Hawthorn: favorite berry of the Crataegus genus, introductions of its species, traditional uses, and modern findings.
- Basic Botanical Information of Hawthorn.
- Hawthorn:Brief Introduction of its Uses.
- Hawthorn and Chronic Heart Conditions.
- Phytochemicals and Constituents of Hawthorn.
- Brief Physiological Functions of Hawthorn.
- Common Effects Findings and Properties of Hawthorn.
- Hawthorn:Witches' Ointments.
- Photo Gallery of Hawthorn,Crataegus monogyna.
Applications and Properties:
Early stages of heart disease.
Congestive heart failure.
CNS Actions(central nervous system).
High blood pressure.
The herb Hawthorn is used to promote the health of the circulatory system, treat angina, high blood pressure, congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia and has been found to strengthen the heart. Hawthorn is widely regarded in Europe as a safe and effective treatment for the early stages of heart disease and has been used for a number of ailments including angina, myocarditis, arteriosclerosis, nervous conditions like insomnia, and diarrhea. It has also been indicated for strengthening blood vessels, vascular insufficiency, and blood clots, restoring the heart muscle wall, lowering cholesterol and to aid digestion.
Modern scientists and herbalists found various useful properties and applications of the herb Hawthorn, some of them are known as:for cardiovascular, dilate blood vessels, improve blood circulation, stabilize blood pressure, strengthen the heart muscle, normalize heart-rhythm disturbances, lower cholesterol,triglyceride, and blood sugar levels, depress or slow down the central nervous system and aid sleeplessness, antioxidant effects due to its phenolic groups and dimeric proanthocyanidins, antiviral effects from procyanidins A2,B2, cardiovascular effects, antihyperlipidemic effects, effects on hypertension, effects on orthostatic hypotension, etc.
Safety and Toxicity:
Safety: No toxicity has been directly related to Crataegus preparations. "Will It Harm You? What the Studies Say: Most people tolerate hawthorn well and toxic reactions are uncommon, usually developing only when more than the recommended amount is taken. This was the finding of an investigator who did an extensive review of the literature on hawthorn in the late 1980s. After a rigorous review, German health authorities could likewise identify no side effects or situations in which hawthorn should not be taken. By the same token, hawthorn is a potent herb that must be used with knowledge and care. It affects such crucial systems as the heart and circulation and is prescribed to treat serious, potentially life-threatening heart conditions. Self-diagnosis and self-treatment of such conditions qualify as unwise at best. For these reasons, most herbalists strongly urge that hawthorn be taken only under the guidance of a doctor. Not surprisingly, this 'mild' heart tonic can cause not so-mild complications if taken in doses substantially higher than recommended. Sedation and dangerously low blood pressure can develop. The FDA placed hawthorn on its formerly list of 'Herbs of Undefined Safety'.Do not take hawthorn with other heart medications such as digitalis unless a doctor recommends it. Children and pregnant or nursing women should probably avoid it as well. German health authorities recommend that people not take the herb for more than six weeks at a time. Remember, hawthorn will not stop an angina attack."
Toxicity: Acute toxicity (LD50): The acute parenteral toxicity (LD50), tested in different animals, was found in a range of 18+-4 mL/kg, with that of individual constituents ranging from 50-2,600 mg/kg. The acute oral toxicity was reported to be in a range of 18.5+-3.8 mL/kg and 6 g/kg, respectively. In humans, therapeutic doses of Hawthorn did not have adverse effects. However, drug interactions are likely with other cardiovascular agents, generating unwanted synergetic effects. Hawthorn can potentiate cardiac glycoside action of digitalis (or other related drugs, such as digitoxin, digoxin, or gitalin). Patients who take these drugs should consult with a medical professional before taking hawthorn.
- Hawthorn: favorite berry of the Crataegus genus, introductions of its species, traditional uses, and modern findings.
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