Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia Species:identification,traditional use,application research of Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and its useful fraction components.
- Botanical Information of Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza.
- Salvia and the History of Microcirculation Research in China.
- What is Tanshinone IIA? Application and function of Tanshinone IIA.
- Constituents and Phytochemicals of the Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza.
- Sage Family:History,Medicinal Parts,Traditional Uses of Sage Family world wide.
- Administration Guide of Danshen,or Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza.
- Photo Gallery of Salvia miltiorrhiza.
Applications and Properties:
Salvia Miltiorrhiza got good values from traditional applications and modern apply attention,other related salvia species such like S. officinalis, S. leriifolia, S. haematodes, S. triloba and S. divinorum also used.Valueable fractions and components from SM got attentioned.
Cardioprotective and Cardiovascular related disease: Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and its fractions or isolated components may provide benefits for treating disorders of the heart and blood vessels, including chest pain, heart attacks,ischemic stroke, myocarditis and high cholesterol,Myocardial infarction and Acute Myocardial infarction,Coronary heart disease,Congenital heart disease,Ischemic heart disease,Cardiac disease with contractile failure,Atherosclerosis,Arterial Restenosis prevention,Arterial intima prevention,Chronic cor Pulmonale,Ventricular Fibrillation(VF),Peritoneal dialysis,Fat embolism syndrome,Antihypertensive,ACE inhibition and Ischemic Heart Disease prevention,Hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage(HCH) treatment,Portal hypertension effect,Hypolipidemic activity,Blood circulation vitalizing,Blood stasis syndrome treatment,Cerebral infarct treatment,Cardiovascular disorders,Vasorelaxant actions/Vasodilator activity,Insufficient placental blood supply caused diseases prevention,Angiogenesis inhibition,Blood preservation effects,Hyperviscosity syndrome,Hemorrhagic shock,etc.Salvia miltiorrhiza is frequently used for these problems in combination with other herbs.
Liver damage protection and protective hepatocyte:RSM aqueous fraction and its content salvianolic acid A,salvianolic acid B,tanshinones(tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone,Dihydrotanshinone) got attention for their use in liver protection,they works to protect liver via a synthetical mechanism which composed of anti-lipid peroxidation actions,decreased MDA and Hyd contents,inhibiting LPO(lipid peroxidation) and preventing GSH(intracellular glutathione) depletion,inhibitory on liver diacylglycerol acyltransferase,suppression of TNF-alpha release,inhibit the proliferation,activation of HSC,amelioration hepatotoxicity induced by CCl(4),carbon tetrachloride etc.
Liver cirrhosis and liver Fibrosis prevention:RSM show remarkable inhibitory effect on fibrogenesis;significantly reduce hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride,CCl4,HSC-T6 cells with DMN;brings apoptosis in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and inhibited HSC proliferation activated by PDGF-BB,TGF-beta 1;reduce histological grades of fibrosis;
Other protection on liver:RSM and its component also show protect effect Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury and hepatocyte apoptosis,prevent liver cancer,protect hepatocellular mitochondria reperfusion injury,prevent cholestatic liver injury,acute hepatic injury,prevent Chronic hepatitis B,Chronic alcoholic liver injury,protect from Alcohol induced fatty liver,immunological liver injury.
Lung Protection:RSM has been proved show protection on Lung,Pulmonary hypertension,Pulmonary fibrosis,treat Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),treat Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS),
Renal damage and protection:RSM show its renal potection and tanshinones are found show insulin-sensitizing activities,treat type 2 diabetes treat and show PTP1B inhibitory effects,prevent Diabetic nephropathy(DN) and streptozotocin diabetes,Purpuric nephritis.
Central nervous system effect and protection:RSM show Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion and Neuroprotective effects,prevent Neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease,Cerebral thrombosis,Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy,Hypoxia-ischemic brain injury,stimulate Dopaminergic neurotransmission and Dopamine release,Promoting cognitive function.
Osteoblasts effects and Bone fracture healing:RSM proved osteoblasts effect,Antiosteoporotic function,protect Bone Loss and Tibial fracture.
Antioxidant Effects:RSM and its fraction components show strong antioxidative ability,antilipoperoxidant activity,inhibit lipid peroxidation and against peroxidative damage,scavenge superoxide anion free radicals or lipid free radicals,decrease LPO(serum lipid peroxide) level,inhibit DPPH radicals;againstONOO(-)-involved diseases,scavenging superoxide radicals and inhibit xanthine oxidase,anti-lipid-peroxidation and prevent Atherosclerotic disease.
Fibroblast proliferation inhibition/antifibrotic effect:Mechanism study about the antifibrotic effect of RSM identified and focused on its component Tanshinone IIA,RSM Methanol fraction and Salvianolic Acid B.
Gastric mucosa protection/Stomach Protection:Salvia miltiorrhiza are found effective in promoting ulcer healing and preventing recurrence,its mechanism rely on strengthen the gastric mucosal barrier and promote the gastric mucosal cell proliferation along the edge of the ulcer, abate the injury factors.It can be combined with CI(cimetidine) for better result on treatment of gastric mucosal injury.
Immune System:RSM got find significance in improving the defense function of peritoneal macrophages,treatment of immunological diseases,protection on cancer,prevent breast cancer,show inhibitory activity against tumor cells from a synthetic compositive mechanism,anti-human colon cancer,Anti-human non-small cell lung cancer,treat Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and aneurysm,inhibit Platelet,treat Acute promyelocytic leukemia(APL),act as Mutagenic modulators and Antimitotic activity.
Anti-allergic activity:anti-allergic activity of RSM and its fractions got focused on ethanolic fraction and component such like 15,16-dihydrotanshinone-I and cryptotanshinone.
Antibacterial activities:scientific findings concluded RSM fraction and its conponents(Cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone I) show antibacterial activity against broad range of bacteria,including broad range of Gram positive bacteria,and Gram-negative bacteria.Show Antimicrobial activity on oral pathogenic microbes,inhibit Chlamydia trachomatis salpingitis(CTS),proved Antivirus activity on Enterovirus 71,Anti-HIV-1 and Anti-AIDS.
Antiinflammatory activity:exerts anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition iNOS gene expression and NO production,inhibition of inflammatory cytokine,prevent intestinal inflammation, Anti-nitration effect and ONOO- scavenging activity.
AChE inhibitors and Anti-aging:AChE inhibitors got identified from RSM acetone fraction derived deterpenoid,indicated their value for treatment of AD.
Alcoholics inhibition and Anti-relapse properties:mechanism studies seemingly concluded RSM show its Anti-relapse effect and inhibit alcoholics via altering ethanol absorption from the gastrointestinal tract system; reduction in alcohol intake was compensated by an increase in water intake;anti-relapse properties and alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) prevention got identified from a RSM extract named IDN5082;miltirone got considered to be responsible constituent for excessive alcohol consumption inhibition and ADE prevention.And proved Anti-apoptosis effects on ethanol-induced toxicity.
Other applications:RSM and its fraction or components are found have many other useful applications,such like treat Pancreatitis and Acute Pancreatitis(AP),Radiation injury protection/Anti-Radiaction,chlea protection,Neutrophil-endothelial adhesion inhibition,Adhesive intestinal obstruction,Chronic Asthmatic Bronchitis treatment,Wound healing Promoting,Nitric oxide (NO) activation,Phytoestrogenic effects/Endocrine function,Oligohydramnios treatment,Crush syndrome of extremities.
Acne:Intrauterine growth retardation;Anoxic brain injury:Liver cancer;Anxiety:Lung fibrosis.
Blood clotting disorders:Menstrual problems;Bruising:Preeclampsia.
Safety and Toxicity:
Acute Toxicity:LD50 (mice/intraperitoneal injection):32.9g/kg~40.5g/kg.
- 1.Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia Species:identification,traditional use,application research of Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and its useful fraction components.
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