl alcohol;NSC 641066;p-mentha-1,8-dien-7-ol;perilla alcohol, (R)-isomer;perilla alcohol, (S)-isomer;perillyl alcohol
CAS Type 1 Name:Benzeneethanol
Chemical Name:Benzyl Carbinol;Phenethyl Alcohol;Phenylethanol
Formula: C8 H10O. Molecular Weight:122.1664 CAS RN:536-59-4 Melting Point:-14.44 Boiling Point:432 at 0 mm Flash Point:102
Description:An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.
phenylphenalenones:group of phytoalexins; remove the phenyl group to the right (Ph) and you have phenalenone.
Phenylphenalenone, C19 H12 O.
Phenylpropyl acetate[122-72-5]:Synoms:(3-Acetoxypropyl)benzene;1-Acetoxy-3-phenylpropane;1-Propanol, 3-phenyl-, acetate;3-Acetoxy-1-phenylpropane;3-Phenyl-1-propanol, acetate;3-Phenyl-1-propyl acetate;3-Phenylpropyl acetate;3-Phenylpropyl acetate (natural);4-06-00-03201 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);AI3-18533;BRN 0744307;Benzenepropanol, acetate;EINECS 204-569-8;FEMA No. 2890;Hydrocinnamyl acetate;NSC 404453;Phenylpropyl acetate
CAS Type 1 Name:1-Propanol, 3-phenyl-, acetate;3-Phenylpropyl acetate;Benzenepropanol, acetate Chemical Name:Benzenepropanol, acetate
Formula: C11 H14O2. CAS RN:122-72-5 Other RN:1335-15-5 143601-14-3
3-Phenylpropanal[104-53-0]:Synoms:3-Phenyl-1-propanal;3-Phenylpropanal;3-Phenylpropionaldehyde;3-Phenylpropyl aldehyde;3-Phenylpropylaldehyde;4-07-00-00692 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);AI3-01377;BRN 1071910;Benzenepropanal;Benzylacetaldehyde;Dihydrocinnamaldehyde;EINECS 203-211-8;FEMA No. 2887;HYDROCINNAMALDEHYDE;Hydrocinnamic aldehyde;Hydrocinnamylaldehyde;NSC 9271;Propionaidehyde, 3-phenyl-;beta-Phenylpropionaldehyde
CAS Type 1 Name:3-Phenylpropionaldehyde;Benzenepropanal;Hydrocinnamaldehyde Chemical Name:3-Phenylpropanal
Formula: C9 H10O. Molecular Weight:134.1774 CAS RN:104-53-0 Other RN:719304-66-2 Melting Point:47 deg C Boiling Point:224 deg C
phenylpropanoids:any compound bearing a 3-carbon chain attached to a 6-carbon aromatic ring (C6-C3 compounds), most being formed from cinnamic or p-coumaric acids, volatile compounds in essential oils, e.g. orobanchoside, verbascoside.
Phenylpropene, C9 H10.
Eugenol, C10 H12 O2.
Pheophorbide a[15664-29-6]:Synonyms:(3S-(3alpha,4beta,21beta))-14-Ethyl-21-(methoxycarbonyl)-4,8,13,18-tetramethyl-20-oxo-9-vinylphorbine-3-propionic acid;13-epi-Phaeophorbide-a;15664-29-6;2296;28979-78-4;29702-69-0;3-phorbinepropanoic acid, 9-ethenyl-14-ethyl-21-(methoxycarbonyl)-4,8,13,18-tetramethyl-20-oxo-, (3S,4S);3-Phorbinepropanoic acid, 9-ethenyl-14-ethyl-21-(methoxycarbonyl)-4,8,13,18-tetramethyl-20-oxo-, (3S,4S,21R)-;EINECS 239-738-5;NSC75783;Pheophorbide a;rel-3-[(3R,4R)-14-ethyl-21-(methoxycarbonyl)-4,8,13,18-tetramethyl-20-oxo-9-vinylphorbin-3-yl]propanoic acid
Formula:C35 H36N4O5. Molecular Weight:592.684 g/mol CAS RN:15664-29-6 Other RN:28979-78-4 29702-69-0 Chemical Name:3-Phorbinepropanoic acid, 9-ethenyl-14-ethyl-21-(methoxycarbonyl)-4,8,13,18-tetramethyl-20-oxo-, (3S,4S,21R)- Note:Split product of chlorophyll obtained by saponification of pheophytin.
pherophyll:a foliage leaf or bract subtending an axillary shoot or flower, not used here, cf. prophyll.
phlobaphene:a brownish material perhaps related to proanthocyanidins or non-hydrolyzable tannins and found e.g. in the testa of some seeds, a colored proanthocyanidin whose color change is secondary, either enzymic or chemical, cf. phytomelan.
phloem:the part of the vascular tissue of a plant through which metabolites are transported, the transmitting tissue being made up of sieve tubes and companion cells (in gymnosperms sieve cells and albuminous cells), also with rays and frequently fibers (see stratified phloem), and varying in position with respect to the xylem, for which see amphicribral, amphivasal, bicollateral, collateral, internal phloem, intraxylary phloem.
phloroglucinol:simple phenolic compound composed of an aromatic ring and three hydroxyl groups, an aglycone of many glycosides.
Phloroglucinol, C6 H6 O3.
phorbol:a polycyclic alcohol occurring in croton oil, the parent compound of the phorbol esters, potent cocarcinogens, phorbol esters are diterpenes.
Phorbol, C20 H28 O6.
Phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate, C36 H56 O8.
Phosphate [14265-44-2]:Synonyms:Phosphate; Phosphoric acid, negative ions;1339-32-8,14265-44-2,178560-73-1,28602-75-7,68891-72-5,7601-54-9,7635-45-2,7664-38-2,7722-76-1,9043-01-0,9044-08-0,9066-91-5,Acide phosphorique,Acide phosphorique [French],Acido fosforico,Acido fosforico [Italian],Acidum phosphoricum,Ammonium biphosphate,Ammonium diacid phosphate,Ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate,Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate,Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate ((NH4)H2PO4),Ammonium dihydrophosphate,Ammonium monobasic phosphate,Ammonium monobasic phosphate (NH4H2PO4),Ammonium phosphate,Ammonium phosphate (NH4H2PO4),Ammonium phosphate,NH4H2PO4,Antisal 4,C00009,Caswell No. 662,CCRIS 2949,D-Mannan,dihydrogen phosphate,Dihydrogen ammonium phosphate,Dri-Tri,EINECS 231-633-2,EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 076001,EVITs,FEMA No. 2900,Fosforzuuroplossingen,Fosforzuuroplossingen [Dutch],H3PO4,HSDB 1187,Hydrogen phosphate,Isooctanol,reaction products with phosphorus oxide (P2O5) and polyethylene glycol monotridecyl ether,Marphos,Monoammonium acid phosphate,Monoammonium dihydrogen phosphate, Monoammonium dihydrogen phosphate ((NH4)H2PO4),Monoammonium hydrogen phosphate,Monoammonium orthophosphate,Monoammonium phosphate,Monobasic ammonium phosphate,NFB,NISTC7664382,NSC 80804,NSC215202,NSC57633,NSC78064,NSC80804,o-Phosphoric acid,Orthophosphate,Orthophosphoric acid,Phosphate,Phosphomannan,Phosphoric Acid,Phosphoric acid monoammonium salt,Phosphoric acid ortho,Phosphoric acid trisodium salt,Phosphoric acid [UN1805] [Corrosive],Phosphoric acid,monoammonium salt,Phosphoric acid, ortho-,Phosphoric acid, trisodium salt,Phosphoric-32P acid,monosodium salt,Phosphorsaeure,Phosphorsaeureloesungen,Phosphorsaeureloesungen [German],Primary ammonium phosphate,Sodium dihydrogen phosphate (32P),Sodium orthophosphate-32P,Sodium phosphate,Sodium phosphate (Na3PO4),Sodium phosphate, anhydrous,Sodium phosphate,NaH2(32)PO4,Sodium phosphate,tribasic,Sodium phosphate-P32,Sodium tertiary phosphate,Sonac,Tribasic sodium orthophosphate,Tribasic sodium phosphate,Trisodium orthophosphate,Trisodium phosphate,Tromete,UN 1805,UN1805,VTI 57,WC-Reiniger,White phosphoric acid
CAS Type 1 Name:3-carboxy-1-methylpyridinium hydroxide, inner salt Chemical Name: Phosphate
Formula:H3O4P CAS RN:14265-44-2 Other RN:264888-19-9 MW::97.9952 g/mol
Phospholipids:lipids, in which phosphoric acid as well as fatty acids are attached to a glycerol backbone. Phospholipids are important structural components of cell membranes.
Phosphorus:[7723-14-0]:Synonyms:Bonide Blue Death Rat Killer; elemental white phosphorus; Phosphorus; Phosphorus, amorphous; phosphorus, amorphous, red; Phosphorus atom; Phosphorus, red, amorphous; Phosphorus (white); Phosphorus, white, molten; Phosphorus (yellow); Phosphorus (yellow or white); PHOSPHOROUS, YELLOW/WHITE; Rat nip; Red phosphorus; White phosphorus; White phosphorus? WP; yellow phosphorus;
CAS Type 1 Name:Phosphorus
Formula:P. CAS RN:7723-14-0 M.W.:30.97376 Melting Point.:590
Description:An element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element in the diet, a major component of the mineral phase of bone, and is abundant in all tissues, being involved in some form in almost all metabolic processes. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Phosphorylation:the creation of a phosphate derivative of an organic molecule. This is usually achieved by transferring a phosphate group (-PO4) from ATP to another molecule.
photoperiodism:the response of a plant to periods of light and darness, particularly as regards the inception of flowering, see long-day and short-day.
phototropism:the directional growth response (tropism) of a plant or part of a plant to light, cf. geotropism, thigmotropism.
Phthalic anhydride [85-44-9]:Synonyms:1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid anhydride; 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic anhydride; 1,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxoisobenzofuran; 1,3-Dioxophthalan; 1,3-Isobenzofurandione; 1,3 Phthalandione; ESEN; phthalandione; Phthalic acid anhydride; Phthalic anhydride; Phthalic anhydride? retarder ak; retarder esen; retarder pd;
Formula: C8 H4O3. Molecular Weight:148.1178 CAS RN:85-44-9 ACX Number:X1000891-2. Melting Point:130.8. Boiling Point:284. Density1.53 Vapor Density5.1 Refractive Index:1.5418 Flashing Point:152. Water Solubility:Slightly soluble. Decomposes. 0.62 g/100 mL EPA Code:U190
Phthalide [87-41-2]:Synonyms:16385.5;27355-22-2;4,5,6,7-Tetrachloro-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone (9CI);4,5,6,7-Tetrachloro-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one;4,5,6,7-TETRACHLOROPHTHALIDE;4,5,6,7-Tetrachlorophthalidefthalide;4-17-00-04950 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);Bayer 96610;BRN 0182477;Fthalide;KF-32;PHH;Phthalide;Phthalide;4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-;Rabcide;TCP
Chemical Name:Phthalide, 4,5,6,7-tetrachloro- CAS RN:27355-22-2 Formula: C8H2Cl4O2 Molecular Weight:271.911 g/mol
p-hydroxybenzoic acid:Synonyms:4-Carboxyphenol;4-Hydroxybenzoesaeure;4-Hydroxybenzoic acid;AI3-01003;Acido p-idrossibenzoico [Italian];EINECS 202-804-9;HSDB 7233;Kyselina 4-hydroxybenzoova [Czech];NSC 4961;p-Hydroxybenzoic acid;p-Oxybenzoesaure [German] ;p-Salicylic acid
Formula: C7 H6 O3. Molecular Weight:138.12 CAS RN:99-96-7
Chemical Name:4-Hydroxybenzoic acid;Benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-; Benzoic acid, p-hydroxy;p-Hydroxybenzoic acid
phyllary:= inflorescence bract of an involucre, as in Asteraceae.
phylloclade:a flattened, more or less leaf-like, photosynthetic stem of a plant whose photosynthetic leaves are much reduced, cf. cladode, phyllode.
phyllode:a leaf whose blade is much reduced or absent, and whose petiole and/or rachis have assumed the functions of the whole leaf, cf. cladode, phyllode.
phyllome:a collective term for all the leaf structures of a plant, cf. caulome, hadrom(e), leptom(e), stereom(e).
phyllosporous:of sporangia borne on a leaf, cf. stachysporous.
phyllotaxis:the arrangement of leaves (inc. scales and bracts) along the stem, especially as they are initiated at the shoot apex, see alternate, bijugate, decussate, distichous, opposite, pseudoverticillate, spiral, spiromonistichous, tristichous, whorled, see also orthostichy, parastichy (inc. contact parastichy, genetic spiral).
phylogeny:the evolutionary history of an organism or group of organisms, adj. phylogenetic, cf. ontogeny.
Physalien:[144-67-2]:Synonyms: EINECS 205-635-9;Physalien
Chemical Name:(3R,3R')-beta,beta-Carotene-3,3'-diyl dipalmitate;beta,beta-Carotene-3,3'-diol, dihexadecanoate, (3R,3'R)- Formula:C72H116O4. CAS RN:144-67-2
Physcione [521-61-9]:1,8-Dihydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthracenedione; 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylanthraquinone;1,8-Dihydroxy-3-methyl-6-methoxy-9,10-anthraquinone;4-08-00-03575 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);BRN 1915778;CCRIS 4399;EINECS 208-315-7;Emodin 3-methyl ether;NSC 251670;Parietin;Physcion;Physcione;Rheochrysidin
CAS Type 1 Name:1,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylanthraquinone; 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylanthraquinone;9,10-Anthracenedione, 1,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methyl-(9CI);Anthraquinone, 1,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methyl-; Physcion
Chemical Name:emodin 3-methyl ether;parietin;physcion Formula: C16 H12O5. CAS RN:521-61-9
Phytic acid [83-86-3]:Description:Myo-Inositol hexakis(dihydrogen phosphate). Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.
Synonyms:Alkalovert;Fytic acid;Inositol hexaphosphate;Myo-Inositol hexaphosphate;Phytic acid;NSC269896;Acide fytique [INN-French];Acido fitico [INN-Spanish];Acidum fyticum [INN-Latin];Alkalovert;Alkovert;CCRIS 4513;EINECS 201-506-6;Fytic acid;Inosithexaphosphorsaure [German];Inositol hexaphosphate;NSC 269896;Phytate;Phytic acid;Saure des phytins [German];myo-Inosistol hexakisphosphate;myo-Inositol hexaphosphate;Fytic acid; Inositol Hexaphosphate; Inositol-hexaphosphoric acid; Inositol hexaphosphoric acid, 40-50 wt% aqueous solution; myo-Inositol, hexakis(dihydrogen phosphate); myo-Inositol hexakisphosphate; Myo-inositol hexaphosphate; Phytic acid;
CAS Type 1 Name:myo-Inositol, hexakis(dihydrogen phosphate) Equivalent Terms:Inositol Hexaphosphate;Phytin;Inositol, hexakis(dihydrogen phosphate), myo-; Myo-Inosistol hexakisphosphate; Myo-Inositol, hexakis(dihydrogen phosphate)
Formula: C6 H18O24P6 CAS RN:83-86-3 Other RN:50762-79-3 78039-41-5Melting Point:< 25 deg C M.W.:660.03636
Phytic acid [63903-51-5]:Synonyms:PHYTIC ACID;NSC72166
Chemical Name:Myo-Inositol, hexakis(dihydrogen phosphate), hexazinc salt
Formula: C6 H6O24P6.6Zn CAS RN:63903-51-5 M.W.:1040.27
phytoalexins:a general term referring to substances that inhibit further development of a fungus in hypersensitive host tissue (also antimicrobial), the first one isolated was an isoflavan, others are sesquiterpenes.
Aureol, C15 H8 O6.
Phaseollin, C20 H18 O4.
Phytochemicals:biologically active, non-nutrient compounds synthesized by plants.
Phytoestrogens:compounds with estrogenic activity derived from plants.
phytoferritin:an iron-protein complex, present as crystalline inclusions in some plastids.
phytomelan:black, carbonaceous material forming a crust-like covering of some seeds, largely in Asparagales, cf. phlobaphene.
Pigment:a compound that gives a plant or animal cell color by the selective absorption of different wavelengths of light.
pilum:a sexine element, usually standing directly on the nexine, consisting of a rod-like part, the columella, and a swollen apical caput, hence pilate, used to refer to a pollen grain whose surface is made up of such elements, see gemmate, retipilate cf. baculum, tectum.
pin:one morph of a heterostylous flower with a long style and short stamens, so the stigma occupying the mouth of the flower, as in many species of Primula, cf. homostyle, thrum.
Pinene:[1330-16-1]:Synonyms:Caswell No. 664;EINECS 215-533-6;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 067001;Pinene;Polychloropinene
CAS Type 1 Name:Pinane, didehydro derivative
Chemical Name:Bicyclo(3.1.1)heptane, 2,6,6-trimethyl-, didehydro deriv.;
Formula: C10 H16. Molecular Weight:136.2364 CAS RN:1330-16-1 Other RN:12002-07-2; 1330-00-3; 9056-93-3
Pinitol[484-68-4]:Synonyms:NSC 43336,PINITOL;pinitol, (D)-isomer
CAS TYPE 1 Name:3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone-3-glucoside
Formula: C7 H14O6 CAS RN:484-68-4
Pinitol, (+)-[10284-63-6]:Synonyms: D-(+)-Pinitol,Matezit,NSC 128700,NSC 43336,Pinit,Pinitol, (+)-;Sennit,Sennitol
Chemical Name:D-chiro-Inositol, 3-O-methyl- (9CI);Inositol, 3-O-methyl-, D-chiro- (8CI)
CAS TYPE 1 Name:D-chiro-Inositol, 3-O-methyl- (9CI)
Formula: C7 H14O6 CAS RN:10284-63-6
pinna, pl. pinnae:= leaflet.
pinnate:a once-compound leaf with leaflets borne along a rachis, see binate, bipinnate, even-pinnate, odd-pinnate, tripinnate, cf. palmate.
pinnate:of venation, as used in the descriptions (and as a formal term) covering those forms in which the secondary veins depart from the midrib along its length, includes brochidodromous, camptodromous, craspedodromous, eucamptodromous, reticulodromous, semicraspedodromous, simple-craspedodromous, cf. parallel, palmate.
pinnatifid:of a leaf, cut about half the width of the leaf blade into lobes that are spaced out along the midrib, cf. palmatifid.
pinnatinerved:of venation, = pinnate.
pinnatipartite:of leaves with lobing over 2/3 of the distance to the midrib, but the parenchyma is not interrupted.
pinnatisect:of the leaf blade, dissected down to the midrib, the parenchyma being interrupted.
pistil:a free carpel or a group of fused carpels, a rather confusing term; also as pistillode, a sterile pistil, often rudimentary - a more useful term.
pit:an interruption in the secondary cell wall; pits in the xylem may be bordered, scalariform, simple, simple, and borne in an alternate or opposite arrangement.
pit,:esp. of a drupe, but also commonly used for any hard "seed" in an otherwise fleshy "fruit", a vague term and not recommended, often = pyrene.
pit pair:where pits in the secondary walls of adjacent cells are opposite each other.
pith:the central region of a stem, the inner part of the stele that is produced by differentiation of the ground meristem, cf. cortex.
pith ray:= interfascicular region.
placenta:a more or less localised but not necessarily differentiated region within an ovary to which ovules are attached, pl. placentae.
placentation:the arrangement of placentae, and hence of ovules, within an ovary, see apical, axile, basal, free central, laminar, marginal, intrusive-parietal, parietal.
placentoid:an inpushing of parenchymatous tissue into the anther loculus, cf. endothecium, exothecium, microsporocytes, tapetum.
plagiotropic:of growth, diageotropic, i.e. a gravitational response which results in the stem being held more or less horizontal, cf. orthotropic.
planate:(of leaf ptyxis) = flat.
Plantagoside [78708-33-5]:Synonyms:2'-O-beta-Glucopyranosyl-5,7,4',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone;4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 2-(3-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-, (S)-;78708-33-5;Plantagoside;2'-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-5,7,4',5'-tetrahydroxy-flavanone;2'-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-5,7,4',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone
CAS Type 1 Name:4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 2-(3-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-, (S)-
CAS RN:78708-33-5 Molecular Formula: C21H22O12 Molecular Weight:466.392 g/mol
Plantamajoside [104777-68-6]:Synonyms:CCRIS 6569;Caswell No. 693;Caustic potash;Cyantek CC 723;EINECS 215-181-3;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 075602;HSDB 1234;Hydroxyde de potassium [French];Potash;Potash lye;Potassa;Potasse caustique [French];Potassio (idrossido di) [Italian];Potassium (hydroxyde de) [French] ;Potassium hydrate;Potassium hydroxide;Caustic potash; Caustic potash, liquid; Lye; potassa; Potassium hydrate; Potassium hydroxide; Potassium hydroxide (K(OH));
CAS Type 1 Name:Caustic potash;Potassium hydroxide;potash;potassium hydroxide monohydrate;potassium hydroxide tetrahydrate;potassium hydroxide, 39K-labeled;potassium hydroxide, 41K-labeled
CAS RN:104777-68-6 Molecular Formula: C29H36O16 Molecular Weight:640.587 g/mol
Plasma:the liquid portion of blood, in which the cells are suspended. Plasma is separated from blood cells using a centrifuge. Unlike serum, plasma retains clotting factors because it is obtained from blood that is not allowed to clot.
plasmodesmata:complex membrane-lined pores, microscopic strands of protoplasm transversing the primary wall but not necessarily laid down when the primary cell wall is laid down, cf. also middle lamella, secondary wall.
plasmodial:of tapetum, = amoeboid.
plasmodium:a single mass of cytoplasm undivided by walls and with several to many nuclei, see also coenocyte, syncytium.
plastid:an organelle enclosed by a double membrane, usually containing pigments and/or involved in primary carbon metabolism, see amyloplast, chromoplast, chloroplast, leucoplast, sieve tube plastid.
plastochrone:time interval between two successive events, such as initiation of leaf primordia.
platanoid:a leaf tooth in which the medial secondary vein narrows to the foraminate glandular apex, higher order laterals forming brochidodromous loops that converge on the apex, but do not join it, cf. begonioid, chloranthoid, cucurbitoid, cunonioid, dillenioid, malvoid, monimioid, rosoid, salicoid, spinose, theoid, urticoid, violoid.
plectostele:a variant of a protostele in which there are more or less parallel bands of vascular tissue, cf. actinostele, haplostele.
pleiochasium:very like a dichasium, a cymose inflorescence with opposite branching below the flower which terminates each axis, each branch in turn terminating in a flower, etc., but with three or more branches arising from the cf. inflorescence axis, cf. monochasium.
pleonanthic:of flowering with respect to growth, an axis that is not determinate by flowering, the inflorescences being axillary, cf. hapaxanthic, monocarpic, also iteroparous, semelparous, of duration of the plant, annual, biennial, ephemeral, perennial.
plerome:a now little-used term for the innermost of the three histogen layers that were supposed to make up the apical meristem, giving rise to the stele, cf. dermatogen and periblem.
plesiomorphic:of a character, ancestral or "primitive", arising in the common ancestor of a clade that includes the smaller clade for which the character is a plesiomorphy, e.g. carpels are an apomorphy of angiosperms but are a plesiomorphy of rosids, cf. apomorphic, autapomorphic, synapomorphic.
pleurotropous:of the curvature of an ovule with respect to the ovary axis, lateral, cf. apotropous, epitropous, see also antitropous, syntropous.
plicate:of leaf ptyxis, folded together rather like a concertina or fan, see induplicate, reduplicate, cf. circinate, conduplicate, conduplicate-flat, conduplicate-involute, conduplicate-plicate, curved, flat, involute, revolute, supervolute, supervolute-curved, supervolute-involute.
Plumbagella:an embryo sac type, the types based on variation in megasporogensis and megagametogenesis, tetrasporic (3 spores chalazal), 4-celled (the egg, one triploid antipodal, one triploid and one haploid polar), cf. Adoxa, Allium, Drusa, Endymion, Fritillaria, Oenothera, Penaea, Peperomia, Plumbago, Polygonum.
plumbagin:a naphthoquinone derived from six C2 units, the acetate arising from L-tyrosine as opposed to the typical derivation from the shikimic acid pathway.
Plumbago:an embryo sac type, the types based on variation in megasporogensis and megagametogenesis, tetrasporic, 8-celled (all cells haploid, 4 cells peripheral, 4 polar), cf. Adoxa, Allium, Drusa, Endymion, Fritillaria, Oenothera, Penaea, Peperomia, Plumbagella, Polygonum.
plumose:like a feather, with fine hairs branching from a central axis, cf. coma.
plumule:the young shoot above the cotyledon(s) of an embryo or seedling, a rather imprecise term, cf. also coleoptile, coleorhiza, collet, eophyll, epiblast, epicotyl, hypocotyl, mesocotyl, primary leaf radicle, scutellum.
pneumatophore:an aerating organ, often containing aerenchyma, e.g. the roots of some mangrove and swamp plants that project above the level of the water.
pod:often used for the fruit of any member of Fabaceae, not recommended, since it can be fleshy, dry, winged or not, dehiscent, indehiscent, etc., etc., a more useful definition might be something like a single-carpellate fruit splitting explosively down both sutures.
polarisation:the process by which character states are deemed apomorphic or plesiomorphic.
polar nuclei:usually two nuclei in the center of central cell of the eight-nucleate embryo sac that fuse with each other and with one of the male gametes to produce the primary endosperm nucleus, which is usually triploid, rarely diploid or some other ploidy level, see antipodals, egg cell, synergids.
pollen chamber:small chamber at the apex of the megasporangium wall (nucellus) of some gymnosperms in which pollen may collect, formed by the brakdown of cells, cf. antiraphe, chalaza, epistase, female gametophyte, funicle, hypostase, integument (see also endothelium), lagenostome, megaspore, micropyle, obturator, raphe
pollen grain:the microspore of seed plants, containing the partially developed male gametophyte when it is dispersed, and surrounded by a complex wall made up of sporopollenin and sometimes covered with pollenkitt or tryphine or associated with elaters or viscin threads, see endosporic and exosporic for development of the gametophyte, baculum, columella, ectexine, exine, foot layer, intine, nexine, pilum, sexine, and tectum for terms used for describing the wall, and baculate, echinate, fossulate, gemmate, foveolate, pilate (gemmate and retipilate are variants), lophate, psilate, reticulate, retipilate, rugulate, scabrate, striate, and verrucose for some of the terms used specifically for describing the often elaborate surface ornamentation and lumen and murus for describing elements of that ornamentation, see also colpate, colporate, porate, pororate, sulcate, and ulcerate for the basic kinds of apertures (also annuluspoll and os), while monolete and trilete describe analagous structures in ferns, etc., anasulcate, tricolpate and tricolporate, three common pollen "types", amb, boat-shaped, globose, oblate, prolate, and spherical, terms describing particular aspects of shape, prepollen, true pollen, different kinds of pollen in seed plants, and finally the harmomegathic effect, shape changes, cf. pseudopollen.
pollen kitt:material or fluid that is the result of the complete degeneration of the tapetum rich in plastid-derived lipids and other pigmented compounds and covering the pollen grains, sometimes causing them to stick together, cf. tryphine.
pollen mother cell:= microspoocyte.
pollen presenter:in secondary pollen presentation a structural modification of the style which enables pollen, shed in the bud, to be retained on the style and from whence the pollinator picks it up.
pollen-sac:on an anther, = microsporangium.
pollinarium:the complex structure found in flowers of Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae and Orchidaceae where pollinia are attached by translators to a central corpusculum, see also viscidium.
pollination:the transfer of pollen from the stamen to the receptive region of the carpel, cf. fertilisation, see cross pollination, self pollination, see also anemophilous, hydrophilous, zoophilous (agents of pollination), nototribic, sternotribic (place of pollen deposition).
pollination chamber:= pollen chamber.
pollinium:pollen-mass, the aggregation of all or much of the pollen of a sporangium into a single unit, part of a pollinarium, pl. pollinia, cf. massula, tetrad, polyad.
poly- (prefix):many, especially over 15 or so (as in the characterisations), or separate.
polyacetylenes:unsaturated compounds derived from oleic acid by dehydrogenation, highly reactive but with additional functional groups such as alcohols, ketones, acids, esters, furans, or pyrans which tend to stabilize the reactive acetylenic bonds.
Polyacetylene, (C2 H2)x.
Falcarinone, C17 H22 O.
polyad:of pollen aggregated into units of many grains each, cf. massula, monad, pollinia, tetrad.
polyadelphous:of stamens, united by their filaments into several bundles, cf. diadelphous and monadelphous.
Polyamide:Same as polymeric amide, a polymer containing repeated amide groups,see Polymer.
polyclave:a variant of a key, cf. multiple access.
polycolpate:of pollen grains with more than three colpi that are equatorially-centred, i.e., a kind of zono-aperturate pollen grain, cf. colpate, forate, porate, rugate, sulcate, trichotomosulcate, and ulcerate apertures.
Polydatin [ 65914-17-2]:3-Hydroxy-5-(2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethenyl)phenyl-beta-D-glucoside; Piceid;3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene-3-beta-monoglucoside;3,4,5-TSG;3-hydroxy-5-(2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethenyl)phenyl-beta-D-glucoside;piceid;polydatin, (E)-isomer
CAS Type 1 Name:beta-D-Glucopyranoside, 3-hydroxy-5-(2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethenyl)phenyl
Chemical Name:resveratrol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside Formula: C20 H22O8. CAS RN: 65914-17-2
polyderm:arises from a lateral meristem that develops in ground tissues located in the pericycle and which cuts off lamellae of paired concentric layers of parenchymatous and endodermal cells, externally, cf. cork cambium, vascularcambium.
polyembryony:where more than one embryo per ovule develops, and in a variety of ways, see adventitious (poly)embryony, cleavage polyembryony, and simple polyembryony.
polyfructosans:fructose polysaccharides, e.g. inulin.
polygamodioecious:with perfect and staminate flowers on some plants, perfect and carpellate flowers on others, cf. androdioecious, andromonoecious, dioecious, gynodioecious, gynomonoecious, monoecious, perfect, polygamomonoecious.
polygamomonoecious:with perfect, staminate and carpellate flowers on the same plant, cf.androdioecious, andromonoecious, dioecious, gynodioecious, gynomonoecious, monoecious, perfect, polygamomonoecious.
polygamous:having perfect and imperfect flowers on the same or different plants.
Polygonum:an embryo sac type, the types based on variation in megasporogensis and megagametogenesis, one spore (chalazal), 8 haploid cells, cf. Adoxa, Allium, Drusa, Endymion, Fritillaria, Oenothera, Penaea, Peperomia, Plumbagella, Plumbago.
polyhydroxy alkaloids:a.k.a. indolizidine alkaloids, bicyclic alkaloids with fused 5- and 6-membered ring systems.
Castanospermine, C8 H15 N O4.
Casuarine, C8 H15 N O5.
Swainsonine, C8 H15 N O3.
polyisoprenes:high molecular-weight terpenoids made up of many isoprene units, e.g. rubber.
polyketides:compounds related to fatty acids composed of condensed acetate and malonate units with unreduced carbonyl units and aromatic ring systems, typically with phenolic substitutions.
Polymer:a large molecule formed by combining many similar smaller molecules (monomers) in a regular pattern. a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers
copolymer - a polymer consisting of two or more different monomers
ployurethan, polyurethane - any of various polymers containing the urethane radical; a wide variety of synthetic forms are made and used as adhesives or plastics or paints or rubber
lignin - a complex polymer; the chief non-carbohydrate constituent of wood; binds to cellulose fibers to harden and strengthen cell walls of plants
polyamide, polymeric amide - a polymer containing repeated amide groups
silicone, silicone polymer - any of a large class of siloxanes that are unusually stable over a wide range of temperatures; used in lubricants and adhesives and coatings and synthetic rubber and electrical insulation
trimer - a polymer (or a molecule of a polymer) consisting of three identical monomers.
polymeric amide:a polymer containing repeated amide groups,see Polymer.
polymeric compounds:The polymeric compounds (tannins) are structured from the phenolic monomers to form polymers of different length,including Condensed tannins,and Hydrolyzable tannins.
polymerous:of parts of a flower, more than expected/typical, cf. oligomerous.
polymorphic:having more than two distinct morphological forms, either on a single plant or on different plants within a species.
Polymorphism:a variant form of a gene. Most polymorphisms are harmless and are part of normal human genetic variation, but some polymorphisms affect the function of the gene product (protein).
polypetalous:with free petals, cf. apetalous, sympetalous.
Polyphenol:A kind of chemical that (at least in theory) may protect against some common health problems and possibly certain effects of aging.Polyphenols act as antioxidants. They protect cells and body chemicals against damage caused by free radicals, reactive atoms that contribute to tissue damage in the body. For example, when low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is oxidized, it can become glued to arteries and cause coronary heart disease.Polyphenols can also block the action of enzymes that cancers need for growth and they can deactivate substances that promote the growth of cancers. The polyphenol most strongly associated with cancer prevention is epigallocatechin-3-gallate, or EGCG.
Polyphenol Oxidase:Browning of the cut surface of some fruits and vegetables is due the presence of a group of enzymes called polyphenoloxidases. These enzymes are released by the broken cells and they catalyse the reaction between colourless molecules called polyphenols and molecular oxygen. This reaction creates coloured compounds and these new compunds can spontaenously cross react with one another to form black-brown complexes called melanins.
One example of a substrate for these enzymes is catechol, hence the alternative name catechol oxidases for these enzymes. Catechol is oxidised initially to the orange compound benzoquinone which is then converted to melanins.The conversion to melanin is spontaneous but slow
Food processing and cooking often involve procedures which are intended to inhibit the action of polyphenoloxidases. Why do you think a cook immediately places freshly peeled potatoes into a pan of water? Or why do people squeeze a few drops of lemon juice on to a freshly cut avocado? Mushrooms contain high levels of polyphenoloxidases, so how do you think pre-sliced packaged ones can be prevented from going brown?
polyphyletic:a taxon made up of members which, given a particular phylogenetic tree and classification based on it, include descendents of two or more ancestors, likely to be a grade, cf. monophyletic, paraphyletic.
polyploid:having more than two of the basic haploid sets of chromosomes in the nucleus, represented as 3x, 4x, etc., cf. allopolyploid, aneuploid, autopolyploid, diploid, dysploid, haploid.
polysaccharide:a polymer made up of many hexose or pentose units, see cellulose, hemicellulose, inulin, pectin, starch.
Polysaccharides are glycosides between sugars. The name given to the polysaccharide is dependent on the size of the molecule:
1 sugar unit: monosaccharide
2 sugar units: disaccharide
3 sugar units: trisaccharide
3-several sugar units: oligosaccharide
100+ sugar units: polysaccharide
Polysaccharides are polymers of glucose,Polysaccharides are long chains of repeating simple sugars. The most common polysaccharides (i.e. starch, glycogen and cellulose) are polymers of the same monosaccharide, D-glucose. D-glucose is a ringed, six-carbon sugar that exists in two configurations: Alfa and Beta. These two forms are structurally identical, except for the position of the hydroxyl group on the first-position carbon. The hydroxyl group points down in Alfa-D-glucose, and it points up in Beta-D-glucose. This seems like a trivial difference, but, as you will soon learn, this can have a significant impact.
The links between the sugar molecules fix the orientation of any anomeric carbons involved in the bond, and the glycosidic bonds can form between any two alcohol groups on the sugar, making polysaccharide nomenclature a nightmare. Probably the simplest and most important disaccharide is sucrose. Chemically, sucrose is beta-D-fructofuranosyl-(2-->1)-alfa-D-glucopyranoside. The D-fructofuranose and D-glucopyranose bits should be obvious. The rest is a little more complex. Firstly, note that for convenience, the Haworth notation for fructose is upside down (carbon-1 is on the left, not the right, of the diagram). Both sugars are numbered for your convenience. Glucose is in the alfa anomeric form (OH on carbon-1 is on the opposite side to the CH2OH on carbon-5), and fructose is in the beta anomeric form (OH on carbon-2 is on the same side as the CH2OH on carbon-5). These configurations are fixed because both the anomeric carbons are involved in the glycosidic bond. The last thing to note is that the bond goes from carbon-2 on fructose to carbon-1 on glucose, hence the 2-->1. The IUPAC preferred way of naming disaccharides that have fixed anomeric carbons are as 'glycosyl glycosides', with glucose preferred as the glycoside portion rather than the glycosyl in this case. It's all a bit arcane, and you'll often find sucrose 'wrongly' (for some value of 'wrongly') called alfa-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-fructofuranoside, or similar.
polysepalous:with free sepals, cf. asepalous, synsepalous.
polysymmetric:symmetrical about more than two planes passing through the axis of the flower, see also peloric, cf. asymmetric, bisymmetric, haplomorphic, monosymmetric, oblique.
polytelic:of inflorescences, = indeterminate.
polytypic:containing more than one taxon of the next lower rank, e.g. applied to a family containing more than one genus, cf. monotypic.
polyxylic:seed plant stems with more than one vascular cylinder, each with xylem and phloem, cf. monoxylic.
Polyunsaturated fatty acid:a fatty acid with more than one double bond between carbons.
Ployurethan:ployurethan, polyurethane, - any of various polymers containing the urethane radical; a wide variety of synthetic forms are made and used as adhesives or plastics or paints or rubber
pome:not used here, a fleshy fruit, formed from an inferior ovary, in which the receptacle or hypanthium has enlarged to enclose the ovary, with a more or less developed endocarp, i.e. almost a drupe s.l..
pontoperculum:a distincly delimited and thickened ectexinous or sexinous structure that covers part of an ectoaperture of a pollen grain, but is linked to the general pollen surface at the ends of the aperture, cf. operculum.
porate (porus, pl. pori):a simple aperture in a pollen grain that is more or less circular in surface view (pororate when a compound aperture), cf. colpate, forate, polycolpate, rugate, sulcate, trichotomosulcate, and ulcerate apertures.
pore:a general term for any circular opening, thinner area, etc., through which pollen escapes from an anther, or the radicle grows (germination pore), and so on, for anther dehiscence, cf. valve, slit.
porous:of wood that contains vessels (the pores), whether or not it also contains tracheids, see diffuse porous and ring porous, cf. nonporous.
poricidal:in general, opening by pores, of anthers, cf. valvular; also of capsules, cf. circumscissile, loculicidal, septicidal, septifragal.
porogamy:fertilisation during which the pollen tube penetrates the ovule by way of the micropyle, cf. chalazogamy, mesogamy.
pororate:a compound aperture in a pollen grain in which both the inner and outer parts are more or less circular in surface view, cf. colporate, forate, and rugorate apertures.
posterior:as used of floral organs, = adaxial, cf. anterior.
postgenital:of fusion of parts, when parts that were initially free from one another grow together, see connation or adnation, cf. congenital.
posticous:as used of floral organs, = adaxial, cf. anticous.
Potash:See Potassium carbonate [584-08-7] or Potassium hydroxide [1310-58-3].
Potassium [7440-09-7]:Synonyms:Kalium; Potassium; Potassium, metal alloys;EINECS 231-119-8;HSDB 698;Kalium;Potassium;Potassium, (liquid alloy) ;Potassium, metal
CAS Type 1 Name:Potassium
CAS RN:7440-09-7 Other RN: 31079-13-7;
Molecular Formula: K Molecular Weight:39.09 Melting Point:63 Boiling Point:770
Description: An element that is in the alkali group of metals. It has an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte and it plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the water-electrolyte balance.
Potassium carbonate [584-08-7]:Synonyms:Carbonic acid potassium salt;Carbonic acid;dipotassium salt;Dipotassium carbonate;Inorganic salt;K-Gran;K2CO3;Kaliumcarbonat;Montreal potash;NISTB6000504;NISTC584087;Pearl ash;Pearl dust;Potash;Potassium carbonate;Potassium carbonate (2:1);Sal absinthii;Salt of tartar;Salt of wormwood;Dipotassium carbonate; Carbonic acid, dipotassium salt; Carbonate Of Potash; Salt of tartar; salt of wormwood; Pearl ash; Potash; Potassium carbonate;
CAS RN:584-08-7 Other RN: 30095-94-4
Molecular Formula: CK2O3 or C-H2-O3.2K Molecular Weight:138.1892 Melting Point:891
Potassium hydroxide [1310-58-3]:Synonyms:CCRIS 6569;Caswell No. 693;Caustic potash;Cyantek CC 723;EINECS 215-181-3;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 075602;HSDB 1234;Hydroxyde de potassium [French];Potash;Potash lye;Potassa;Potasse caustique [French];Potassio (idrossido di) [Italian];Potassium (hydroxyde de) [French] ;Potassium hydrate;Potassium hydroxide;Caustic potash; Caustic potash, liquid; Lye; potassa; Potassium hydrate; Potassium hydroxide; Potassium hydroxide (K(OH));
CAS Type 1 Name:Caustic potash;Potassium hydroxide;potash;potassium hydroxide monohydrate;potassium hydroxide tetrahydrate;potassium hydroxide, 39K-labeled;potassium hydroxide, 41K-labeled
CAS RN:1310-58-3 Other RN: 29857-72-5; 71769-53-4
Molecular Formula: H-K-O K-O-H Molecular Weight:56.0973 Melting Point:360 Boiling Point:1320 soluble. Solubility:107 g/100 mL at 15 C
P-protein:protein found in the cytoplasm of sieve tubes in the phloem of angiosperms along with sieve tube plastids.
praemorse:appearing bitten off at the end.
Precursor:a molecule which is an ingredient, reactant, or intermediate in a synthetic pathway for a particular product.
preformation:used to refer to leaves in an innovation that develop from primordia that were evident in the resting bud that gave rise to that same innovation, cf. neoformation.
prenylation:the attachment of a prenyl or isoprene unit, as in prenylated naphthoquinones.
Furaquinocin A, C22 H26 O7.
Neomarinone, C27 H34 O4.
prepollen:a microspore having proximal rather than distal germination and haptotypic marks, cf. true pollen.
prickle:an enation that is hard, pointed outgrowth from the surface of a plant, involving several layers of cells, but not containing vascular tissue, cf. spine, thorn. (images of prickles, spines (sic), top right)
primary:of plant tissues, the cells making them up being produced by the more or less direct derivatives of the primary meristems in the root and shoot, e.g. primary xylem, primary phloem, cf. secondary.
primary endosperm cell:the cell formed by the fusion of the male gamete or sperm with the central cell of the embryo sac, cf. chalazosperm, chalazal cyst, endosperm, perisperm is the term "primary endosperm also used for haploid gametophytic tissue persisting in the mature seed and forming reserve tissue for the young sporophyte?
primary growth:growth caused by the elongation, differentiation and maturation of cells derived from the apical meristem, cf. secondary growth.
primary leaf:the first leaf of an embryo or seedling occuring above the cotyledonary node, cf. coleoptile, coleorhiza, collet, cotyledon, eophyll, epiblast, epicotyl, hypocotyl, mesocotyl, plumule, radicle, scutellum.
primary meristem:loosely, = apical meristem.
primary root:= radicle (in the seed), tap root (in the adult).
primary tissue:tissues by elongation and differentiation of cells derived from the apical meristem.
primary thickening meristem:a variant or part of an apical meristem with extensive primary division localised in the cells of a peripheral, mantle-like zone and forming cells in radial series like a lateral meristem, cf. ground meristem, intercalary meristem, procambium, protoderm.
primary wall:the first visible part of the cell wall deposited during extension growth of the cell and made up of cellulose fibrils, hemicelluloses, pectins, etc., cf. middle lamella, plasmodesmata, secondary wall.
primordium:organ of a plant as it first becomes apparent, see genetic spiral, orthostichy, parastichy.
primitive:(of characters, not recommended) = ancestral or plesiomorphic.
primitive tannins:= proanthocyanidins.
proanthocyanidins:colorless glycosidic anthocyanidins, derived from isomerised flavonoids, usually polymers and based on monomeric flavan-3-ol (catechins) and flavan-3,4-diol units, colorless compounds that yield red anthocyanidins upon heating with acid. Note that they are not precursors to anthocyanidins in the plant.
Leucodelphinidin, C15 H14 O8.
Proanthocyanidin B2, C30 H26 O12.
Melacacidin, C15 H14 O7.
procambium:a primary meristem near the apex of the stem or root and forming strands down the stem and root, differentiating to form primary vascular tissue, cf. ground meristem, intercalary meristem, primarythickeningmeristem, protoderm.
Procarcinogen:a carcinogen precursor that must be modified or metabolized to become an active carcinogen.
procumbent:trailing or spreading along the ground but not rooting at the nodes, cf. ascending, decumbent, repent.
Procyanidin [4852-22-6]:Synonyms:2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-((2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-3-yl)oxy)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-3,4,5,7-tetrol;3,3',4,4',5,7-Flavanhexol, 2-((2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-3-chromanyl)oxy)-;BRN 1675863;Procyanidin
CAS Type 1 Name:2H-1-Benzopyran-3,4,5,7-tetrol, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-((2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-3-yl)oxy)-3,4-dihydro- Chemical Name:epicatechin-4alpha,8-epicatechin;procyanidin, (2R-(2alpha,3alpha,4alpha(2'R*,3'S*)))-isomer;procyanidin, (2R-(2alpha,3beta,4beta(2R*,3R*)))-isomer
Formula: C30 H26O13 CAS RN:4852-22-6
Procyanidin A2 [41743-41-3]:Synonyms:8, 14-Methano-2H, 14H-1-benzopyrano[7, 8-d][1, 3]benzodioxocin-3, 5, 11, 13, 15-pentol, 2, 8-bis(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3, 4-dihydro-, [2R-(2.alpha, 3.alpha., 8.beta., 14.beta., 15R*)]-;(+)-Epicatechin-(4.beta.-8, 2.beta.-O-7)-epicatechin;(+)-Proanthocyanidin A2;Dimeric catechin;Proanthocyanidin A2;Procyanidin A2;Procyanidin dimer A2;Procyanidol A2
Chemical Name:8,14-Methano-2H,14H-1-benzopyrano[7,8-d][1,3]benzodioxocin-3,5,11,13,15-pentol, 2,8-bis(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-, (2R,3R,8S,14R,15R)-
Formula: C30 H24O12 CAS RN:441743-41-3 Molecular Weight:576.51
Procyanidin B2 [29106-49-8]:Synonyms:[4, 8''-Biflavan]-3, 3', 3'', 3''', 4', 4''', 5, 5'', 7, 7''-decol, stereoisomer;[4, 8'-Bi-2H-1-benzopyran]-3, 3', 5, 5', 7, 7'-hexol, 2, 2'-bis(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3, 3', 4, 4'-tetrahydro-, [2R-[2.alpha., 3.alpha., 4.beta.(2'R*, 3'R*)]]-;(+)-Procyanidin B2;(-)-Epicatechin-(4.beta.-8)-(-)-epicatechin;Proanthocyanidin B2;Procyanidin B2;Procyanidol B2;NSC623097
Chemical Name:[4,8'-Bi-2H-1-benzopyran]-3,3',5,5',7,7'-hexol, 2,2'-bis(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,3',4,4'-tetrahydro-, (2R,2'R,3R,3'R,4R)-
Formula: C30 H26O12 CAS RN:29106-49-8 Molecular Weight:578.52
Procyanidin B3:Synonyms:Procyanidin B3
Formula: C30 H26O12 Molecular Weight:578.52
Procyanidin B4:See Procyanidin B3
Procyanidin B5:Synonyms:Procyanidin B5
Formula: C30 H26O12 Molecular Weight:578.52
Procyanidin B6:Synonyms:Procyanidin B6
Formula: C30 H26O12 Molecular Weight:578.52
Procyanidin B7:See Procyanidin B6
Procyanidin C1:Synonyms:Proanthocyanidin C1;Procyanidin C1
Chemical Name:Epicatechin-(4.beta.-->8)epicatechin-(4.beta.-->8)epicatechin CAS RN:37064-30-5
Formula: C45 H38O18 Molecular Weight:866.78
proembryo:a stage in the early development of the sporophyte between the zygote and the embryo proper, multicellular and globular, but before the differentiation of any tissue systems, see basal cell, hypophysis, suspensor.
Synonyms:17alpha-Hydroxy-6alpha-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione;17alpha-Progesterone;3,20-Pregnene-4;4-Pregnene-3,20-dione;6alpha-Methylpregn-4-en-17alpha-ol-3,20-dione;AI3-51682;Agolutin;Bio-luton;CCRIS 533;Corlutin;Corlutina;Corluvite;Corporin;Corpus luteum hormone;Crinone;Crinone progesterone gel;Cyclogest;EINECS 200-350-6;Flavolutan;Fologenon;Gesterol;Gesterol 100;Gesterol 50;Gestone;Gestormone;Gestron;Glanducorpin;Gynlutin;Gynoluton; Gynolutone;HSDB 3389;Hormoflaveine;Hormoluton;Lingusorbs;Lipo-Lutin;Lucorteum;Lucorteum Sol;Luteal hormone;Luteinique;Luteocrin normale;Luteodyn;Luteogan;Luteohormone;Luteol;Luteol (VAN);Luteopur;Luteosan;Luteostab;Luteovis;Lutex;Lutidon;Lutin;Lutociclina;Lutocyclin;Lutocyclin M;Lutocylin;Lutoform;Lutogyl;Lutren;Lutromone;Membrettes;Methylpregnone;NSC 64377;NSC 9704;NSC-9704;Nalutron;Percutacrine Luteinique;Piaponon;Pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, 17alpha-hydroxy-6alpha-methyl-;Pregnene-3,20-dione;Pregnenedione;Primolut;Prochieve;Progekan;Progestasert;Progesterol;etc.
Formula: C21 H30 O2. CAS RN:57-83-0
Description:Pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. The principal progestational hormone of the body, secreted by the corpus luteum, adrenal cortex, and placenta. Its chief function is to prepare the uterus for the reception and development of the fertilized ovum. It acts as an antiovulatory agent when administered on days 5-25 of the menstrual cycle.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION, PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
prolate:a general pollen shape descriptor, a radially symmetrical grain in which the polar axis is longer than the equatorial diameter, i.e. the grain is longer than broad, cf. boat-shaped, globose, oblate, spherical.
prolepsis:of the timing of axillary growth, development of an axillary bud only after a period of rest, cf. syllepsis.
proliferation:of an inflorescence which returns to vegetative growth.
proliferation tissue:add definition and links].
proliferous:able to reproduce vegetatively from the shoot system, e.g. by stems rooting at the nodes, by plantlets developing on leaves or fronds or in the inflorescence, etc.
Proline [147-85-3]:Synonyms:2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid; L-(-)-proline; L-Proline; P; Pro; Proline; (S)-proline; (S)-(-)-Proline;
Formula: C5 H9N O2. Molecular Weight:115.1316 CAS RN:147-85-3 Melting Point:228 - 233 ACX Number:X1007061-2.
prominent:more or less raised and standing out from the surrounding surface, i.e. not simply obvious or conspicuous.
Prooxidant:an atom or molecule that promotes oxidation of another atom or molecule by accepting electrons. Examples of prooxidants include free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS).
propagule:any structure with the capacity to give rise to a new plant, e.g. a seed, a spore, or part of the vegetative body capable of independent growth if detached from the parent.
prophyll:the first leaf or two leaves formed along an axillary shoot, often smaller and/or in a distinctively different position from those formed subsequently, often called bracteole(s) when borne on a pedicel, cf. pherophyll.
Propionic acid[79-09-4]:Synonyms: (RS)-2-(4-(3-Chloro-5-trifluoromethyl-2-pyridyloxy)phenoxy)propionic acid;(RS)-2-[4-(3-Chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl-2-pyridyloxy)phenoxy]-;2-(4-((3-Chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl)oxy)phenoxy)propanoic acid;2-(4-([3-Chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy)phenoxy)propanoic acid;69806-34-4;69806-86-6;AIDS-106588;AIDS106588;C04871;HALOXYFOP;Haloxyfop [ANSI:BSI:ISO];Propanoic acid, 2-(4-((3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl)oxy)phenoxy)-;Propanoic acid, 2-(4-((3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl)oxy)phenoxy)- (9CI);propionic acid;4-02-00-00695 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);AI3-04167;Acide propionique [French];BRN 0506071;C3 acid;CCRIS 6096;Carboxyethane;Caswell No. 707;EINECS 201-176-3;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 077702;Ethanecarboxylic acid;Ethylformic acid;FEMA No. 2924;FEMA Number 2924;HSDB 1192;Kyselina propionova [Czech];Luprosil;Metacetonic acid;Methyl acetic acid;Methylacetic acid;Monoprop;Propanoic acid;Propionic acid;Propionic acid (natural);Propionic acid grain preserver;Propionoic acid;Prozoin;Pseudoacetic acid;Sentry grain preserver;Tenox P grain preservative
Chemical Name:Propanoic acid;Propionic acid
Formula:C15H11ClF3NO4 or C3 H6O2 CAS RN:79-09-4 Other RN:784139-72-6 Related RN:557-28-8 (zinc salt) M.W.:361.7 g/mol Melting Point:-2.07E+01 deg C Boiling Point:141.1 deg C Water Solubility:1.00E+06 mg/L at 25 deg C
Propyl Gallate[121-79-9]:Synonyms:n-Propyl gallate;Progallin P;Propyl gallate;Nipagallin P;Nipanox S 1;PG;Progallin P;Propyl 3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoate;Propyl gallate;Tenox PG;NSC2626;3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzene-1-propylcarboxylate;3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzoic acid n-propyl ester;3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzoic acid, propyl ester;AI3-17136;Benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-, propyl ester;CCRIS 541;EINECS 204-498-2;FEMA No. 2947;Gallic acid, propyl ester;HSDB 591;N-Propyl gallate;NCI-C505888;NIPA 49;NSC 2626;Propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate;Propyl gallate;Propylester kyseliny gallove [Czech];Tenox PG;n-Propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate;n-Propyl ester of 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid;n-Propyl gallate
CAS Type 1 Name:n-Propyl ester of 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid Propyl Gallate Chemical Name:Benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-, propyl ester
Formula: C10 H12O5 CAS RN:121-79-9 Molecular Weight:212.2018
Note:Antioxidant for foods, fats, oils, ethers, emulsions, waxes, and transformer oils.
prosenchyma:a variant of parenchyma.
prostrate:a general term, lying flat on the ground, see ascending, decumbent, procumbent, repent.
protandrous:a kind of dichogamy in which the anther sheds pollen before the stigma is receptive, cf. protogynous.
Prostaglandins:cell signaling molecules involved in inflammation. Cyclooxygenases catalyze the formation of prostaglandins from eicosanoids, such as arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).
prothallus:a more or less flattened gametophytic plant body, especially in bryophytes, ferns and related plants.
Protein:a complex organic molecule composed of amino acids in a specific order. The order is determined by the sequence of nucleic acids in a gene coding for the protein. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's cells, tissues, and organs, and each protein has unique functions.
Proteoglycan:a large compound comprised of protein and polysaccharide units known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). GAGs are polymers of sugars and amino sugars, such as glucosamine or galactosamine. Proteoglycans are integral components of structural tissues such as bone and cartilage.Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
protoalkaloid:an alkaloid derived from amino acids, but lacking a heterocyclic ring.
Ephedrine, C10 H15 N O.
Mescaline, C11 H17 N O3.
Protocatechuic acid[99-50-3]:Synonyms:3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid;4,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid;4-10-00-01459 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);4-Carboxy-1,2-dihydroxybenzene;BRN 1448841;Benzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy-;CCRIS 6291;EINECS 202-760-0;NSC 16631;Protocatechuic acid
Chemical Name:3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid;Benzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy- (9CI);Protocatechuic acid
Formula: C7 H6O4 CAS RN:99-50-3 M.W.:154.122 Melting Point:200 - 202
protoderm:primary meristem of stem or root, located at the apex, giving rise to the epidermis, cf. ground meristem, intercalary meristem, primarythickeningmeristem, procambium.
Formula: C57 H82O20 CAS RN:60478-69-5
protogynous:a kind of dichogamy in which the flower sheds pollen after the stigma has ceased to be receptive, cf. protandrous.
Proton:an elementary particle identical to the nucleus of a hydrogen atom, that along with neutrons is a constituent of all other atomic nuclei. A proton carries a positive charge equal and opposite to that of an electron.
protonema:a multicellular, thread-like, branching early stage of the gametophyte of some bryophytes (all mosses, some liverworts), pl. protonemata, cf. thallus.
protoplast:the organised living unit of a single cell, both protoplasmic and non-protoplasmic, but excluding the cell wall.
protostele:a variant of a stele in which the central vascular column is solid, see actinostele, haplostele, plectostele, cf. atactostele, eustele, dictyostele, siphonostele.
protoxylem:first-formed tissue of the primary xylem differentiating from the procambium, the tracheary cells having spiral or annular thickenings, cf. metaxylem.
proximal:near to the point of origin or attachment, cf. distal.
pseudanthium:a compact inflorescence of several to many small flowers which simulates a single flower, used here only when the identity of the individual flowers is more or less lost, cf. euanthium.
pseudo- (prefix):false, apparent, not genuine.
pseudoalkaloids:alkaloids derived from terpenes, sterols, aliphatic acids, nicotinic acid, or purines.
Theobromine, C7 H8 N4 O2.
Caffeine, C8 H10 N4 O2.
pseudobulb:a rounded and thus "bulb-like" swelling of the stem, as in some Orchidaceae, cf. bulb, bulbil, caudex, corm, lignotuber, rhizome, runner, tuber, turion.
pseudocarp:a structure made up of the fruit sensu stricto plus another part of the plant, includes everything from rose hips and strawberries to pineapples, figs, and the dispersal units of a dandelion, hardly a term of much value.
pseudocrassinucellate:= nucellar cap.
Chemical Name :Phenanthro(1,10,9,8-opgra)perylene-7,14-dione, 1,3,4,6,8,13-hexahydroxy-10-(hydroxymethyl)-11-methyl-, stereoisomer
Formula: C30 H16 O9. CAS RN:55954-61-5 M.W.:520.45
Note:Antiviral agents,Enzyme inhibitors
pseudomonomerous:of a syncarpous gynoecium that is made up of two or more carpels, but that appears to be just a single carpel, cf. apocarpous.
Pseudopelletierine[2858-66-4]:Synonyms: 3-Granataninone, 9-methyl-;9-Methyl-3-granatanone;EINECS 209-021-1;Granatan-3-one;Granatonine;NSC 116056;Pseudopelletierin;Pseudopelletierine;Pseudopelletrierin;Pseudopunicine;psi-Pelletierine
CAS RN:552-70-5 CAS Type 1 Name:9-Azabicyclo(3.3.1)nonan-3-one, 9-methyl-;9-Methyl-9-azabicyclo(3.3.1)nonan-3-one
pseudopetiole:often used when describing monocot leaves which appear to have a petiole.
pseudopollen:pollen grain-like structures, either mixed with the pollen or found elsewhere in the flower, derived from labellar haitrs (Orchidaceae), connective tissue (Theaceae), etc.
pseudoverticillate:of leaf arrangement, where spirally-arranged leaves are congested at the end of each innovation and appear to form a whorl, cf. also alternate, bijugate, decussate, distichous, opposite, pilate, spiral, spiromonistichous, tristichous, whorled.
psilate:a term used to describe the pollen surface, lacking sculpturing, cf. baculate, echinate, fossulate, gemmate, foveolate, lophate, reticulate, retipilate, rugulate, scabrate, striate, verrucose.
pterocarpans:isoflavonoids that are derived from isoflavones via oxygenation of the 2'-position, see phaseollin.
Base structure, C15 H12 O2.
Pterospermum:a "type" of tile cell in which the radial files of dead, empty, erect cells in vascular rays are two to several times higher than the procumbent cells of the ray, cf. Durio type.
ptyxis:pattern of folding and rolling of an individual leaf during early development, cf. aestivation, see also vernation.
puberulous:covered with minute, soft, erect hairs, cf. arbuscular, hirsute, hispid, lepidote, pubescent, sericeous, stellate, strigose, tomentose, T-shaped, villous, see also glabrescent and glabrate, which refer to stages in the loss of these hairs
pubescent:covered with minute, soft, erect hairs, cf. arbuscular, hirsute, hispid, lepidote, pubescent, sericeous, stellate, strigose, tomentose, T-shaped, villous, see also glabrescent and glabrate, which refer to stages in the loss of these hairs.Pubescent is not a synonym of indumentum (Rickett 1954a).
Puerarin[3681-99-0]:Synonyms:4-19-00-03200 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);8-beta-D-Glucopyranosyl-7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-;benzopyran-4-one;BRN 0064198;NSC 380711
Formula: C21 H20O9. Molecular Weight:115.1316 CAS RN:3681-99-0 Melting Point:228 - 233 ACX Number:X1007061-2.
pulverulent:appearing as though dusted over with powder.
pulvinus:a more or less abrupt swelling, especially at the apex or base of a petiole or leaf sheath, often glandular and/or being the place where a plant responds to touch, gravity or light, in panicoid grasses a swollen region in the stem above the intercalary meristem - such a definition would also include stems of Chloranthaceae, Acanthaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Amaranthaceae, etc., cf. articulation.
pump presentation:a type of secondary pollen presentation in which the pollen is presented to the pollinator as it is extruded from or pumped out of a tube formed by the anthers by the action of the stigma-style, cf. brush presentation.
punctate:marked with dots; puncticulate, minutely dotted.
pungent:ending in a stiff, sharp point; having an acrid taste or smell.
pustulate:covered with small pustule- or blister-like elevations.
pyranochromones:class of chromones which are isomers of pyranocoumarins (can't find much of substance on this one).
Hamaudol, C15 H16 O5.
pyrene:the 'stone' or 'pit'(endocarp plus seed) of a succulent fruit, see drupe.
pyrenoid:s structure found in the chloroplast of green algae and a few land plants that represents a centre of starch production, traversed by thylakoids.
pyridine:a toxic, colorless, liquid, aromatic hydrocarbon comprising a substituted benzene ring; pyridine alkaloids are true alkaloids with the parent base being pyridine or lysine.
Pyridine, C5 H5 N.
Coniine, C8 H17 N.
Nicotine, C10 H14 N2.
pyriform:a term used for solid shapes, broadest in the upper one third, then somewhat abruptly narrowed towards the base, both apex and base rounded, pear-shaped, cf. ovoid.
Pyrocatechol [120-80-9]:Synonyms:1,2-Benzenediol; 1,2-Dihydroxybenzene; 1,2-DIHYDROXYBENZENE (CATECHOL) 3346 NJRTK NO.; o-Benzenediol; o Dihydroxybenzene; Benzcatechin; Catechol; Catechol-pyrocatechol; Pyrocatechin; Pyrocatechol;
Chemical Name:benzene-1,2-diol Equivalent Terms:1,2-Benzenediol;Catechol;Pyrocatechol;1,2-Dihydroxybenzene;Pyrocatechin Melting Point:105 deg C Boiling Point:245 deg C
Formula: C6 H6O2 CAS RN:120-80-9 Other RN:37349-32-9 16474-89-8 16474-90-1 37349-32-9 Molecular Weight:110.111 g/mol
Pyridoxine[58-56-0]:Synonyms:PyridoxinePN;Aderoxine;Pyridoxin hydrochloride;Vitamin B6;Pyridoxol;Gravidox;10018151;2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4,5-bis(hydroxy-methyl) pyridine;2-Methyl-3-hydroxy-4,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)pyridine;2-Methyl-3-hydroxy-4,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)pyridine hydrochloride;2-Methyl-3-hydroxy-4,5-di(hydroxymethyl)pyridine;2-Methyl-3-hydroxy-4,5-dihydroxymethyl-pyridin;2-Methyl-3-hydroxy-4,5-dihydroxymethyl-pyridin [German], 2-Methyl-4,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)-3-hydroxypyridine;2-Picoline-4,5-dimethanol, 3-hydroxy-;229772;3, 4-Pyridinedimethanol, 5-hydroxy-6-methyl-, hydrochloride;3,4-pyridinedimethanol, 5-hydroxy-6-methyl;3,4-Pyridinedimethanol, 5-hydroxy-6-methyl-;3,4-Pyridinedimethanol, 5-hydroxy-6-methyl-, hydrochloride, 3-Hydroxy-4,5-dimethylol-.alpha.-picoline hydrochloride;3-Hydroxy-4,5-dimethylol-alpha-picoline;3-Hydroxy-4,5-dimethylol-alpha-picoline hydrochloride;4,5-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-2-methyl-3-pyridinol;4,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridin-3-ol;5-Hydroxy-6-methyl-3,4-pyridinedicarbinol hydrochloride;5-Hydroxy-6-methyl-3,4-pyridinedimethanol;5-Hydroxy-6-methyl-3,4-pyridinedimethanol hydrochloride;58-56-0;65-23-6;Adermin;Adermin hydrochloride;Adermine;Adermine hydrochloride;Aderomine hydrochloride;Aderoxine;AIDS-006784;AIDS006784;Alestrol;Becilan;Beesix;Benadon;Bezatin;Bonasanit;C00314;Campoviton 6;CHEMBANK2709;component of Alestrol;component of Bendectin;component of Niadox;component of Spondylonal;EINECS 200-603-0;Gravidox;Hexa-Betalin;Hexabetalin;Hexabion;Hexabione hydrochloride;Hexavibex;Hexermin;Hexermine;Hexobion;Hydoxin;NISTC58560;NISTC65236;NSC36225;P4722;Piridossina [DCIT];Piridoxina [INN-Spanish];Pirivitol;PN;Pridoxine;Pydox;Pyridipca;Pyridox;Pyridoxin;Pyridoxin hydrochloride;PYRIDOXINE;Pyridoxine chloride;Pyridoxine Hydrochloride;Pyridoxine hydrogen chloride;Pyridoxine;hydrochloride;Pyridoxinium chloride;Pyridoxinum hydrochloricum;Pyridoxinum [INN-Latin];Pyridoxol;Pyridoxol hydrochloride;PYRIDOXOL, HYDROCHLORIDE;Pyridoxolum;Tex Six T.R.;Vitamin B;vitamin B6;Vitamin B6 hydrochloride; Vitamin B6-hydrochloride;ZINC00049154
Formula:C8 H11NO3. Melting Point:159-162 deg C. Molecular Weight:169.18 g/mol CAS RN:58-56-0 Related RN:58-56-0 (hydrochloride) Chemical Name:4,5-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-2-methyl-3-pyridinol
Note:Split product of chlorophyll obtained by saponification of pheophytin.The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
pyrrolidine:tetramethylene imine, pyrrolidine alkaloids have a five-membered nitrogen-containing ring.
Pyrrolidine, C4 H9 N.
Ruspolinone, C14 H19 N O3.
pyrrolizidine:a group of alkaloids, based loosely on tropane, via ornithine, containing two fused 5-membered rings with a nitrogen at one of the common positions.
Equivalent Term:Senecio Alkaloids
Description:A group of ALKALOIDS, characterized by a nitrogen-containing necine, occurring mainly in plants of the BORAGINACEAE; COMPOSITAE; and LEGUMINOSAE plant families. They can be activated in the liver by hydrolysis of the ester and desaturation of the necine base to reactive electrophilic pyrrolic CYTOTOXINS.
Pyrrolizidine, C7 H13 N.
Senecionine, C18 H25 N O5.
pyxidium, pyxis:= a fruit with circumscissile dehiscence.
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