Research Update of Mango and Mango Leaf Extract.Mangiferin Mango Leaves Extract related.
Research Update of Mango and Mango Leaf Extract.Mangiferin Mango Leaves Extract related.:
Determination of mangiferin in qingqiliangying injection by reversed-phase HPLC.:
A reversed-phase HPLC method has been established for the determination of mangiferin in Qingqiliangying Injection. The mangiferin was separated on a Nova-pak C18 column (150 mm x 3.9 mm) and detected at 258 nm, using methanol-tetrahydrofuran-0.85% H3PO4 aqueous solution (500:80:15) as the mobile phase. The average recovery of mangiferin was 100.9%. The method is simple, rapid, and well reproducible, and thus very reliable for the quality control of Qingqiliangying Injection.
Chemical constituents in the leaves of Mangifera persiciformis C.Y. Wu et Y.L. Ming.:
Eleven crystalline constituents have been isolated from the leaves of Mangifera persiciformis, of which five were identified as taraxerol, friedelin, beta-sitosterol, mangiferin and quercetin by comparing their physicochemical and spectroscopic data. They were isolated from this plant for the first time.
High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of mangiferin, likviritin and dihydroquercetin in rat plasma and urine.:
The use of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of the biologically active plant phenolic compounds mangiferin, likviritin and dihydroquercetin is described. Perchloric acid (35%) was used for deproteinization in the case of mangiferin and likviritin, and acidified methanol for dihydroquercetin. Detection was performed at 254, 275 and 290 nm for mangiferin, likviritin and dihydroquercetin in plasma, and 365, 312 and 290 nm in urine, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.2 micrograms/ml for plasma and 0.5 micrograms/ml for urine.
Effects of Enzyme and Morphological Change of Mangiferin on Exp erimental Liver Damage in Rats.:Key words:Mangiferin,GLUtamate oxaloacetate transm inase (GOT),GLUtamate pyruvate transminase (GPT),Hepatoprotective effect
The mangiferin was investigated on the hepatoprotective effects in three kinds o f models of experimentally-induced liver injuries in rats. The models were induc ed by acetaminophen, carbon tetrachloride, and D-GalN. The results showed that m angiferin caused significant reduction of the elevated enzyme levels of serum gl utamate oxaloacetate transminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transminase in model rats, and alleviated the pathological damages in livers of the model rats. These findings are suggestive of the potent hepatoprotective effects of mangiferin.
Fe(III) improves antioxidant and cytoprotecting activities of mangiferin.:
Iron-induced oxidative stress has been implicated in several pathological processes. In the present work we provide evidence for the formation of a mangiferin:Fe(III) complex (2:1), shown by means of either iron-induced changes in the UV/visible spectrum of mangiferin or by reduction of the anodic current peak in the voltammogram of that compound; we demonstrate, in addition, that the ferric complex is more effective than mangiferin itself in scavenging superoxide radicals generated by pyrogallol autoxidation, as well as in protecting hepatocytes from reactive oxygen species mediated hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Moreover, we found that the mangiferin:Fe(III) complex reacts more readily with horseradish peroxidase/H(2)O(2) than does mangiferin by itself. We postulate that mangiferin could afford protection against iron/reactive oxygen species-mediated pathological processes by means of both iron chelating and iron-stimulated superoxide radical scavenging activity.
Effects of a natural extract from Mangifera indica L, and its active compound, mangiferin, on energy state and lipid peroxidation of red blood cells.:
Following oxidative stress, modifications of several biologically important macromolecules have been demonstrated. In this study we investigated the effect of a natural extract from Mangifera indica L (Vimang), its main ingredient mangiferin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on energy metabolism, energy state and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in a red blood cell system. Analysis of MDA, high energy phosphates and ascorbate was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Under the experimental conditions, concentrations of MDA and ATP catabolites were affected in a dose-dependent way by H(2)O(2). Incubation with Vimang (0.1, 1, 10, 50 and 100 mug/mL), mangiferin (1, 10, 100 mug/mL) and EGCG (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 muM) significantly enhances erythrocyte resistance to H(2)O(2)-induced reactive oxygen species production. In particular, we demonstrate the protective activity of these compounds on ATP, GTP and total nucleotides (NT) depletion after H(2)O(2)-induced damage and a reduction of NAD and ADP, which both increase because of the energy consumption following H(2)O(2) addition. Energy charge potential, decreased in H(2)O(2)-treated erythrocytes, was also restored in a dose-dependent way by these substances. Their protective effects might be related to the strong free radical scavenging ability described for polyphenols.
Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang), a new natural product with antioxidant activity.:
Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) consists of a defined mixture of components (polyphenols, terpenoids, steroids, fatty acids and microelements). It contains a variety of polyphenols, phenolic esters, flavan-3-ols and a xanthone (mangiferin), as main component. This extract has antioxidant action, antitumor and immunemodulatory effects proved in experimental models in both in vitro and in vivo assays. The present study was performed to investigate the genotoxicity potential activity of Vimang assessed through different tests: Ames, Comet and micronucleus assays. Positive and negative controls were included in each experimental series. Histidine requiring mutants of Salmonella typhimurium TA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains for point-mutation tests and in vitro micronucleus assay in primary human lymphocytes with and without metabolic activation were performed. In addition, genotoxic effects were evaluated on blood peripheral lymphocytes of NMRI mice of both sexes, which were treated during 2 days with intraperitoneal doses of M. indica L. extract (50-150mg/kg). The observed results permitted to affirm that Vimang (200-5000mug/plate) did not increase the frequency of reverse mutations in the Ames test in presence or not of metabolic activation. Results of Comet assay showed that the extract did not induce single strand breaks or alkali-labile sites on blood peripheral lymphocytes of treated animals compared with controls. On the other hand, the results of the micronucleus studies (in vitro and in vivo) showed Vimang induces cytotoxic activity, determined as cell viability or PCE/NCE ratio, but neither increased the frequency of micronucleated binucleate cells in culture of human lymphocytes nor in mice bone marrow cells under our experimental conditions. The positive control chemicals included in each experiment induced the expected changes. The present results indicate that M. indica L. extract showed evidences of light cytotoxic activity but did not induce a mutagenic or genotoxic effects in the battery of assays used.
Effect of mangiferin on mitochondrial energy production in experimentally induced myocardial infarcted rats.:
Mangiferin, from the leaves of Mangifera indica Linn., has been suggested as useful in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. In the present study this drug was examined on the alteration of cardiac energy metabolism in isoproterenol (ISPH) administered myocardial infarcted rats. ISPH (20 mg/kg b.w.), which was administered s.c. twice at an interval of 24 h, caused a significant decrease in the activities of TCA cycle enzymes and antioxidant defense enzymes with a concomitant increase in the lipid peroxidation of heart mitochondria in rat model. The ATP production and the oxidation of succinate in State 3 and 4 decreased significantly in the cardiac mitochondria of ISPH administered rats. These functional alterations were supported by severe modifications in mitochondrial ultrastructure. Pretreatment with mangiferin (100 mg/kg b.w. i.p.) for 28 days prevented these mitochondrial alterations, oxidation with energy metabolism and restored the TCA cycle enzyme activities to near normal values following ISPH administration. The structural integrity of the heart was protected by mangiferin in ISPH administered rats when compared to the untreated controls. The present findings suggest that the protective effect of mangiferin can be attributed to its reducing effect on oxidative damage and activation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. These results could be useful to study and understand the cellular events involved in this cardioprotective mechanism of mangiferin. Our studies of mangiferin on heart failure may have important implication for future therapeutic approaches involving in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
Role of mangiferin on biochemical alterations and antioxidant status in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.:
The current study dealt with the protective role of mangiferin, a polyphenol from Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae), on isoproterenol (ISPH)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats through its antioxidative mechanism. Subcutaneous injection of ISPH (200 mg/kg body weight in 1 ml saline) to rats for 2 consecutive days caused myocardial damage in rat heart, which was determined by the increased activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase isoenzymes (CK-MB), increased uric acid level and reduced plasma iron binding capacity. The protective role of mangiferin was analyzed by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) test used for macroscopic enzyme mapping assay of the ischemic myocardium. The heart tissue antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferase and glutathione reductase activities, non-enzymic antioxidants such as cerruloplasmin, Vitamin C, Vitamin E and glutathione levels were altered in MI rats. Upon pretreatment with mangiferin (100 mg/kg body weight suspended in 2 ml of dimethyl sulphoxide) given intraperitoneally for 28 days to MI rats protected the above-mentioned parameters to fall from the normal levels. Activities of heart tissue enzymic antioxidants and serum non-enzymic antioxidants levels rose significantly upon mangiferin administration as compared to ISPH-induced MI rats. From the present study it is concluded that mangiferin exerts a beneficial effect against ISPH-induced MI due to its antioxidant potential, which regulated the tissues defense system against cardiac damage.
Cardioprotective effect of mangiferin on isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats.:
Isoproterenol (ISPH) induced myocardial infarction was confirmed by disturbances in serum and heart tissue marker enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phospho kinase (CPK), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), increased level of lipid peroxidation and histopathological changes in the heart of ISPH administered rats. Pretreatment with mangiferin (10 mg/100 g body weight) for 28 days was found to ameliorate the effect of ISPH-induced pathological changes, reduced the lipid peroxide formation and retained the myocardial marker enzyme activities at near normal level. The above results indicate the cardioprotective effect of mangiferin against ISPH-induced myocardial infarction in rats.
Anti-allergic properties of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) and contribution of its glucosylxanthone mangiferin.:
Vimang is the brand name of formulations containing an extract of Mangifera indica L., ethnopharmacologically used in Cuba for the treatment of some immunopathological disorders, including bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and other allergic diseases. However, the effects of Vimang on allergic response have not been reported until now. In this study, the effects of Vimang and mangiferin, a C-glucosylxanthone isolated from the extract, on different parameters of allergic response are reported. Vimang and mangiferin showed a significant dose-dependent inhibition of IgE production in mice and anaphylaxis reaction in rats, histamine-induced vascular permeability and the histamine release induced by compound 48/80 from rat mast cells, and of lymphocyte proliferative response as evidence of the reduction of the amount of B and T lymphocytes able to contribute to allergic response. In these experiments, ketotifen, promethazine and disodium cromoglicate were used as reference drugs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Vimang had an effect on an in-vivo model of inflammatory allergy mediated by mast cells. These results constitute the first report of the anti-allergic properties of Vimang on allergic models, as well as suggesting that this natural extract could be successfully used in the treatment of allergic disorders. Mangiferin, the major compound of Vimang, contributes to the anti-allergic effects of the extract.
UV/vis, 1H, and 13C NMR spectroscopic studies to determine mangiferin pKa values.:
The acid constants of mangiferin (a natural xanthonoid) in aqueous solution were determined through an UV/vis spectroscopic study employing the SQUAD program as a computational tool. A NMR study complements the pK(a) values assignment and evidences a H-bridge presence on 1-C. The chemical model used was consistent with the experimental data obtained. The pK(a) values determined with this procedure were as follows: H(4)(MGF)=H(3)(MGF)(-)+H(+), pKa1 (6-H)=6.52+/-0.06; H(3)(MGF)(-)=H(2)(MGF)(2-)+H(+), pKa2 (3-H)=7.97+/-0.06; H(2)(MGF)(2-)=H(MGF)(3-)+H(+), pKa3 (7-H)=9.44+/-0.04; H(MGF)(3-)=(MGF)(4-)+H(+), pKa4 (1-H)=12.10+/-0.01; where it has been considered mangiferin C(19)H(18)O(11) as H(4)(MGF). Mangiferin UV/vis spectral behavior, stability study in aqueous solution as well as NMR spectroscopy studies: one-dimensional (1)H,(13)C, 2D correlated (1)H/(13)C performed by (g)-HSQC and (g)-HMBC methods; are also presented. pK(a) values determination of H(4)(MGF) in aqueous solution is a necessary contribution to subsequent pharmacokinetic study, and a step towards the understanding of its biological effects.
Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) inhibits 2-deoxyribose damage induced by Fe (III) plus ascorbate.:
Vimang is an aqueous extract of selected species of Mangifera indica L, used in Cuba as a nutritional antioxidant supplement. Many in vitro and in vivo models of oxidative stress have been used to elucidate the antioxidant mechanisms of this extract. To further characterize the mechanism of Vimang action, its effect on the degradation of 2-deoxyribose induced by Fe (III)-EDTA plus ascorbate or plus hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase was studied. Vimang was shown to be a potent inhibitor of 2-deoxyribose degradation mediated by Fe (III)-EDTA plus ascorbate or superoxide (O2-). The results revealed that Vimang, at concentrations higher than 50 microM mangiferin equivalent, was equally effective in preventing degradation of both 15 mM and 1.5 mM 2-deoxyribose. At a fixed Fe (III) concentration, increasing the concentration of ligands (either EDTA or citrate) caused a significant reduction in the protective effects of Vimang. When ascorbate was replaced by O2- (formed by hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase) the protective efficiency of Vimang was also inversely related to EDTA concentration. The results strongly indicate that Vimang does not block 2-deoxyribose degradation by simply trapping *OH radicals. Rather, Vimang seems to act as an antioxidant by complexing iron ions, rendering them inactive or poorly active in the Fenton reaction.
Dual mechanism of mangiferin protection against iron-induced damage to 2-deoxyribose and ascorbate oxidation.:
We studied mangiferin effects on the degradation of 2-deoxyribose induced by Fe(III)-EDTA/citrate plus ascorbate, in relation to ascorbate oxidation (measured at 265 nm). Results revealed that mangiferin was equally effective in preventing degradation of both 15 and 1.5 mM 2-deoxyribose. At a fixed Fe(III) concentration, increasing the concentration of ligands (either EDTA or citrate) caused a significant reduction in the protective effects of mangiferin. Interestingly, mangiferin strongly stimulated Fe(III)-EDTA ascorbate oxidation, but inhibited it when citrate was used as iron co-chelator. Mangiferin stimulated O2 consumption due to Fe(II) (formed by Fe(III) ascorbate reduction) autoxidation when the metal ligand was EDTA, but inhibited it when citrate was used. These results suggest that mangiferin removes iron from citrate, but not from EDTA, forming an iron-mangiferin complex that cannot induce ascorbate oxidation effectively, thus inhibiting iron-mediated oxyradical formation. Taken together, these results indicate that mangiferin works mainly by a mechanism different from the classical hydroxyl radical scavengers, keeping iron in its ferric form, by complexing Fe(III), or stimulating Fe(II) autoxidation.
Vimang (Mangifera indica L. extract) induces permeability transition in isolated mitochondria, closely reproducing the effect of mangiferin, Vimang's main component.:
Mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is a Ca(2+)-dependent, cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive, non-selective inner membrane permeabilization process. It is often associated with apoptotic cell death, and is induced by a wide range of agents or conditions, usually involving reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we demonstrated that Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang), in the presence of 20 microM Ca(2+), induces MPT in isolated rat liver mitochondria, assessed as CsA-sensitive mitochondrial swelling, closely reproducing the same effect of mangiferin, the main component of the extract, as well as MPT-linked processes like oxidation of membrane protein thiols, mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation and Ca(2+) release from organelles. The flavonoid catechin, the second main component of Vimang, also induces MPT, although to a lesser extent; the minor, but still representative Vimang extract components, gallic and benzoic acids, show respectively, low and high MPT inducing abilities. Nevertheless, following exposure to H(2)O(2)/horseradish peroxidase, the visible spectra of these compounds does not present the same changes previously reported for mangiferin. It is concluded that Vimang-induced MPT closely reproduces mangiferin effects, and proposed that this xanthone is the main agent responsible for the extract's MPT inducing ability, by the action on mitochondrial membrane protein thiols of products arising as a consequence of the mangiferin's antioxidant activity. While this effect would oppose the beneficial effect of Vimang's antioxidant activity, it could nevertheless benefit cells exposed to over-production of ROS as occurring in cancer cells, in which triggering of MPT-mediated apoptosis may represent an important defense mechanism to their host.
Antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract.:
Previous studies in our laboratories and elsewhere have shown that some members of Anacardiaceae family possess antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects in man and mammalian experimental animals. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory, analgesic and antidiabetic properties of the stem-bark aqueous extract of Mangifera indica Linn., M. indica a member of the Anacardiaceae family, in rats and mice. The stem-bark powder of M. indica was Soxhlet extracted with distilled water and used. The analgesic effect of the plant's extract was evaluated by the hot-plate and acetic acid test models of pain in mice, while the antiinflammatory and antidiabetic effects of the stem-bark extract were investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus, respectively. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg i.p.), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg i.p.), and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) were used respectively as reference analgesic, antiinflammatory, and hypoglycemic agents for comparison. M. indica stem-bark aqueous extract (MIE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice. MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) also significantly (p<0.05-0.001) inhibited fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and caused significant (p<0.05-0.001) hypoglycemic effects in rats. It is suggested that the analgesic effects of MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) may be peripherally and centrally mediated. The different chemical constituents of the plant, especially the polyphenolics, flavonoids, triterpenoids, mangiferin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant may be involved in the observed antiinflammatory, analgesic, and hypoglycemic effects of the plant's extract. However, the results of this experimental animal study lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric uses of the plant in the management and control of painful, arthritic and other inflammatory conditions, as well as in the management of adult-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus in some rural African communities.
Preventing hepatocyte oxidative stress cytotoxicity with Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).:
Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica used in Cuba to improve the quality of life in patients suffering from inflammatory diseases. In the present study we evaluated the effects of Vimang at preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation in intact isolated rat hepatocytes. Vimang at 20, 50 and 100 microg/ml inhibited hepatocyte ROS formation induced by glucose-glucose oxidase. Hepatocyte cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation induced by cumene hydroperoxide was also inhibited by Vimang in a dose and time dependent manner at the same concentration. Vimang also inhibited superoxide radical formation by xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine. The superoxide radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of the Vimang extract was likely related to its gallates, catechins and mangiferin content. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cytoprotective antioxidant effects of Vimang in cellular oxidative stress models.
Mangiferin, a natural occurring glucosyl xanthone, increases susceptibility of rat liver mitochondria to calcium-induced permeability transition.:
Mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is a Ca(2+)-dependent, cyclosporine A-sensitive, non-selective inner membrane permeabilization induced by a wide range of agents or conditions, which has often been associated with necrotic or apoptotic cell death. When mitochondria isolated from livers of rats treated with the natural occurring glucosyl xanthone mangiferin (40 mg/kg body weight) were exposed in vitro to Ca(2+), they underwent CsA, NEM, and ADP-sensitive high amplitude swelling and associated membrane potential dissipation, release of pre-accumulated Ca(2+), oxidation of thiol groups, and depletion of GSH, without changes in the NAD(P)H redox state. The same treatment reduced the phosphorylation rate of mitochondria and the resting respiration by around 4 and 11%, respectively, as well as generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by organelle. The in vitro exposure of untreated mitochondria to mangiferin plus Ca(2+) also resulted in oxidation of thiol groups, in the same way that the compound inhibited the Ca(2+)-induced peroxidation of mitochondrial membrane lipids. The spectrum of mangiferin during its oxidation by the H(2)O(2)/HRP system showed a characteristic absorption peak at 380 nm, which decreased immediately after reaction was started; two isosbestic points at around 336 and 412 nm, with a blue shift in the position of the maxima absorption of mangiferin were observed, suggesting their conversion into one oxidation product. Glutathione abolished this decrease of absorbance, suggesting that the oxidation product of mangiferin forms adducts with GSH. We propose that Ca(2+) increases levels of mitochondria-generated ROS, which reacts with mangiferin producing quinoid derivatives, which in turn react with the most accessible mitochondrial thiol groups, thus triggering MPT. It seems probable that the free radical scavenging activity of mangiferin shifts its anti-oxidant protection to the thiol arylation. An interesting proposition is that accumulation of mangiferin quinoid products would take place in cells exposed to an overproduction of ROS, such as cancer cells, where the occurrence of MPT-mediated apoptosis may be a cellular defence mechanism against excessive ROS formation.
Analgesic and antioxidant activity of mangiferin and its derivatives: the structure activity relationship.:
Mangiferin, 2-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-9H-xanthen-9-one, obtained directly from methanolic extracts of Bombax ceiba leaves in substantial amounts demonstrated strong antioxidant activity (EC(50) 5.8+/-0.96 mug/ml or 13.74 muM) using DPPH assay comparable to rutin, commonly used as antioxidant for medical purposes. The acetyl and cinnamoyl derivatives were found to be less active than mangiferin whereas, methyl and 3,6,7-trimethylether tetraacetate derivatives were inactive implying that for antioxidant activity, free hydroxyl groups and catechol moiety are essential. Moreover, mangiferin showed hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury further supporting the free radical scavenging property in the in vivo system. Additionally, plant extracts and mangiferin failed to exhibit acute anti-inflammatory activity whereas, it displayed significant analgesic effect in acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests in mice. Using naloxone, it was revealed that plant extracts induced analgesia was independent of opioid receptor, whereas, mangiferin demonstrated significant interaction with it at peripheral site with a slight contribution at the neuronal level.
Effect of mangiferin on radiation-induced micronucleus formation in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes.:
Irradiation causes a variety of lesions in important biomolecules of the cell through generation of free radicals leading to genomic instability. DNA strand breaks, acentric fragments, or defective kinetochores are manifested as micronuclei after the first cell division. Chemicals that can trap free radicals may reduce the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation. Mangiferin (MGN), a glucosylxanthone derived from Mangifera indica (mango), was investigated for its ability to reduce the frequency of radiation-induced micronucleated binucleate cells (MNBNCs) in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs). HPBL cultures were pretreated with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 microg/ml of MGN for 30 min before exposure to 3 Gy of (60)Co gamma-radiation. The maximum decline in radiation-induced micronuclei was observed at a concentration of 50 microg/ml MGN; thereafter, a nonsignificant elevation in MNBNC frequency was observed at 100 microg/ml MGN. Since the lowest MNBNC frequency was observed for 50 microg/ml MGN, dose-response studies were undertaken using this concentration. Irradiation of HPBLs with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 Gy of gamma-radiation caused a dose-dependent elevation in the MNBNC frequency, while treatment of HPBLs with 50 microg/ml MGN 30 min before radiation resulted in significant declines in these frequencies. MGN alone did not alter the proliferation index. Irradiation caused a dose-dependent decline in the proliferation index, while treatment of HPBLs with 50 micro/ml MGN significantly elevated the proliferation index in irradiated cells. MGN treatment reduced hydrogen peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation in HPBLs in a concentration-dependent fashion. In cell-free studies, MGN inhibited the induction of (.)OH (hydroxyl), O(2) (.-) (superoxide), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), and ABTS(.+) (2,2-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radicals in a dose-dependent manner. The results of this study indicate that MGN possesses radioprotective properties by suppressing the effects of free radicals.
Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) inhibits Fe2+-citrate-induced lipoperoxidation in isolated rat liver mitochondria.:
The extract of Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) is able to prevent iron mediated mitochondrial damage by means of oxidation of reduced transition metals required for the production of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and direct free radical scavenging activity. In this study we report for the first time the iron-complexing ability of Vimang as a primary mechanism for protection of rat liver mitochondria against Fe2+ -citrate-induced lipoperoxidation. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antimycin A-insensitive oxygen consumption were used as quantitative measures of lipoperoxidation. Vimang at 10 microM mangiferin concentration equivalent induced near-full protection against 50 microM Fe2+ -citrate-induced mitochondrial swelling and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi). The IC50 value for Vimang protection against Fe2+ -citrate-induced mitochondrial TBARS formation (7.89+/-1.19 microM) was around 10 times lower than that for tert-butylhydroperoxide mitochondrial induction of TBARS formation. The extract also inhibited the iron citrate induction of mitochondrial antimycin A-insensitive oxygen consumption, stimulated oxygen consumption due to Fe2+ autoxidation and prevented Fe3+ ascorbate reduction. The extracted polyphenolic compound, mainly mangiferin, could form a complex with Fe2+, accelerating Fe2+ oxidation and the formation of more stable Fe3+ -polyphenol complexes, unable to participate in Fenton-type reactions and lipoperoxidation propagation phase. The strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with an apparent IC50 of 2.45+/-0.08 microM suggests that besides its iron-complexing capacity, Vimang could also protect mitochondria from Fe2+ -citrate lipoperoxidation through direct free radical scavenging ability, mainly lipoperoxyl and alcoxyl radicals, acting as both a chain-breaking and iron-complexing antioxidant. These results are of pharmacological relevance since Vimang could be a potential candidate for antioxidant therapy in diseases related to abnormal intracellular iron distribution or iron overload.
Effect of mangiferin on hyperglycemia and atherogenicity in streptozotocin diabetic rats.:
In the present study, the effect of mangiferin (a xanthone glucoside, isolated from the leaves of Mangifera indica) on the atherogenic potential of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetes was investigated. In addition, the effect of mangiferin on oral glucose tolerance in glucose-loaded normal rats was also determined. The chronic intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of mangiferin (10 and 20 mg/kg) once daily (o.d.) for 28 days exhibited antidiabetic activity by significantly lowering fasting plasma glucose level at different time intervals in STZ-diabetic rats. Further, mangiferin (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) showed significant antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic activities as evidenced by significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels coupled together with elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level and diminution of atherogenic index in diabetic rats. In addition, the chronic administration of mangiferin (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) for 14 days significantly as well as markedly improved oral glucose tolerance in glucose-loaded normal rats suggesting its potent antihyperglycemic activity. The accumulating evidences suggest that both pancreatic and extrapancreatic mechanisms might be involved in its antidiabetic or antihyperglycemic action. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that mangiferin possesses significant antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic properties thus suggesting its beneficial effect in the treatment of diabetes mellitus associated with hyperlipidemia and related cardiovascular complications.
Vascular effects of the Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).:
The effects of the Mangiferia indica L. (Vimang) extract, and mangiferin (a C-glucosylxanthone of Vimang) on the inducible isoforms of cyclooxygenase (cyclooxygenase-2) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and on vasoconstrictor responses were investigated in vascular smooth muscle cells and mesenteric resistance arteries, respectively, from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Vimang (0.5-0.1 mg/ml) and mangiferin (0.025 mg/ml) inhibited the interleukin-1beta (1 ng/ml)-induced iNOS expression more in SHR than in WKY, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression more in WKY than in SHR. Vimang (0.25-1 mg/ml) reduced noradrenaline (0.1-30 microM)- and U46619 (1 nM-30 microM)- but not KCl (15-70 mM)-induced contractions. Mangiferin (0.05 mg/ml) did not affect noradrenaline-induced contraction. In conclusion, the antiinflammatory action of Vimang would be related with the inhibition of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 expression, but not with its effect on vasoconstrictor responses. Alterations in the regulation of both enzymes in hypertension would explain the differences observed in the Vimang effect.
In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Mangifera indica L. extract (VIMANG).:
A standard aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L., used in Cuba as an antioxidant under the brand name of VIMANG, was tested in vivo for its anti-inflammatory activity using commonly accepted assays. M. indica extract, administered topically (0.5-2 mg per ear), reduced ear edema induced by arachidonic acid (AA) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, ED50 = 1.1 mg per ear) in mice. In the PMA model, M. indica extract also reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. This extract p.o. administered also inhibited tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) serum levels in both models of inflammation (AA, ED50 = 106.1 mg kg(-1) and PMA, ED50 = 58.2 mg kg(-1)). In vitro studies were performed using the macrophage cell line RAW264.7 stimulated with pro-inflammatory stimuli (LPS-IFNgamma or the calcium ionophore A23187) to determine PGE2 or LTB4 release, respectively. The extract inhibited the induction of PGE2 with IC50 = 64.1 microg ml(-1) and LTB4 IC50 = 22.9 microg ml(-1). M. indica extract also inhibited human synovial secretory phospholipase (PL)A2 with IC 50 = 0.7 microg ml(-1). These results represent an important contribution to the elucidation of the mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects reported by the standard M. indica extract VIMANG.
Determination of mangiferin, jateorrhizine, palmatine, berberine, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde in the traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Zi-Shen pill by high-performance liquid chromatography.:
High-performance liquid chromatography is employed to determine the contents of six marker components such as mangiferin, jateorrhizine, palmatine, berberine, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde in the traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Zi-Shen pill. The separation is performed on a C(18) column by stepwise gradient elution with water (0.2%, v/v, triethylamine adjusted to pH 4 with phosphoric acid)-methanol-acetonitrile (0.01 min, 98:0:2; 20 min, 80:5:15; 30 min, 65:13:22; and 55 min, 65:13:22) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min, with UV detection at 280 nm. Six regression equations show good linear relationships between the peak area of each marker and concentration. The recoveries of the markers listed are 95.5%, 98.3%, 96.8%, 99.5%, 101.7%, and 102.1%, respectively. The repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviation) of the method are less than 2.5% and 3.3%, respectively.
RP-HPLC determination of mangiferin in the leafs of Folium mangiferae sampled in different months and regions.:
OBJECTIVE: To develop a new method for determination of Mangiferin in the leafs of Folium mangiferae. By this new method, Mangiferin in F. mangiferae sampled in different months and in different regions was determinated. METHOD: A RP-HPLC method was set up, using Shim pack CLC-ODS column, methanol-0.05 mol.L-1 H3PO4(65:134, pH 3.5) as mobile phase, with 258 nm of detection wave, at room temperature, 1 mL.min-1. F. mangiferae sampled in Nanning, Qinzhou and Tianyang, Guangxi province and sampled respectively in January to December were determinated. RESULT: The average recovery of the RP-HPLC was 99.2%, RSD = 1.05% (n = 5). The content of Mangiferin in F. mangiferae was statistically different due to different sample-regions or sample-time. CONCLUSION: This RP-HPLC method is simple, specific and exact. The contents of Mangiferin in the leafs of F. mangiferae sample in Nanning and Tinayang were statistically similar, but higher than that in Qinzhou. The contents of Mangiferin in the leafs of F. mangiferae sampled in July to October were higher than that in the other months. The content in September was the highest, the content in February was the lowest.
Anthelminthic and antiallergic activities of Mangifera indica L. stem bark components Vimang and mangiferin.:
This study investigated the antiallergic and anthelmintic properties of Vimang (an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica family stem bark) and mangiferin (the major polyphenol present in Vimang) administered orally to mice experimentally infected with the nematode, Trichinella spiralis. Treatment with Vimang or mangiferin (500 or 50 mg per kg body weight per day, respectively) throughout the parasite life cycle led to a significant decline in the number of parasite larvae encysted in the musculature; however, neither treatment was effective against adults in the gut. Treatment with Vimang or mangiferin likewise led to a significant decline in serum levels of specific anti-Trichinella IgE, throughout the parasite life cycle. Finally, oral treatment of rats with Vimang or mangiferin, daily for 50 days, inhibited mast cell degranulation as evaluated by the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test (sensitization with infected mouse serum with a high IgE titre, then stimulation with the cytosolic fraction of T. spiralis muscle larvae). Since IgE plays a key role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, these results suggest that Vimang and mangiferin may be useful in the treatment of diseases of this type.
Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) and mangiferin modulate mouse humoral immune responses.:
The present study investigated the effects of orally administered Vimang (an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica) and mangiferin (the major polyphenol present in Vimang) on mouse antibody responses induced by inoculation with spores of microsporidian parasites. Inoculation induced specific antibody production with an exponential timecourse, peaking after about one month. Vimang significantly inhibited this antibody production from about three weeks post-inoculation, and most markedly by four weeks post-inoculation; by contrast, mangiferin had no significant effect. Determination of Ig isotypes showed that the IgM to IgG switch began about four weeks post-inoculation, with IgG2a predominating. Vimang significantly inhibited IgG production, but had no effect on IgM. Mangiferin did no affect either IgM or IgG2a, but significantly enhanced production of IgG1 and IgG2b. Neither Vimang nor mangiferin enhanced specific antibody secretion by splenic plasma cells from mice inoculated with microsporidian spores, whether administered in vivo before serum extraction or in vitro to the culture medium. Inoculation with spores induced splenomegaly, which was significantly reduced by Vimang and significantly enhanced by mangiferin. These results suggest that components of Mangifera indica extracts may be of potential value for modulating the humoral response in different immunopathological disorders.
Identification of flavonol and xanthone glycosides from mango (Mangifera indica L. Cv. "Tommy Atkins") peels by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.:
Flavonol O- and xanthone C-glycosides were extracted from mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. "Tommy Atkins") peels and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Among the fourteen compounds analyzed, seven quercetin O-glycosides, one kaempferol O-glycoside, and four xanthone C-glycosides were found. On the basis of their fragmentation pattern, the latter were identified as mangiferin and isomangiferin and their respective galloyl derivatives. A flavonol hexoside with m/z 477 was tentatively identified as a rhamnetin glycoside, which to the best of our knowledge, has not yet been reported in mango peels. The results obtained in the present study confirm that peels originating from mango fruit processing are a promising source of phenolic compounds that might be recovered and used as natural antioxidants or functional food ingredients.
Modulation of rat macrophage function by the Mangifera indica L. extracts Vimang and mangiferin.:
Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangiferia indica L., traditionally used in Cuba as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Vimang and of mangiferin (a C-glucosylxanthone present in the extract) on rat macrophage functions including phagocytic activity and the respiratory burst. Both Vimang and mangiferin showed inhibitory effects on macrophage activity: (a) intraperitoneal doses of only 50-250 mg/kg markedly reduced the number of macrophages in peritoneal exudate following intraperitoneal injection of thioglycollate 5 days previously (though there was no significant effect on the proportion of macrophages in the peritoneal-exudate cell population); (b) in vitro concentrations of 0.1-100 microg/ml reduced the phagocytosis of yeasts cells by resident peritoneal and thioglycollate-elicited macrophages; (c) in vitro concentrations of 1-50 microg/ml reduced nitric oxide (NO) production by thioglycollate-elicited macrophages stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IFNgamma; and (d) in vitro concentrations of 1-50 microg/ml reduced the extracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by resident and thioglycollate-elicited macrophages stimulated in vitro with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). These results suggest that components of Vimang, including the polyphenol mangiferin, have depressor effects on the phagocytic and ROS production activities of rat macrophages and, thus, that they may be of value in the treatment of diseases of immunopathological origin characterized by the hyperactivation of phagocytic cells such as certain autoimmune disorders.
Mangiferin protects the streptozotocin-induced oxidative damage to cardiac and renal tissues in rats.:
The role of oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced toxicity and its prevention by a xanthone glucoside, mangiferin was investigated. To induce diabetes mellitus, adult male Wistar rats were injected STZ intravenously at 55 mg/kg body weight. The effect of mangiferin (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p., 28 days) was investigated in STZ-induced diabetic male rats. Insulin-treated rats (6 U/kg, i.p., 28 days) served as positive control. Diabetic rats given normal saline served as negative control. Normal rats that neither received STZ nor drugs served as normal control. On day 28, the diabetic rats showed significant increase in serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and total glycosylated haemoglobin. Kidney revealed tubular degeneration and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) with an elevation of malonaldehyde (MDA). Cardiac SOD, CAT and lipid peroxidation were significantly increased. Histopathological findings revealed cardiac hypertrophy with haemorrhages. Analysis of erythrocyte revealed significantly elevated levels of MDA with insignificant decrease in CAT and SOD. Repeated intraperitoneal injections of mangiferin (10 and 20 mg/kg) and insulin (6 U/kg) controlled STZ-induced lipid peroxidation and significantly protected the animals against cardiac as well as renal damage. From the study, it may be concluded that oxidative stress appears to play a major role in STZ-induced cardiac and renal toxicity as is evident from significant inhibition of antioxidant defence mechanism in renal tissue or a compensatory increase in antioxidant defence mechanism in cardiac tissue. Intraperitoneal administration of mangiferin exhibited significant decrease in glycosylated haemoglobin and CPK levels along with the amelioration of oxidative stress that was comparable to insulin treatment.
Isolation and quantitative analysis of phenolic antioxidants, free sugars, and polyols from mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark aqueous decoction used in Cuba as a nutritional supplement.:
An aqueous decoction of mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark has been developed in Cuba on an industrial scale to be used as a nutritional supplement, cosmetic, and phytomedicine. Previously we reported its antioxidant activity, and we concluded that the product could be useful to prevent the production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative tissue damage in vivo. A phytochemical investigation of mango stem bark extract has led to the isolation of seven phenolic constituents: gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid, gallic acid methyl ester, gallic acid propyl ester, mangiferin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and benzoic acid and benzoic acid propyl ester. All structures were elucidated by ES-MS and NMR spectroscopic methods. Quantitative analysis of the compounds has been performed by HPLC, and mangiferin was found to be the predominant component. Total polyphenols were assayed also by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The free sugars and polyols content was also determined by GC-MS.
Effect of Mangifera indica L. extract (QF808) on protein and hepatic microsome peroxidation.:
The antioxidant activities of QF808, a steam bark extract of Mangifera indica L., were studied on hydroxyl-mediated oxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and in a hepatic microsome system. The extract was effective in reducing the oxidation of BSA, since its half- maximal inhibition concentration (IC(50)) was 0.0049% w/v in the inhibition of carbonyl group formation and lower than 0.0025% w/v in the inhibition of sulfhydryl group loss. QF808 inhibited lipid peroxidation which was initiated enzymatically by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), IC(50)= 0.00075% w/v, or non-enzymatically by ascorbic acid, IC(50) = 0.0126% w/v. The extract tested did not inhibit NADPH-dependent cytochrome P-450 reductase activity, since it had no effect on the oxidation rate of NADPH. These results suggest that QF808 has an antioxidant activity, probably due to its ability to scavenge free radicals involved in microsome lipid peroxidation. In addition, QF808 antioxidant profile in vitro is probably similar to its principal polyphenolic component, mangiferin, a glycosylated xanthone.
Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of Mangifera indica L. in mice.:
Mangifera indica Linn, a plant widely used in the traditional medicinal systems of India, has been reported to possess antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the alcoholic extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica Linn (Extract I containing mangiferin 2.6%), has been investigated for its effect on cell mediated and humoral components of the immune system in mice. Administration of test extract I produced increase in humoral antibody (HA) titre and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) in mice. It is concluded that test extract I is a promising drug with immunostimulant properties.
The suppressive effect of mangiferin with exercise on blood lipids in type 2 diabetes.:
The effect of mangiferin (MF) with exercise on bood lipids was studied in KK-Ay mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. MF (30 mg/kg) reduced the blood cholesterol (p<0.05) and triglyceride level (p<0.01) of KK-Ay mice with exercise 2 weeks after oral administration when compared with the control group. Diabetes also often has elevated lipid levels. Therefore, it may be that MF has beneficial effects on hyperlipidemia in type 2 diabetes.
Antidiabetic activity of the rhizoma of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and active components, mangiferin and its glucoside.:
The antidiabetic activity of the rhizoma of Anemarrhena asphodeloides was investigated in KK-Ay mice, an animal model of genetic type 2 diabetes. The water extract of the rhizoma (AA) (90 mg/kg) reduced blood glucose levels from 570 +/- 29 to 401 +/- 59 mg/dl 7 h after oral administration (p<0.05) and also tended to reduce serum insulin levels in KK-Ay mice. AA-treated KK-Ay mice had significantly reduced blood glucose levels in an insulin tolerance test. Based on these results, the antidiabetic mechanism of AA may be due to decreased insulin resistance. In addition, the active components of AA were confirmed to be mangiferin and its glucoside.
Polyphenol constituents from Salacia species: quantitative analysis of mangiferin with alpha-glucosidase and aldose reductase inhibitory activities.:
Mangiferin, three catechins, and two catechin dimers were isolated from the roots of Salacia reticulata (SRE), and examined their inhibitory activities against several carbohydrate metabolize enzymes (sucrase, maltase, isomaltase, alpha-amylase, and aldose reductase). Among them, mangiferin was found to inhibit sucrase, isomaltase, and aldose reductase from rat with IC50 values of 87, 216 and 1.4 micrograms/ml, respectively. The inhibitory activities of mangiferin are competitive for sucrase and isomaltase with inhibitor constant (Ki) 55 micrograms/ml and 70 micrograms/ml, respectively. In order to determine the mangiferin contents in the water extracts from the roots of S. reticulata, a quantitative analytical method by means of HPLC was developed and the mangiferin contents in SRE were determined to be in the range of 0.9-2.3% by the application of this method. A high linear correlation (r = 0.934) was observed between the mangiferin contents and the sucrase inhibitory activity. In addition, this analytical procedure of mangiferin was found to be applicable for other Salacia species (S. oblonga, S. chinensis, and S. prinoides). Thus, the quantitative HPLC analysis of mangiferin was supposed to be suitable for the quality control of Salacia species and its products.
Antidiabetic activity of a xanthone compound, mangiferin.:
Mangiferin (MF) isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge rhizome, was tested for antidiabetic activity in KK-Ay mice, an animal model of type-2 diabetes. MF lowered the blood glucose level of KK-Ay mice 3 weeks after oral administration (p < 0.01). However, no effect on the blood glucose level in normal mice was seen, indicating that MF could be useful in treating type-2 diabetes. In addition, MF improved hyperinsulinemia and, on insulin tolerance test, reduced blood glucose levels of KK-Ay mice. From these findings, it seems likely that MF exerts its antidiabetic activity by decreasing insulin resistance.
Protective effects of Mangifera indica L. extract, mangiferin and selected antioxidants against TPA-induced biomolecules oxidation and peritoneal macrophage activation in mice.:
We compared the protective abilities of Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract (Vimang) 50-250 mgkg(-1), mangiferin 50 mgkg(-1), vitamin C 100 mgkg(-1), vitamin E 100 mgkg(-1)and beta -carotene 50 mgkg(-1)against the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced oxidative damage in serum, liver, brain as well as in the hyper-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by peritoneal macrophages. The treatment of mice with Vimang, vitamin E and mangiferin reduced the TPA-induced production of ROS by the peritoneal macrophages by 70, 17 and 44%, respectively. Similarly, the H(2)O(2)levels were reduced by 55-73, 37 and 40%, respectively, when compared to the control group. The TPA-induced sulfhydryl group loss in liver homogenates was attenuated by all the tested antioxidants. Vimang, mangiferin, vitamin C plus E and beta -carotene decreased TPA-induced DNA fragmentation by 46-52, 35, 42 and 17%, respectively, in hepatic tissues, and by 29-34, 22, 41 and 17%, in brain tissues. Similar results were observed in respect to lipid peroxidation in serum, in hepatic mitochondria and microsomes, and in brain homogenate supernatants. Vimang exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of TPA-induced biomolecule oxidation and of H(2)O(2)production by peritoneal macrophages. Even if Vimang, as well as other antioxidants, provided significant protection against TPA-induced oxidative damage, the former lead to better protection when compared with the other antioxidants at the used doses. Furthermore, the results indicated that Vimang is bioavailable for some vital target organs, including liver and brain tissues, peritoneal exudate cells and serum. Therefore, we conclude that Vimang could be useful to prevent the production of ROS and the oxidative tissue damages in vivo. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Antitumor, immunomodulatory and anti-HIV effect of mangiferin, a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone.:
Mangiferin, a C-glucosylxanthone (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C2-beta-D-glucoside) purified from plant sources was shown to have in vivo growth-inhibitory activity against ascitic fibrosarcoma in Swiss mice. Following in vivo or in vitro treatment, it also enhanced tumor cell cytotoxicity of the splenic cells and peritoneal macrophages of normal and tumor-bearing mice. In vitro treatment of the splenic cells of tumor-bearing mice with mangiferin resulted in augmented killing of tumor cells, both resistant and sensitive to natural killer cells. Mangiferin was also found to antagonize in vitro the cytopathic effect of HIV. The drug appears to act as a potent biological response modifier with antitumor and antiviral effect.
Antiviral activity of mangiferin against herpes simplex virus type 2 in vitro.:
The effect of mangiferin, a tetrahydroxy pyrrolidone saponin extracted from the leaves of mango (Mangifera indica), against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro was studied. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) of it against HSV-2 plaque formation in HeLa cells was 111.7 micrograms.ml-1, and the concentrations of 33 and 80 micrograms.ml-1 reduced the virus replicative yields by 90% (EC90) and 99% (EC99), respectively. The therapeutic index (IC50/EC50) was 8.1. Mangiferin did not directly inactivate HSV-2. The results of the drug addition and removal tests suggest that mangiferin inhibits the late event in HSV-2 replication.
- Mango and Mango Leaves,Mangifera indica L.,Health Benefits and Interesting Facts.Mango Leaves Extract.
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