Research update of Polygonum Cuspidatum Extract,Resveratrol.


Research update of Polygonum Cuspidatum Extract.Resveratrol.

Fallopia Genus Polygonum Cuspidatum sieb Hu Zhang    Anti-platelet effects of trans-resveratrol from Polygonum cuspidatum P.E.

 Transresveratrol has been reported to have a variety of anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-fungal and anti-platelet effects.
 In platelet-rich plasma of healthy humans, the application of resveratrol has been shown to counteract the induction of collagen which causes platelets to aggregate. In addition, resveratrol inhibits the formation of lipooxygenase products which are involved in inflammatory processes, among them platelet aggregation (Bertelli 1995).
 Recently, tranresveratrol and other related phenolic compounds including trans-3,3,5,5-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxystilbene and yuccaols A and C were isolated from the bark of Yucca schidigera by some researchers.
 They do research to evaluate in vitro the effects of these compounds on platelet aggregation induced by thrombin and ADP. Pretreatment of platelets with transresveratrol or other tested phenolics (1-25 g/ml) slightly reduced platelet aggregation stimulated by 5 M ADP (P < 0.05) or 10 M ADP (P < 0.005).
 The comparison of the inhibitory effects of tested compound in thrombin-induced platelet aggregation revealed that phenolic showed even stronger antiplatelet actions than resveratrol.
 These compounds also had an inhibitory effect on the thrombin-induced enzymatic platelet lipid peroxidation determined as the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances.

   Anti-HIV Effects of transresveratrol.

 Alonso Heredia, PhD, from the Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland gave an interesting presentation on a new, natural anti-HIV agent.Materials used with transresveratrol purchased bulk and low price available from Polygonum cuspidatum Root P.E. provided by MDidea Group. I n the scientific literature, this substance has been reported to have anti-cancer, anti-inflammation and anti-atherosclerotic (hardening of the arteries) benefits.
 In laboratory studies, transresveratrol was synergistic (enhanced effect by combining) with either Videx (ddI, didanosine), Retrovir (AZT, zidovudine) or Hivid (ddC, zalcitabine). The greatest degree of synergism was with Videx. The agent even reverses Videx resistance when combined with it.
 Interestingly, when transresveratrol was combined with Videx in the laboratory, the combination had anti-HIV effects on macrophages and even resting lymphocytes. This latter lymphocyte pool represents a reservoir of HIV that is not eradicated even after 2-3 of HAART therapy. When transresveratrol and Videx were removed from white cell cultures originally infected with HIV, no viral rebound occurred even after 14 days.
 Transresveratrol works, in part, by increasing the percentage of cells in the "S" phase of cellular growth.This may decrease the number in the resting phase and account for its benefits for the resting pool of lymphocytes.

  Mice Antiviral effect Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS):

 Scientists from China identified the effect of Polygonum cuspidatum water extract on C57BL/6 mice infected with LP BM5 murine leukemia virus (MuLV) was investigated taking spleen index, viral antigen positive cell, serum IgG level and ConA response as parameters. And demonstrated that Polygonum cuspidatum water extract can partly inhibit LP BM5 MuLV induecd splenomegaly, immunodeficiency and viremia of C57BL/6 mice.
 Antiviral effect of Polygonum cuspidatum water extract is more effective before or at the same time of virus inoculation than after virus inoculation. It indicates that the earlier treatment, the better. Continual treatment can partly improve splenomegaly and ConA response of infected mice, but the inhibition of Polygonum cuspidatum water extract on hypergrmmaglobulinemia of infected mice is non persistent.

   Research Update:Protective effects of polydatin against CCl4-induced injury to primarily cultured rat hepatocytes.

 Polygonum cuspidatum-Sieb. et Zucc. is a traditional Chinese herbal drug,bitter taste and cold nature. It mainly acts upon the liver, gallbladder and lung meridians. It is well known that Polygonum cuspidatum has various activities such as promoting blood circulation, relieving swelling and pain, eliminating phlegm, alleviating cough, clearing away heat, and removing dampness and toxin. The drug has been widely used for cardiovascular and liver diseases. Its active compounds mainly consist of free anthraquinones which include emodin, physcion and chrysophanol. Another important compound is resveratrol.
 Polydatin (PD), 3,4′,5 trihydroxystibene-3-β-mono-D-gluc osid e, also named piceid, is the glycoside of resveratrol. Some previous studies demonstrated that PD could lower the level of blood lipid, inhibit the p latelet aggregation, dilate blood vessels, protect cardiocytes, reduce cerebral ischemic damage and inhibit lipid peroxidation. However, the effects of PD on hepatocytes and its mechanisms have not been reported up to date. In this paper we report the details of protective effects of polydatin against inju ry to primarily cultured rat hepatocytes induced by CCl4.

   The chemistry and biosynthesis of resveratrol

 In 1976, Drs. Langcake and Pryce reported the presence of resveratrol and its derivatives in grapevine tissues.
 It was discovered at that time that plants produced resveratrol when they were under attack by fungi, bacteria, or viruses.
 This led to the conclusion that resveratrol was a natural protectant to plants under times of stress, and also led to the beginning of studies to examine whether resveratrol could be beneficial to humans.
 Plant antibiotics such as resveratrol are known as phytoalexins.
 These compounds are the members of the plant kingdom classified as spermatophytes.
 The chemical structure of resveratrol is important because from its structure chemists can determine some properties related to its benefit.
 Polygonum Cuspidatum Extract.Resveratrol.transresveratrol.CAS.NO:510-36-0.3,5,4''-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene;C14H12O3.Polydatin,CAS.NO:65914-17-2.Resveratrol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside.M.F.C20 H22O8 photo picture image   Polygonum Cuspidatum Extract.Resveratrol.transresveratrol.CAS.NO:510-36-0.3,5,4''-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene;C14H12O3.Polydatin,CAS.NO:65914-17-2.Resveratrol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside.M.F.C20 H22O8 photo picture image
  Figure 1 shows the molecular structure of cis and trans-resveratrol and some of their derivatives. The hexagons in the figure are called aromatic rings, and the OH groups are called hydroxyl groups.
 When aromatic rings and hydroxyl groups are together the chemical is called a phenol. Since there are more than one of these phenols present, the compounds are called polyphenols. Polyphenols are often associated with compounds that are antioxidants.
 This is because they can react with radicals to form a more stable molecule; one that is less toxic than the original radical.
  Figure 2 shows the way resveratrol and its derivatives are biosynthesized naturally in plants.
 More functions proved to have, such as killing bacteria;good for ladies in menopause;strenthening pallium controlling ability;and with good calming£¬hypnosising£¬anti-convulsion;adjusting blood pressure;and more other functions
 Transresveratrol also widely used as aroma;health caring food ,nutrition supplying and daily-chemical industry.
 Fallopia Genus Polygonum Cuspidatum sieb Hu Zhang

   Cosmetic compositions containing resveratrol and retinoids:

 What is claimed this Cosmetic skin care compositions invented by cosmetic and skin reseachers from USA suggested as:
 1. A cosmetic skin care composition comprising mainly:
 (i) transresveratrol in an amount of from 0.00001 to 10 wt. %;
 (ii) a retinoid selected from the group consisting of retinoic acid, retinol, and retinyl acetate; and
 (iii) a cosmetically acceptable vehicle;wherein said retinoid is present in an amount of about 0.001 to about 10 wt. %.
 (iv) trans-resveratrol is an essential ingredient of the inventive composition.Pure resveratrol and crude form of trans-resveratrol may be obtained commercially from MDidea Group or MDidea Exporting Division in large quantities.
 Cosmetic skin care compositions containing transresveratrol in combination with selected retinoids.This invention from some researchers of USA showed mechanism and suggestions as following:
 In general, the amount of resveratrol in the inventive compositions is in the range of from 0.00001 to 10% by weight composition. Preferably in order to lower cost and maximize the effect the amount of transresveratrol is in the range of from 0.001% to 5% and most preferably is in the range of from 0.1% to 5%.
 The inventive compositions further comprise a retinoid selected from the group consisting of retinoic acid, retinol, retinyl acetate, and retinyl linoleate. It has been found that these retinoids, but not retinyl palmitate, act synergistically in combination with resveratrol.
 Most preferred retinoid is selected from retinol, retinyl acetate and retinyl linoleate, because of its proven cosmetic efficacy.
 The retinoid is generally employed in the inventive compositions in an amount of from 0.001 to 10%, preferably from 0.01 to 1, most preferably from 0.01 to 0.5% by weight of the compositions.
 The composition according to the invention also comprises a cosmetically acceptable vehicle to act as a diluant, dispersant or carrier for resveratrol and the reinoid in the composition, so as to facilitate their distribution when the composition is applied to the skin.

   Polygonum Caspidatum and treatment of viral myocarditis:Coxsackie Virus Infections.

 Coxsackie refers to a collection of closely related viruses classified among the enteroviruses, namely those that cause infection after being taken in orally with contaminated food or water and then multiply in the intestines (entero = intestinal). The coxsackie viruses were named after the town Coxsackie, New York. A strain of this virus was discovered there during the investigation of an epidemic that occurred in 1948 alongside a polio epidemic (polio being another enterovirus). The coxsackie viruses are divided into two major subgroups, labeled A and B. There are 23 known coxsackie A viruses that usually cause only enteric diseases, and 6 known coxsackie B viruses, which are the ones of greatest concern because of their ability to cause serious diseases beyond the intestinal tract. Coxsackie B3 has been found to be one of the main causes of certain debilitating or life-threatening diseases, such as viral myocarditis.

 The coxsackie virus apparently produces few or no symptoms in most instances, but it can cause a commonly occurring intestinal disease, with abdominal distress and diarrhea. Even when symptomatic, the resulting disease is usually a relatively mild one, which might be referred to as "intestinal flu." It most often occurs in late summer or early autumn and is consistent with what the Chinese call "summer heat syndrome," which usually manifests as an intestinal disorder accompanied by muscle aches and/or headaches, and fever. Rarely, the coxsackie virus can cause a more severe disease.

 It has been suggested that most people experience coxsackie infections at some time, and they are particularly prevalent in infants and young children, and, to a lesser extent, adolescents, with first onset related largely to the hygienic conditions (lack thereof) in which the child lives. The disease symptoms appear between 2 and 10 days after exposure, and are gone within a few days, similar to the experience of the common cold or influenza, but with intestinal symptoms. It is thought that a partial immunity to coxsackie viruses develops in most children exposed to it, so that symptomatic disease is rare or even milder for adults.

 In some cases, however, the virus escapes the intestinal tract to cause serious disease. In children, coxsackie may go on to produce viral meningitis and it has been proposed, on the basis of epidemiological evidence, that coxsackie and other enteroviruses (such as ECHO) may be among the causes of childhood insulin-dependent diabetes. In adults, viral myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy can occur if the virus infects the heart muscle. Coxsackie B viruses are estimated to be responsible for at least 50% of the cases of infection-caused heart diseases. For reasons yet unknown, the cardiac disease caused by this virus mainly occurs in middle-aged men, with onset occurring, on average, around age 42. The cardiac disease becomes apparent about two weeks after exposure to the virus.

 The early symptoms of the coxsackie-induced cardiac myopathy include some generalized viral symptoms-fever, fatigue, malaise-with the addition of chest pains. As the virus enters the heart cells, the immune system attacks and damages both infected and normal heart cells; the affected individual feels severe fatigue when there is significant impairment of heart function. In most cases, the disease is resolved spontaneously without any treatment, though some permanent heart damage may have occurred. But, in about 20% of the cases, there can be progressive disease or recurrence of symptoms; the heart damage can be extensive, causing arrhythmias, weakened left ventricular functions, and, in the worst cases, heart failure requiring heart transplantation. In these severe cases, cardiac disease progression persists after the virus is long gone: the immune system continues to damage the heart.

 Coxsackie infections are recognized as health problems in modern China, contributing to the high rates of childhood intestinal disease, meningitis, and, for adults, myocarditis. These infections are the subject of some research into the potential value of Chinese herbs. The main strategies are to inhibit viruses with the heat clearing herbs, of which sophora root (kushen) appears to be the most promising agent, and to bolster the resistance to the disease and limit its damaging effects to the heart with qi tonics, for which astragalus (huangqi) and ginseng (renshen) appear particularly valuable.

 Polygonum Caspidatum as antiviral herbs:Hu-chang is obtained from Polygonum cuspidatum, which contains a number of anthraquinones, such as emodin, physcion, and chrysophanol, and the stilbene derivative resveratrol (this compound is an ingredient in red grapes that is thought to be responsible for some of the health benefits of red wine). In vitro studies showed that the herb extract could inhibit several viruses including influenza, herpes simplex, adenovirus, polio, coxsackie A and B, EHCO, and encephalitis B. Isatis leaf, hu-chang, and sophora (for more information about the latter; see the START article: Sophora) are all used in the treatment of viral hepatitis in China; in addition, they are all used in formulas for treatment of sore throat due to various infections.
 Fallopia Genus Polygonum Cuspidatum sieb Hu Zhang

   SARS and Polygonum Caspidatum new use.

  Disease Background:

 SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) appeared suddenly in the news during March 2003, but cases of the syndrome had been observed at least five months earlier as an unusual type of pneumonia described in Guangdong province, China. In December, health workers there had relayed their worries about this disease to authorities who, unfortunately, did not respond effectively. The first official case, with the disease being named SARS, was described later by a visiting Italian doctor in Vietnam. On February 26th, a man was admitted to a hospital in Hanoi with high fever, dry cough, muscle soreness, and mild sore throat. Over the next four days, he developed increasing breathing difficulties, severe thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) and signs of respiratory distress syndrome requiring ventilator support.

 By March 18, over 200 cases and 4 deaths had been reported. During a period of just three weeks afterward, the number of SARS cases soared to over 2,000, with about 75 deaths, which triggered the alarms worldwide. The spread of the disease then slowed from this exponential growth rate seen in March and early April, to a linear rate of nearly 1,000 new cases per week until mid-May while frantic steps were taken to inhibit its spread. The disease was then largely confined to China (including Hong Kong and Taiwan), where the infection rate has since slowed further to about 600/week. At the time of this writing (end of May 2003), the World Health Organization cites about 8,300 cumulative cases worldwide, most of them in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, with about 750 deaths (about 9% of those infected); the rate of new cases has declined dramatically to less than 300 per week.

 The elderly and those with other health problems are at highest risk of fatality from SARS. Most people recover from the disease, though it may take several weeks to do so, and the number of SARS cases reported in the media refers to the cumulative total, not the number of people who are sick at any one time. There have been tentative reports of relapses in those who recovered, though these appear to be other ailments, not recurrence; most people recover completely.

 The main effective preventive measure for SARS is to quarantine those already infected (or likely to have been infected) coupled with actions that reduce the spread of the disease that could occur with crowding (e.g., cancellation of school classes and business meetings, reduced air travel between the main disease areas and the rest of the world). Beijing, which has been hard hit by the disease, had to take extraordinary measures, stopping most gatherings of people to minimize the chance of spread of the disease in crowds and restricting travel in and out of the city. Depending on where infected people now are, the disease may remain reasonably contained or may again spread rapidly. It was reported that there are cases of SARS suspected in some remote areas of China, which indicates a potential for a sudden spread due to inability to effectively quarantine people in these areas.

 A problem with SARS control, which may also be the key to preventing its further spread, is that there appear to be a small number of individuals who become "superspreaders:" one person infects many others. For example, the epidemic in Toronto that led to the city being temporarily put on the WHO list of places to avoid, was generated by a single "superspreader." The infection came into the city just once; from Toronto, the disease was spread to the Philippines by a single traveler; the disease reappeared in Toronto at the end of May after several weeks of apparent successful control, the result of one lingering case causing 35 suspected new cases. Preventing a few superspreaders from contact with others and from traveling to uninfected areas during the time they are contagious could greatly limit the epidemic. The disease also may have a seasonal aspect, flaring up during the usual cold/flu season, and then fading during the summer.

 It was quickly understood that SARS is due to a coronavirus (illustrated below, named for the array of projections), and this one was genetically mapped following three weeks of day and night work by Canadian researchers. SARS has been renamed Corona Virus Pneumonia (CVP), but the original term is still used. Other coronaviruses are a common cause of mild to moderate upper-respiratory illness in humans; they are associated with respiratory diseases in animals; animals may also experience gastrointestinal, liver, and neurologic diseases from coronaviruses. These viruses are known to survive in the environment for as long as three hours, but with SARS, there is evidence already that it can remain in the environment for longer under optimal conditions. For example, it was found to survive for two days on plastic at room temperature. The virus is excreted in urine and feces and may remain in sewage for days; a major outbreak in a Hong Kong apartment complex was traced to a leaky sewage pipe.

  Disease Origins:

 The origin of the disease is believed to be a virus in an animal or group of animals that was brought into Guangdong province of China and transmitted to a person or group of people, who then spread it to other people. Guangdong is a crowded province with much intermingling of human and animal populations, especially with chickens and pigs. A likely explanation for the origin of the current epidemic is that a wild animal from a remote forest was brought into a Guangdong meat market, and the virus was transmitted during handling. It was noted that an unusually high number of food handlers were among the first people infected by the virus (about 5% of the first 900 patients diagnosed), giving some support to the idea that contact with an animal to be used as food was the starting point. Researchers have suggested that the animal that originally transmitted the disease was a type of mongoose called a "civet cat" (which is not related to cats, but has a cat-like appearance). This is a delicacy in Guangdong; a civet cat seller was among the first to get SARS in China last December.

 Elisabeth Rosenthal, writing for the New York Times News Service, described a potential starting point for the disease, in the Dongyuan animal market, an hour south of Canton (Guangzhou, the main city):
 In hundreds of cramped stalls that stink of blood and guts, wholesale food vendors tend to veritable zoos that will grace Guangdong province's tables: snakes, chickens, cats, turtles, badgers, frogs. They are stacked, one on top of another, in cages that in turn serve as seats, card tables, and dining quarters for the poor migrants who work there….For a corona virus, like the one that causes SARS, it would be easy to move from animals to humans in the kitchens and food stalls of Guangdong, a province known for exotic cuisine prepared with freshly killed beasts.
 Fallopia Genus Polygonum Cuspidatum sieb Hu Zhang
 She relays some of the early cases:
 One of the earliest victims, in December, was a seller of snakes and birds in the area who died of severe pneumonia at Shunde's First People's Hospital. His wife and several members of the hospital staff contracted it as well, setting off an outbreak that now sounds eerily familiar....Around the same time in December, Huang Xinchu, a chef, was admitted to the Heyuan People's Hospital, 100 miles to the north, ultimately infecting eight doctors there. On January 2, another desperately ill chef was hospitalized in the city of Zhongshan, south of Shunde, setting off an outbreak....Thirteen medical workers were infected, who in turn infected 15 others.
 This scenario was repeated several times in January and February, at which point the epidemic was already out of the range of easy control. People leaving the area to visit other parts of China, or other parts of the world, were taking the disease with them. For example, as Rosenthal related:
 On February 21, Dr. Liu Jianlu, a 64-year-old lung specialist from the Zhongshan hospital, attended his nephew's wedding in Hong Kong, even though he was running a fever. At the Metropole Hotel, where he stayed, he passed SARS to a number of other guests, including two Canadians, an American, and a man and three women in Hong Kong."
 The disease began its rapid spread from that hotel, setting off a panic in that city.
 The health departments in Sunde, Heyuan, and Zhongshan reported the rapidly spreading acute pneumonia to Guangdong authorities in early January. However, the messages seems to have gotten stuck there, or were considered inconsequential, as it was not until the Hanoi case of the disease was announced that the Chinese government realized what they had been experiencing for about three months. Other slow reactions, particularly in Beijing, led to disastrous consequences, as the disease appeared out of control in that city; the health minister and mayor in Beijing were dismissed for their reticence to acknowledge the extent of the disease and accompanying failure to mount an adequate defense against its spread in the early stages. In April, the central government of China ordered immediate construction of new hospitals for the sole purpose of handling SARS patients (and avoiding having these patients at other hospitals).

  Active Preventions of Sars with herbs:

 Items like ginseng, Andrographis (Andrographis peniculata; green chiretta),Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium),Ginseng (Panax ginseng),and Tremella (Tremella fuciformis; white fungus; silver ear) are selling fast, many other herbs suggested for this purpose, including:Isatis root (Isatis tinctoria; banlangen) and Polygonum cuspidatum (huzhang),Wild barley (from Coix lacryma-jobi),etc.
 Fallopia Genus Polygonum Cuspidatum sieb Hu Zhang
 Wu King-shing, another Chinese medicine practitioner, was prescribing another plant root believed to be able to fight a wide range of viruses. "I'd treat the disease with huzhang [Polygonum cuspidatum]. It can suppress many kinds of viruses, including flu virus and coronavirus and has showed very satisfactory results," Wu said. "And there is no side effect." Some Hong Kong scientists believe a new strain of coronavirus, which causes the common cold, is the primary cause for the disease. "I drink the tea every other day myself," Wu said, eagerly writing a prescription for a prospective client
 Many formulations come out special for this purpose, including Jade Screen Formula (Yu Ping Feng San),combinations of Isatis leaf (daqingye), isatis root (banlangen), dryopteris (guanzhong), Guanzhong Decoction [dryopteris (guanzhong), perilla leaf (zisuye), and schizonepeta (jingjie), 10 grams each; and licorice, 3 grams. Boil, and take as tea 3 times a day.],etc.

 Also six Chinese herbal prescriptions were recommended to the Chinese population for preventing SARS:


Designation Formula 1 Formula 2 Formula 3
Ingredients List Astragalus (huangqi)
Patrinia (baijiangcao)
Coix (yiyiren)
Platycodon (jiegeng)
Licorice (gancao)
Houttuynia (yuxingcao)
Chrysanthemum (yejuhua)
Capillaris (yinchenhao)
Eupatorium (peilan)
Tsao-ko (caoguo)
Taraxacum (pugongying)
Trollius (jinlianhua)
Isatis leaf (daqingye)
Pueraria (gegen)
Perilla leaf (zisuye)
Therapeutic Functions benefit qi, remove moisture, clear heat, clean toxin clear heat, clean toxins, resolve turbidity clear heat, clean toxin, dispel wind, expel pathogens
Designation Formula 4 Formula 5 Formula 6
Ingredients List Phragmites (lugen)
Lonicera (jinyinhua)
Forsythia (lianqiao)
Mentha (bohe)
Licorice (gancao)
Astragalus (huangqi)
Atractylodes (baizhu)
Red Atractylodes (cangzhu)
Pogostemon (huoxiang)
Adenophora (nanshashen)
Lonicera (jinyinhua)
Dryopteris (guanzhong)
Pseudostellaria (taizishen)
Dryopteris (guanzhong)
Lonicera (jinyinhua)
Isatis leaf (daqingye)
Pueraria (gegen)
Perilla leaf (zisuye)
Pogostemon (huoxiang)
Red Atractylodes (cangzhu)
Eupatorium (peilan)
Therapeutic Functions clear heat, dispel wind-chill, expel pathogens strengthen spleen, benefit qi, resolve damp, clean toxins benefit qi, disperse pathogens, clean toxins, remove moisture

 At the end of the 19th century, traditional Chinese medicine was eclipsed by the profound effect of Western medicine on another epidemic that swept through China. The main western method was quarantine. Today, quarantine along with biological testing and rapid drug and vaccine development are clearly in the forefront. Yet, Chinese medicine has played a role, at least to the extent of providing some action that millions of worried people in China could take while awaiting the progress of modern medical methods. As a result of this SARS experience, more research into the effects of Chinese herbs is likely to focus on the actual clinical responses to antiviral herbs. China has developed remedies for many viral infections, including hepatitis, influenza, viral myocarditis, and viral encephalitis; the population there relies on the herbs. This is not the first time that a new epidemic has raised questions about what Chinese herbs might contribute. In the U.S., practitioners who routinely prescribe Chinese herbs have been asked about providing herbal assistance for HIV infection, West Nile Virus, Hepatitis C, and Lyme disease, to name a few. Perhaps the Chinese government and private enterprises will be encouraged by this experience to more carefully evaluate the herb effects and make sure that they are better understood so that they can promptly be utilized when needed.

   Polygonum Caspidatum and West Nile virus treatment.

 The West Nile virus, a flavivirus related to dengue fever and yellow fever, is a new epidemic in the U.S. The virus causes encephalitis (West Nile encephalitis) and is similar to a disease that occurs in the Orient, called encephalitis. It is believed that the West Nile virus has been in the U.S. since 1999, with the first outbreak occurring in and around the city of New York. It is transmitted by mosquitoes, which get the virus primarily from infected birds. Finding of dead birds is a sign that West Nile virus may have infected an area. The largest outbreak of West Nile encephalitis this year has occurred in Louisiana, illustrating the rapid spread of the infection zone, due to bird migration. This virus is now a permanent feature of the Western Hemisphere. While work progresses towards finding a vaccine against the disease or an effective treatment, the main method of control will be to limit mosquito populations. The U.S. government has earmarked several million dollars in emergency funds for pesticide spraying of mosquito areas. Mosquito control was the key method for reducing the incidence of yellow fever, which had been a major disease in the Western Hemisphere a century ago.
 Even for those who live in areas where this virus has been found, the risk of being exposed by any individual mosquito bite remains remote. Further, only about 1% of those infected by the virus experience a severe disease; those at risk for serious encephalitis are mainly the elderly (over 50 years of age, particularly those already in poor health). Of those who experience the most severe form of the disease, some will die from it; the death rate has been about 5% during this first year.

 Typical symptoms of the disease are body aches, occasionally with skin rash and swollen lymph glands. These symptoms will clear up in a few days in the mild cases. More severe infection may be marked by headache, high fever, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, and paralysis, typical signs of encephalitis of various causes. There is not a specific medical treatment, but palliative care is given for the severe disease, from which about 95% of patients are expected to recover.
 Some people who are concerned that they are infected with the disease will seek out herbal remedies. At this time, there are no proven effective herbal therapies and it is doubtful that there will be proof of such effectiveness in the near future. However, herbs have been applied to encephalitis cases in China, and for treatment of viral diseases, including yellow fever. Therefore, if one wished to make use of Chinese herbs for a suspected or known case of West Nile virus infection, herbs with antiviral properties and herbs reputed helpful in encephalitis would be used.

 In the book Modern Study and Application of Chinese Materia Medica, some herbs are listed for treatment of arboviruses (these are viruses that are transmitted by insects, which would include Dengue fever, yellow fever, and West Nile virus). The herbs listed that are readily available and known to have broad spectrum anti-viral effects are isatis (root and leaf) and hu-chang (huzhang). Herbs used in treatment of encephalitis symptoms include three groups of herbs; namely those that: clear heat (to reduce fever); calm internal wind (to reduce tremors, convulsions, stiffness, and muscle weakness); and open the orifices (to prevent or treat stupor, disorientation, and coma). Fever reducing herbs include raw rehmannia, moutan, coptis, and scute; wind calming herbs include uncaria, gastrodia, and silkworm; orifice opening herb therapies include acorus and borneol.

   Research update of Polygonum Cuspidatum Extract.Resveratrol related.

   Ethanol extract of Polygonum cuspidatum inhibits hepatitis B virus in a stable HBV-producing cell line.:Antiviral Res. 2005; 66(1):29-34 (ISSN: 0166-3542).Chang JS; Liu HW; Wang KC; Chen MC; Chiang LC; Hua YC; Lin CC.Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan First Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

 Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in Asia and its consequences are among the major public health problems in the world. Unfortunately, the therapeutic efficacies of present strategies are still unsatisfactory with a major concern about viral mutation. In search of effective antiviral agent, we examined the efficacy of extracts of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. (P. cuspidatum) against HBV in HepG2 2.2.15 cells by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The expressions of viral antigens, HBeAg and HBsAg, were also determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The ethanol extract of P. cuspidatum could inhibit dose-dependently the production of HBV (p<0.0001) with an effective minimal dosage of 10 microg/ml. The water extract of P. cuspidatum might also inhibit the production of HBV at a higher dosage. The expression of HBsAg was significantly increased by both ethanol extract and water extract of P. cuspidatum dose-dependently (p<0.0001) and time-dependently (p<0.0001). Higher dose of water extract of P. cuspidatum (30 microg/ml) could inhibit the expression of HBeAg (p<0.05). The extract of P. cuspidatum might contain compounds that would contribute to the control of HBV infection in the future. However, its promoting effect on the expression of HBsAg and its cytotoxicity should be monitored. Further purification of the active compounds, identification and modification of their structures to improve the efficacy and decrease the cytotoxicity are required.

   Effects of meteorological factors and mineral elements on the content of resveratrol in Polygonum cuspidatum rootstalk.:Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2004; 15(7):1143-7 (ISSN: 1001-9332).

 By determining monthly the content of resveratrol and eight mineral elements (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Zn, Mn) in the rootstalk of Polygonum cuspidatum, by considering the dynamic meteorological factors and by analyzing the principal components, we are investigating the dynamic relationship laws among mineral elements, meteorological factors and the content of resveratrol in Polygonum cuspidatum rootstalk in varied seasons. The results indicated that the correlation coefficient between Cu and Fe; between Mg and K; between Mg and Zn; between K and Zn; between Ca and average sunlight hours per month are 0.812, 0.871, 0.793, 0.729, 0.602. Their correlation is markedly in the positive 0.01 levels. The correlation coefficient between Cu and average air temperature in a month; between Mn and average air temperature in a month; between Fe and K are -0.738, -0.712, -0.766. Their correlation is markedly in negative 0.01 levels. The correlation between Cu and the content of resveratrol is markedly in negative 0.05 levels. Of the five principal factors affecting the content of resveratrol, two were found to be principal: "mineral element factors of promoting enzyme reacts" and "the meteorological factors of high temperature and strong shines". The percentage results of these two principal are 33.539% and 33.358%, making a total of 68.897%. The two factors above are also the main reasons for the variation of Polygonum cuspidatum resveratrol. A regression equation was set up through correlation and regression analysis between the changing content of resveratrol and the principal component.

   Inhibitory effects of Polygonum cuspidatum water extract (PCWE) and its component resveratrol [correction of rasveratrol] on acyl-coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferase activity for cholesteryl ester synthesis in HepG2 cells.:Vascul Pharmacol. 2004; 40(6):279-84 (ISSN: 1537-1891).Park CS; Lee YC; Kim JD; Kim HM; Kim CH.Faculty of Biotechnology, Dong-A University, Saha-Gu, Pusan 604-712, Republic of Korea.

 The pharmacological effects of Polygonum cuspidatum water extract (PCWE) on lipid biosynthesis were investigated in cultured human hepatocyte HepG2 cells. The addition of PCWE (5 and 20 microg/ml), which had no effect on cell proliferation and cellular protein content, caused a marked decrease in the cellular cholesterol content, particularly, the cholesteryl ester content following 24 h of incubation. The incorporation of (14)C-oleate into the cellular cholesteryl ester fraction was also reduced remarkably during incubation for 6 and 24 h. The effect of PCWE on acyl-coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity were studied in vitro to explore the mechanism by which PCWE inhibits cholesterol ester formation. The data confirmed that PCWE, in a dose dependent manner, remarkably inhibits ACAT activity. Among the main active chemicals of P. cuspidatum, resveratrol, a kind of flavonoid, decreased ACAT activity in a dose-dependent manner from the level of 10(-3) M. Theses results strongly suggest that PCWE reduces the cholesteryl ester formation in human hepatocytes by inhibiting ACAT.

   Preparative isolation and purification of five compounds from the Chinese medicinal herb Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc by high-speed counter-current chromatography.:J Chromatogr A. 2005; 1097(1-2):33-9 (ISSN: 0021-9673).Chu X; Sun A; Liu R.Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, No. 34 Wenhua Road, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059, China.

 High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was applied to the separation and purification of five compounds from the Chinese medicinal herb Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. The crude extracts from P. cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc were treated with light petroleum-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (2:5:4:6, v/v). Sample 1 was obtained from the lower phase and sample 2 from the upper phase. The sample 1 was separated with light petroleum-ethyl acetate-water (1:5:5, v/v) and yielded 19.3mg of piceid, 17.6 mg of anthraglycoside B from 200mg of sample 1. The sample 2 was separated with light petroleum-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:5:4:6, v/v) and light petroleum-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:5:7:3, v/v) in a gradient elution and yielded 18.5mg of resveratrol, 35.3mg of emodin and 8.2mg of physcion from 220 mg of sample 2. The purity of each compound is over 95% as determined by HPLC. The chemical structures of these components were identified by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR.

   Two new bacterial DNA primase inhibitors from the plant Polygonum cuspidatum.:Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004; 14(9):2275-7 (ISSN: 0960-894X).Hegde VR; Pu H; Patel M; Black T; Soriano A; Zhao W; Gullo VP; Chan TM.Schering Plough Research Institute, 2015 Galloping Hill Road, Kenilworth, NJ 07033, USA.

 The 70% aqueous methanolic extract of the Peruvian plant Polygonum cuspidatum sp. was found to contain two novel phenolic saccharides 1 and 2, which were identified as inhibitors of the bacterial DNA primase enzyme. Structures of these two compounds were established based on high resolution NMR studies. Compound 1 and 2 inhibited the primase enzyme with an IC(50) of 4 and 5 microM, respectively.

   Seasonal change in the balance between capacities of RuBP carboxylation and RuBP regeneration affects CO2 response of photosynthesis in Polygonum cuspidatum.:J Exp Bot. 2005; 56(412):755-63 (ISSN: 0022-0957)

 The balance between the capacities of RuBP (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate) carboxylation (V(cmax)) and RuBP regeneration (expressed as the maximum electron transport rate, J(max)) determines the CO(2) dependence of the photosynthetic rate. As it has been suggested that this balance changes depending on the growth temperature, the hypothesis that the seasonal change in air temperature affects the balance and modulates the CO(2) response of photosynthesis was tested. V(cmax) and J(max) were determined in summer and autumn for young and old leaves of Polygonum cuspidatum grown at two CO(2) concentrations (370 and 700 micromol mol(-1)). Elevated CO(2) concentration tended to reduce both V(cmax) and J(max) without changing the J(max):V(cmax) ratio. The seasonal environment, on the other hand, altered the ratio such that the J(max):V(cmax) ratio was higher in autumn leaves than summer leaves. This alternation made the photosynthetic rate more dependent on CO(2) concentration in autumn. Therefore, when photosynthetic rates were compared at growth CO(2) concentration, the stimulation in photosynthetic rate was higher in young-autumn than in young-summer leaves. In old-autumn leaves, the stimulation of photosynthesis brought by a change in the J(max):V(cmax) ratio was partly offset by accelerated leaf senescence under elevated CO(2). Across the two seasons and the two CO(2) concentrations, V(cmax) was strongly correlated with Rubisco and J(max) with cytochrome f content. These results suggest that seasonal change in climate affects the relative amounts of photosynthetic proteins, which in turn affect the CO(2) response of photosynthesis.

   Analysis of estrogenic compounds in Polygonum cuspidatum by bioassay and high performance liquid chromatography.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 105(1-2):223-8 (ISSN: 0378-8741).Zhang C; Zhang X; Zhang Y; Xu Q; Xiao H; Liang X.Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, P.R. China.

 The estrogenic activity of traditional Chinese herb-Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. was investigated by a recombinant yeast screening (YES) assay. Anthraquinones are the main components in the plant, of which emodin is the most abundant one. The ethyl acetate fraction of the ethanol extract of Polygonum cuspidatum was separated on a silica gel TLC plate and seven sub-fractions were collected. The results of bioassay demonstrated that Hzs1 and Hzs6 showed higher estrogenic activities than that of others and the potency of these two compounds were approximately 10(-4) g/L and 10(-3) g/L, respectively. HPLC analysis was performed to determine the activities and the active components. Combining the results of HPLC analysis and estrogenic activity test by YES led to the conclusion that an unknown bioactive compound might exist in the extraction of Polygonum cuspidatum.

   Contents comparison of resveratrol and polydatin in the wild Polygonum cuspidatum plant and its tissue cultures.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006; 31(8):637-41 (ISSN: 1001-5302).Yu SH; Zha JP; Zhan WH; Zhang DQ.College of Pharmacy, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To compare the contents of resveratrol and polydatin in some materials of Polygonum cuspidatum from various sources, so to screen and obtain the suitable cultures for the following metabolism regulation study. METHOD: RP-HPLC method was applied to simultaneously assay resveratrol and polydatin in different samples. RESULT: By the modified methods of extraction and determination, large amount of materials were screened. The results indicated that the contents of resveratrol and polydatin in root and rhizome were evidently higher than those in the leave and stems. The content of polydatin in the seedlings cultured indoor for three months was 1.27% and showed a 1.25-time increse than that in the wild plants, while the content of resveratrol (0.401%) approached that in the wild plants. Both of resveratrol and polydatin could be examined from different tissue cultures of P. cuspidatum, such as the sterile seedlings, callus, suspended cells and hairy roots, and the levels of them were closely related to the growth speed, physiological status and developmental phase. Hairy roots had the highest potentiality in several tested cultures and the increase rate of dry weight was 8.29 when cultured in vitro for 30 days, and showed a 8.4-fold and a 192.8-fold increase compared with those of natural roots and suspended cells, respectively. The content of polydatin in the hairy roots was up to 0.037% and that of resveratrol was 0.007%. CONCLUSION: The established analysis method is rapid, simple and accurate, especially adapted to the simultaneous determination of resveratrol and polydatin in massive biological samples. Hairy-root cultures have the superiority among the tested materials of P. cuspidatum and are suitable for the large-scale biomass and consistent production of efficient constituents.

   Quantitative determination of the (E) - and (Z) -diastereomers of resveratrol and resveratrol glucoside in the roots of Polygonum cuspidatum by HPLC and elementary study on their fluorescence.:Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2006; 41(6):522-6 (ISSN: 0513-4870).Wu B; Zhang HJ.Hubei Key Laboratory for Processing and Transformation of Agricultural Product, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 420023, China.

 AIM: To establish an optimal HPLC method for the determination of the (E)- and (Z)-diastereomers of resveratrol and resveratrol glucoside from the roots of Polygonum cuspidatum. METHODS: The determination was conducted by using reversed-phase high liquid chromatography. Nucleodur 100-5 C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm ID, 5 microm), and a mobile phase program of gradient elution with isopropyl alcohol and water at a flow rate of 0.6 mL x min(-1) was employed. The fluorescence detection wavelengths were: lambda(ex) 334 nm, lambda(em) 404 nm. RESULTS: A good linear relationship was obtained under the optimum condition. The average recoveries were 96.7%, 99.1% for the (E)-diastereomers of resveratrol and resveratrol glucoside, 91.1%, 93.7% for the (Z)-diastereomers of resveratrol and resveratrol glucoside, respectively. The RSD of E-resveratrol and its glucoside were 1.34% and 0.72%, respectively. The RSD of Z-resveratrol and its glucoside were 1.27% and 2.08%, respectively. CONCLUSION: This method is accurate and reliable for the quantity analysis of the (E)- and (Z)-diastereomers of resveratrol and resveratrol glucoside in the roots of Polygonum cuspidatum.

   Spectral determination of the contents of mineral elements in polygonum cuspida.:Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2004; 24(12):1669-71 (ISSN: 1000-0593).Zhang M; Yu HZ; Cao Y; Bu XY; Lu CY; Du YT; Huang RF.Key Laboratory of Hunan Forest Products and Chemical Industry Engineering, Zhangjiajie Districts of Jishou University, Zhangjiajie 427000, China.

 The present paper reports the determination of mineral elements by FAAS, including K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu. The best condition for the determination was investigated. The best ionization inhibitor and acidity media were confirmed. The experiment used CsCl to prevent ionization interference, and the concentration of HCl was controlled below 2%. At the same time SrCl prevented interference of P to Ca. So the value of absorbance was stable. The results were obtained by calibration curve method. The analysis method is simple, rapid, accurate and fitting to the determination of mineral elements in plants. The recoveries of the method are 90.5%-108.2%. The relative standard deviations are 0.3%-0.7%. The result show that large amounts of mineral elements are embodied in polygonum cuspidatum. The contents of K and Ca are in conformation with the medical effects of polygonum cuspidatum, and each element is related closely to its growing.

   In vitro inhibitory effects of Polygonum cuspidatum on bacterial viability and virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus.:Arch Oral Biol. 2006; 51(12):1131-40 (ISSN: 0003-9969).Song JH; Kim SK; Chang KW; Han SK; Yi HK; Jeon JG.Department of Preventive Dentistry, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea.

 OBJECTIVES: Polygonum cuspidatum has been used in Korean folk medicine to improve oral hygiene. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of methanol extract from root of P. cuspidatum (MEP) on bacterial viability and the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. METHODS: To test the effects of MEP on bacterial viability, we determined the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) against 20 bacterial strains, including S. mutans and S. sobrinus, using a micro-dilution assay. In case of S. mutans and S. sobrinus, the assays for time-kill and bacterial growth rate at sub-MIC concentrations were also performed. To determine effects of the extract on the virulence factors of S. mutans and S. sobrinus, the assays for sucrose-dependent adherence, water-insoluble glucan formation, glycolytic acid production, and acid tolerance were performed at sub-MIC levels. Phytochemical analysis for constituents of MEP was carried out. RESULTS: MEP showed a broad antibacterial range (MIC 0.5-4 mg/ml). The MBC was two to four times higher than the MIC. The time-kill curves showed S. mutans and S. sobrinus were significantly killed after 1h of incubation. At sub-MIC levels, doubling times of S. mutans and S. sobrinus dose-dependently increased up to 211% and 123%, respectively. At sub-MIC levels, MEP also showed inhibitory effects on the virulence factors of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in a dose-dependent fashion. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, sterol/terpenes, tannins, flavonoids, and carbohydrates. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that MEP has inhibitory effects on bacterial viability at higher concentrations (> or =MIC) and the virulence factors of S. mutans and S. sobrinus at sub-MIC concentrations, suggesting that it might be useful for the control of dental plaque formation and subsequent dental caries formation.

   Supercritical CO2 extraction of emodin and physcion from Polygonum cuspidatum and subsequent isolation by semipreparative chromatography.:J Sep Sci. 2006; 29(14):2136-42 (ISSN: 1615-9306).Lu HM; Ni WD; Liang YZ; Man RL.College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, PR China.

 Emodin and physcion are abundant anthraquinone compounds found in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Polygonum cuspidatum Sied. et Zucc. In this paper, emodin and physcion were successfully extracted with supercritical CO2 plus ethanol modifier after the extraction conditions were optimized with uniform design-sequential optimization. Results showed that the ethanol modifier concentration was the main factor for the effective extraction of the emodin. The optimal extraction condition was obtained: 20 MPa, 30 degrees C, and 95% ethanol, at which the yields of emodin and physcion were 0.616 and 0.178 g/100 g, respectively. The yield obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was a little lower than that obtained by sonication extraction (SE). The crude extract obtained by SFE was further isolated and purified by semipreparative chromatography with the mobile phase composed of methanol-water (90:1, v/v). Emodin and physcion were obtained with purity 98.6 and 99.1%, respectively, when determined by HPLC, and identification was performed by retention time and UV spectra of the standards. The result suggested that SFE is an alternative and promising method for extraction of the two compounds from P. cuspidatum owing to its environment-friendly properties and fewer coextracts.

   Effects of trans-resveratrol from Polygonum cuspidatum on bone loss using the ovariectomized rat model.:J Med Food. 2005; 8(1):14-9 (ISSN: 1096-620X).Liu ZP; Li WX; Yu B; Huang J; Sun J; Huo JS; Liu CX.Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

 trans-Resveratrol (resveratrol) has been shown in several studies to significantly modulate biomarkers of bone metabolism. But, there is no direct evidence supporting its inhibitory effect towards bone loss. In the present study, effects of resveratrol on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone calcium content (BCC) were examined in the ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. Female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: SHAM group (sham-operated), OVX group (OVX control), OVX + ALD group (OVX and treated with 1.0 mg/kg of body weight of alendronate sodium), and OVX + RES group (OVX and treated with 0.7 mg/kg of body weight of resveratrol). Tested materials were given by gavage for 12 weeks after ovariectomy. Results showed that rats in the OVX, OVX + ALD, and OVX + RES groups had significantly higher body weights and feed efficiency than those in the SHAM group (P < .01). The OVX group had significantly lower femoral epiphysis BMD than the SHAM group, and epiphysis BMD in the OVX + ALD and OVX + RES groups was significantly greater than that in the OVX group (P < .05). However, the femoral midpoint BMD was not significantly different among the four groups. Additionally, animals in the OVX group had significantly lower BCC compared with the SHAM group, while the BCC of the OVX + ALD and OVX + RES groups was significantly higher than that of the OVX group (P < .05). These results indicated that resveratrol could increase epiphysis BMD and inhibit the decrease of femur BCC in OVX rats, suggesting that it could play a role in protecting against bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency.

   Phytoestrogens from the roots of Polygonum cuspidatum (Polygonaceae): structure-requirement of hydroxyanthraquinones for estrogenic activity.:Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2001; 11(14):1839-42 (ISSN: 0960-894X).

 The methanolic extract from the roots of Polygonum (P.) cuspidatum was found to enhance cell proliferation at 30 or 100 microg/mL in MCF-7, an estrogen-sensitive cell line. By bioassay-guided separation from P. cuspidatum with the most potent activity, emodin and emodin 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated as active principles. The methanolic extracts from Polygonum, Cassia, Aloe, and Rheum species, which were known to contain anthraquinones, also showed the MCF-7 proliferation. As a result of the evaluation of various anthraquinones from plant sources and synthetic anthraquinones, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, chrysophanol 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone showed weak activity. On the other hand, alizalin and 2,6-dihydroxyanthraquinone as well as emodin having the 2- and/or 6-hydroxyl groups showed potent activity. These results show that the unchelated hydroxyl group is essential for strong activity. Emodin and 2,6-dihydroxyanthraquinone also inhibited 17beta-estradiol binding to human estrogen receptors (ERs) with K(i) values of 0.77 and 0.31microM for ERalpha and 1.5 and 0.69 microM for ERbeta. These findings indicate that hydroxyanthraquinones such as emodin are phytoestrogens with an affinity to human estrogen receptors.

   Large-scale separation of resveratrol, anthraglycoside A and anthraglycoside B from Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc by high-speed counter-current chromatography.:J Chromatogr A. 2001; 919(2):443-8 (ISSN: 0021-9673).Yang F; Zhang T; Ito Y.Beijing Research Centre for Separation and Purification of Natural Products, Beijing Institute of New Technology Application, China.

 High-speed counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to the large-scale separation of resveratrol, anthraglycoside A and anthraglycoside B from the crude extract of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc using a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform, methanol and water. Resveratrol, anthraglycoside A and anthraglycoside B were separated from multigram quantities (5 g) of crude extract of P. cuspidatum. The separation yielded 200 mg to 1 g of these three compounds each at over 98% purity as determined by HPLC. The chemical structures of these components were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and MS.

   Stilbene glycoside sulfates from Polygonum cuspidatum.:J Nat Prod. 2000; 63(10):1373-6 (ISSN: 0163-3864).Xiao K; Xuan L; Xu Y; Bai D.Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 294 Taiyuan Road, Shanghai 200031, People's Republic of China.

 Ten naturally occurring stilbene glycoside sulfates (1-10) were isolated from an aqueous extract of the root of Polygonum cuspidatum. Their structures were established based on chemical evidence and spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR methods.

   Histochemical localization and quantitative analysis of anthraquinones in rhizome of Polygonum cuspidatum.:Shi Yan Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2001; 34(3):235-41 (ISSN: 0001-5334).Liu WZ; Hu ZH.Institute of Botany, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069.

 Anthraquinones were histochemically locayed and content were determined in rhizome of Polygonum cuspidatum. Anthraquinones were located in the parenchyma cells of rhizome, including vascular ray, part of parenchyma cell in phloem, cortex and pith. Phelloderm and ray initial also accumulated a small amount anthraquinones. The content of total anthraquinones was highest in pith that consisted of parenchyma cells, and higher in bark (including phloem, cortex and periderm) than in xylem. The content of total anthraquinones was highest in three-year-old rhizome, and higher in biennial rhizome than in annual rhizome. It suggests that correlation exist between accumulation of anthraquinones and the growth age of rhizome.

   Isolation and identification of stilbenes in two varieties of Polygonum cuspidatum.:J Agric Food Chem. 2000; 48(2):253-6 (ISSN: 0021-8561).Vastano BC; Chen Y; Zhu N; Ho CT; Zhou Z; Rosen RT.Center for Advanced Food Technology and Department of Food Science, Cook College, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901-8520, USA.

 The roots of two varieties of Polygonum cuspidatum (Hu Zhang and Mexican Bamboo) were analyzed for resveratrol and analogues. The roots of each variety were dried and ground into a powder. The powdered roots were then extracted with methanol and ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate fraction of the Mexican Bamboo was then subjected to fractionation and purification using silica gel column chromatography and semipreparative HPLC. In addition to resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), three stilbene glucosides were identified by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and MS. The stilbene glucosides were shown to be a piceatannol glucoside (3,5,3', 4'-tetrahydroxystilbene 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside), resveratroloside (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside), and piceid (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside). The levels of the piceatannol glucoside and piceid were twice as high in the Mexican Bamboo as compared to the Hu Zhang.

   Resveratrol isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum root prevents tumor growth and metastasis to lung and tumor-induced neovascularization in Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice.:J Nutr. 2001; 131(6):1844-9 (ISSN: 0022-3166).

 Resveratrol is a naturally occurring phytoalexine found in medicinal plants. We found that resveratrol, at doses of 2.5 and 10 mg/kg, significantly reduced the tumor volume (42%), tumor weight (44%) and metastasis to the lung (56%) in mice bearing highly metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumors, but not at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg. Resveratrol did not affect the number of CD4(+), CD8(+) and natural killer (NK)1.1.(+) T cells in the spleen. Therefore, the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on tumor growth and lung metastasis could not be explained by natural killer or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activation. In addition, resveratrol inhibited DNA synthesis most strongly in LLC cells; its 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) was 6.8 micromol/L. Resveratrol at 100 micromol/L increased apoptosis to 20.6 +/- 1.35% from 12.1 +/- 0.36% (P < 0.05) in LLC cells, and decreased the S phase population to 22.1 +/- 1.03% and 29.2 +/- 0.27% from 35.2 +/- 1.72% (P < 0.05) at concentrations of 50 and 100 micromol/L, respectively. Resveratrol inhibited tumor-induced neovascularization at doses of 2.5 and 10 mg/kg in an in vivo model. Moreover, resveratrol significantly inhibited the formation of capillary-like tube formation from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) at concentrations of 10-100 micromol/L; the degree of the inhibition of capillary-like tube formation by resveratrol was 45.5% at 10 micromol/L, 50.2% at 50 micromol/L and 52.6% at 100 micromol/L. Resveratrol inhibited the binding of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to HUVEC at concentrations of 10-100 micromol/L, but not at concentrations of 1 and 5 micromol/L. The degree of inhibition of VEGF binding to HUVEC by resveratrol was 16.9% at 10 micromol/L, 53.2% at 50 micromol/L and 47.8% at 100 micromol/L. We suggest that the antitumor and antimetastatic activities of resveratrol might be due to the inhibition of DNA synthesis in LLC cells and the inhibition of LLC-induced neovascularization and tube formation (angiogensis) of HUVEC by resveratrol

   High-speed counter-current chromatography separation and purification of resveratrol and piceid from Polygonum cuspidatum.:J Chromatogr A. 2001; 907(1-2):343-6 (ISSN: 0021-9673).Chen L; Han Y; Yang F; Zhang T.College of Food Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing.

 High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was applied to the separation and purification of resveratrol and piceid from the dried roots (20.0 g) of Polygonum cuspidatium. The EtOAc extracts were separated with chloroform-methanol-water (4:3:2, v/v). Resveratrol was identified in fraction 5. The water extracts were separated first with EtOAc-EtOH-water (10:1:10, v/v) and then with the same solvent system at the modified volume ratio of 70:1:70. Yields of resveratrol and piceid obtained were 2.18% and 1.07%. Chemical structures of the purified resveratrol and piceid were confirmed by electrospray ionization MS and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

   Simultaneous determination of resveratrol, emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, in root of Polygonam cuspidatum and its extract by HPLC.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006; 31(3):202-5 (ISSN: 1001-5302).

 OBJECTIVE: To establish a HPLC method for simultaneous determination of resveratrol, emodin, chrysophanol, physcion in root of Polygonum cuspidatum and its extract. METHOD: The separation was performed in a Hypersil ODS C18 column with a mobile phase of Acetonitrile-1%HAc. The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1) and detection wavelength was at 287 nm. RESULT: The mean recovery and RSD of resveratrol, emodin, chrysophanol, physcion was 101.8%, RSD 1.7%; 96.2%, RSD 1.4%; 99.7%, RSD 1.0%; 98.60%, RSD 0.97% respectively. CONCLUSION: The method is accurate, simple and reliable. It can be used for quality control of P. cuspidatum and its extract.

   Differentiation of rhizoma et radix polygoni cuspidati from closely related herbs by HPLC fingerprinting.:Chem Pharm Bull. 2006; 54(8):1179-86 (ISSN: 0009-2363).

 An HPLC-DAD fingerprinting profile of Rhizoma Et Radix Polygoni Cuspidati was established basing on the consistent chromatographic features of 24 authentic herb samples. The major types of chemical constituents, stilbenes and anthraquinones, were analyzed and included in the fingerprint. Eight common peaks of Polygonum Cuspidatum were identified by using HPLC-MS. The developed fingerprint was applied to differentiate Rhizoma Et Radix Polygoni Cuspidati from Radix Polygoni Multiflori and Radix Et Rhizoma Rhei. Although the three herbs belong to the family of Polygonaceae, the results indicated that these could be differentiated by using the established method.

   The mechanism of Polydatin in shock treatment.:Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2003; 29(3-4):211-7 (ISSN: 1386-0291).Zhao KS; Jin C; Huang X; Liu J; Yan WS; Huang Q; Kan W.Department of Pathophysiology, First Military Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.

 Polydatin is extracted from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Polygonum cuspidatum, and has a special effect in shock treatment. The aim of this study is to explain the cellular and molecular basis of Polydatin in shock treatment. The fluorescent probe techniques, patch clamp method, and cellular flow chamber were used to test intracellular variables of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), myocardial cells (MC), endothelial cells (EC), and white blood cell (WBC). It was shown that Polydatin could inhibit ICAM-1 expression in EC stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), attenuate WBC-EC adhesion, increase [Ca2+]i in MC with enhancement of MC contraction extent, activate KATP channels of VSMC, and decrease pHi value and [Ca2+]i of VSMC in shock. The study suggests that Polydatin has multiple effects on VSMC, MC, WBC and EC, which are related to the enhancement of heart function and improvement of microcirculatory perfusion in shock.

   Induction of apoptosis by 3,4'-dimethoxy-5-hydroxystilbene in human promyeloid leukemic HL-60 cells.:Planta Med. 2002; 68(2):123-7 (ISSN: 0032-0943).Lee SH; Ryu SY; Kim HB; Kim MY; Chun YJ College of Pharmacy, Chungang University, Seoul, Korea.

 3, 4'-Dimethoxy-5-hydroxystilbene (DMHS) is a hydroxystilbene compound obtained by methylation and acid hydrolysis of piceid (resveratrol-3-O-glucoside) from Polygonum cuspidatum. Herein, we report that DMHS induces programmed cell death or apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells. We found that treatment of HL-60 cells with DMHS suppressed the cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 25 microM. DMHS increased internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in a time-dependent manner. The cell death by DMHS was partially prevented by the caspase inhibitor, zVAD-fmk. DMHS caused activation of caspases such as caspase-3, -8, and -9. Immunoblot experiments revealed that DMHS-induced apoptosis was associated with the induction of Bax expression. The release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol was increased in response to DMHS. Taken together, our present results indicated that DMHS leads to apoptotic cell death in HL-60 cells through increased Bax expression and release of cytochrome c into cytosol and may be considered as a good candidate for a cancer chemopreventive agent in humans.

   In vitro estrogenic activities of Chinese medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of menopausal symptoms.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 98(3):295-300 (ISSN: 0378-8741).Zhang CZ; Wang SX; Zhang Y; Chen JP; Liang XM.Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road No. 161, Dalian 116011, PR China.

 The estrogenic activity of 70% EtOH extracts of 32 traditional Chinese medicinal plants, selected according to their reported efficacy for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, was assessed using a recombinant yeast system with both a human estrogen receptor expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Among them, 11 (34%) species proved to be active. Polygonum cuspidatum had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP) (3.28 x 10(-3)), followed by Rheumpalmatum (3.85 x 10(-4)), Cassia obtusifolia (3.49 x 10(-4)), Polygonum multiflorum (2.87 x 10(-4)), Epimedium brevicornum (2.30 x 10(-4)), Psoralea corylifolia (1.90 x 10(-4)), Cynomorium songaricum (1.78 x 10(-4)), Belamcanda chinensis (1.26 x 10(-4)), Scutellaria baicalensis (8.77 x 10(-5)), Astragalus membranaceus (8.47 x 10(-5)) and Pueraria lobata (6.17 x 10(-5)). The EC(50) value of 17beta-estradiol used as the positive control was 0.205+/-0.025 ng/ml (RP=100). This study gave support to the reported efficacy of Chinese medicines used for hormone replacement therapy.

   HPLC fingerprint of Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006; 31(12):972-4 (ISSN: 1001-5302).Ma YT; Wan DG; Song LK.Pharmacy School of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 610075, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To establish the HPLC fingerprint of Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati (Polygonum cuspidatum). METHOD: The HPLC separation was carried with Diamonsil C18 column and eluted with a gradient from methanol and 0.1% phosphoric acid, the detection wavelength was at 230 nm and recording 70 min. The similarity of chromatograms was compared by mean of the software from Zhongnan University. RESULT: The constituents of P. cuspidatum were well separated by HPLC, and the similarity was above 0.80. CONCLUSION: The method can be used for the study of fingerprints of Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati.

   Involvement of cell adhesion molecules in polydatin protection of brain tissues from ischemia-reperfusion injury.:Brain Res. 2006; 1110(1):193-200 (ISSN: 0006-8993).Cheng Y; Zhang HT; Sun L; Guo S; Ouyang S; Zhang Y; Xu J.Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, PR China.

 Previous studies have demonstrated that polydatin, a crystal component extracted from the root stem of the perennial herbage Polygonum Cuspidatum Zucc, exerts a neuroprotective effect on cerebral injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion. To investigate the possible mechanism of this action, we determined the effects of polydatin on the expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) after ischemia-induced cerebral injury. Rats were treated with polydatin (i.v.) immediately after the operation of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1 h. It was found that polydatin improved neurological deficits and reduced the volume of brain infarction. In addition, polydatin decreased the levels of CAMs relative to the control (MCAO alone); these included intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, L-selectin and Integrins. These results suggest that polydatin exerts protective effects likely via inhibition of the expression of various CAMs; polydatin may be a potential agent for treatment of brain injury associated with stroke.

   Estimation of trans-resveratrol in herbal extracts and dosage forms by high-performance thin-layer chromatography.:Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2005; 53(6):691-3 (ISSN: 0009-2363).Babu SK; Kumar KV; Subbaraju GV.Laila Impex Research Centre, Unit I, Phase III, Jawahar Autonagar, Vijayawada-520 007, India.

 A simple, sensitive and precise high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method of analysis of trans-resveratrol in Polygonum cuspidatum root extracts and in dosage forms was developed and validated. The separation was carried out on a TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase, eluted with chloroform-ethylacetate-formic acid (2.5 : 1 : 0.1) as mobile phase. Densitometric analysis of trans-resveratrol was carried out in the absorbance mode at 313 nm. This system was found to give compact spot for trans-resveratrol (Rf value of 0.40+/-0.03). A good linear regression relationship between peak areas and the concentrations was obtained over the range of 0.5-3.0 microg/spot with correlation coefficient 0.9989. The limit of detection and quantification was found to be 9 and 27 ng/spot. The method was validated for precision and recovery. The spike recoveries were within 99.85 to 100.70%. The RSD values of the precision in the range 0.37-1.84%. The proposed developed HPTLC method can be applied for identification and quantitative determination of trans-resveratrol in herbal extracts and dosage forms.

   Resveratrol suppresses TNF-induced activation of nuclear transcription factors NF-kappa B, activator protein-1, and apoptosis: potential role of reactive oxygen intermediates and lipid peroxidation.:J Immunol. 2000; 164(12):6509-19 (ISSN: 0022-1767).Manna SK; Mukhopadhyay A; Aggarwal BB.Department of Bioimmunotherapy, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA.

 Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in grapes, fruits, and root extracts of the weed Polygonum cuspidatum, exhibits anti-inflammatory, cell growth-modulatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. How this chemical produces these effects is not known, but it may work by suppressing NF-kappaB, a nuclear transcription factor that regulates the expression of various genes involved in inflammation, cytoprotection, and carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol on NF-kappaB activation induced by various inflammatory agents. Resveratrol blocked TNF-induced activation of NF-kappaB in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Resveratrol also suppressed TNF-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB, and NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene transcription. Suppression of TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation by resveratrol was not restricted to myeloid cells (U-937); it was also observed in lymphoid (Jurkat) and epithelial (HeLa and H4) cells. Resveratrol also blocked NF-kappaB activation induced by PMA, LPS, H2O2, okadaic acid, and ceramide. The suppression of NF-kappaB coincided with suppression of AP-1. Resveratrol also inhibited the TNF-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and abrogated TNF-induced cytotoxicity and caspase activation. Both reactive oxygen intermediate generation and lipid peroxidation induced by TNF were suppressed by resveratrol. Resveratrol's anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and growth-modulatory effects may thus be partially ascribed to the inhibition of activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and the associated kinases.

   Benefits of resveratrol in women's health.:Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2001; 27(5-6):233-48 (ISSN: 0378-6501).Bagchi D; Das DK; Tosaki A; Bagchi M; Kothari SC.Department of Pharmacy Sciences, Creighton University School of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178, USA.

 Resveratrol and trans-resveratrol are powerful phytoestrogens, present in the skins of grapes and other plant foods and wine, which demonstrate a broad spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic health benefits. Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring plant-derived nonsteroidal compounds that are functionally and structurally similar to steroidal estrogens, such as estradiol, produced by the body. Various studies, reviewed herein, have demonstrated the health benefits of phytoestrogens in addressing climacteric syndrome including vasomotor symptoms and postmenopausal health risks, as well as their anticarcinogenic, neuroprotective and cardioprotective activities and prostate health and bone formation promoting properties. Conventional HRT drugs have been demonstrated to cause serious adverse effects including stroke and gallbladder disease, as well as endometrial, uterine and breast cancers. Recent research demonstrates that trans-resveratrol binds to human estrogen receptors and increases estrogenic activity in the body. We investigated the effects of protykin, a standardized extract of trans-resveratrol from Polygonum cuspidatum, on cardioprotective function, the incidence of reperfusion-induced arrhythmias and free radical production in isolated ischemic/reperfused rat hearts. The rats were orally treated with two different daily doses of protykin for 3 weeks. Coronary effluents were measured for oxygen free radical production by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy in treated and drug-free control groups. In rats treated with 50 and 100 mg/kg of protykin, the incidence of reperfusion-induced ventricular fibrillation was reduced from its control value of 83% to 75% (p < 0.05) and 33% (p < 0.05), respectively. Protykin was seen to possess cardioprotective effects against reperfusion-induced arrhythmias through its ability to reduce or remove the reactive oxygen species in ischemic/reperfused myocardium. Taken together, these data suggest that trans-resveratrol supplementation may be a potential alternative to conventional HRT for cardioprotection and osteoporosis prevention and may confer other potential health benefits in women.

   Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by some Chinese medicinal plants used to treat gout.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 73(1-2):199-207 (ISSN: 0378-8741).Kong LD; Cai Y; Huang WW; Cheng CH; Tan RX Institute of Functional Biomolecule, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 210093, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

 The enzyme xanthine oxidase catalyses the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid, which plays a crucial role in gout. A total of 122 traditional Chinese medicinal plants, selected according to the clinical efficacy and prescription frequency for the treatment of gout and other hyperuricemia-related disorders, have been evaluated for the enzyme inhibitory activity. Among the 122 methanol extracts derived from these species, 69 were shown to be inhibitory at 100 microg/ml, with 29 having greater than 50% inhibition. As to the equal amount of water extracts, 40 were disclosed to be active at 100 microg/ml, with 13 possessing more than 50% inhibition. At 50 microg/ml, 58 methanol and 24 water extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, with 15 of the former and two of the latter showing greater than 50% inhibition. The most active was the methanol extract of the twig of Cinnamomum cassia (Lauraceae) (IC(50), 18 microg/ml), which was followed immediately by those of the flower of Chrysanthemum indicum (Asteraceae) (IC(50), 22 microg/ml) and the leaves of Lycopus europaeus (Lamiatae) (IC(50), 26 microg/ml). Among the water extracts, the strongest inhibition of the enzyme was observed with that of the rhizome of Polygonum cuspidatum (Polygonaceae) (IC(50), 38 microg/ml). The IC(50) value of allopurinol used as a positive control was 1.06 microg/ml. The study demonstrated that the effects for these medicinal plants used for the gout treatment were based, at least in part, on the xanthine oxidase inhibitory action.

   Suppression of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats by resveratrol: role of nuclear factor-kappaB, cyclooxygenase 2, and matrix metalloprotease 9.:Cancer Res. 2002; 62(17):4945-54 (ISSN: 0008-5472).Banerjee S; Bueso-Ramos C; Aggarwal BB.Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Bioimmunotherapy, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

 We have reported recently that resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in grapes, fruits, and root extracts of the weed Polygonum cuspidatum, is a potent inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation. Because NF-kappaB suppression has been linked with chemoprevention, this prompted us to investigate the chemopreventive potential of resveratrol by testing it against mammary carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in female Sprague Dawley rats. Dietary administration of resveratrol (10 ppm) had no effect on body weight gain and tumor volume but produced striking reductions in the incidence (45%; P < 0.05), multiplicity (55%; P < 0.001), and extended latency period of tumor development relative to DMBA-treated animals. Histopathological analysis of the tumors revealed that DMBA induced ductal carcinomas and focal microinvasion in situ (7 of 7), whereas treatment with resveratrol suppressed DMBA-induced ductal carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed that resveratrol suppressed the DMBA-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and matrix metalloprotease-9 expression in the breast tumor. Gel shift analysis showed suppression of DMBA-induced NF-kappaB activation by resveratrol. Treatment of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells with resveratrol also suppressed the NF-kappaB activation and inhibited proliferation at S-G(2)-M phase. Overall, our results suggest that resveratrol suppresses DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis, which correlates with down-regulation of NF-kappaB, cyclooxygenase-2, and matrix metalloprotease-9 expression.

   Stable isotope labeling pattern of resveratrol and related natural stilbenes.:J Agric Food Chem. 2002; 50(10):2748-54 (ISSN: 0021-8561).Fronza G; Fuganti C; Serra S; Cisero M; Koziet J.Dipartimento di Chimica del Politecnico and CNR, Centro di Studio sulle Sostanze Organiche Naturali, Via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano, Italy.

 The stable isotope characterization of resveratrol 1 from Polygonum cuspidatum and of related natural stilbenes 11 and 12 obtained by hydrolysis of the corresponding glucosides 2 and 3 from Rheum is reported. The C(6)-C(2)-C(6) framework of suitably protected derivatives of 1, 2, and 3 has been degraded with ozone to the C(6)-C(1) aldehydes 4, 5, 9, and 10, retaining all hydrogen atoms of the precursors. The natural and synthetic derivatives are characterized and distinguished by natural abundance deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance studies. In the case of anisaldehyde 4 the two series show, as expected, the characteristic difference of the aromatic labeling. The formyl deuterium contents of 4 and 5 from resveratrol are remarkably different, seemingly reflecting the different enrichments existing between positions 3 and 2, respectively, of the phenylpropanoid precursor. The positional delta(18)O values of the extractive materials 1-3 were also determined. In this instance a selective deoxygenation procedure was adopted, leading from 1 to the products 6, 7, and 8. The delta(18)O values of the latter compounds reveal, respectively, those at position 4' and positions 3 and 5 of 1. Similarly, the phenolic products 11 and 12 were converted into 13 and 14. From the delta(18)O values of the single components it is possible to design a detailed map of the oxygen fractionations which characterizes the stilbenes 1-3. In particular, the oxygen present at position 4' of the phenylpropanoid moiety of 1-3 shows delta(18)O values of +11.5, +1.8, and +6.7 per thousand, respectively. Moreover, the phenolic oxygen atom at position 3' of rhapontin 3 shows a value of +11.7 per thousand. The data are compared with those previously obtained on structurally related compounds. These results show the utility of simple chemical degradations in the stable isotope characterization of structurally complex food components.

   Myocardial protection by protykin, a novel extract of trans-resveratrol and emodin.:Free Radic Res. 2000; 32(2):135-44 (ISSN: 1071-5762).Sato M; Maulik G; Bagchi D; Das DK.University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, USA.

 Protykin is an all-natural, high potency standardized extract of trans-resveratrol (20%) and emodin (10%) derived from the dried rhizome of Polygonum cuspidatum. Previous studies have demonstrated free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities of resveratrol. Since free radicals play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, we examined whether Protykin could preserve the heart during ischemic arrest. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: experimental group was gavaged Protykin (100 mg/kg body wt) dissolved in corn oil for three weeks, while the control group was gavaged corn oil alone. After three weeks, rats were sacrificed, isolated hearts perfused via working mode, were made globally ischemic for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Left ventricular functions were continuously monitored and malonaldehyde (MDA) (presumptive marker for oxidative stress) formation were estimated. At the end of each experiment, myocardial infarct size was measured by TTC staining method. Peroxyl radical scavenging activity of Protykin was determined by examining its ability to remove peroxyl radical generated by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, while hydroxy radical scavenging activity was tested with its ability to reduce 7-OH*-coumarin-3-carboxylic acid. The results of our study demonstrated that the Protykin group provided cardioprotection as evidenced by improved post-ischemic left ventricular functions (dp, dp/dt(max)) and aortic flow as compared to control group. This was further supported by the reduced infarct size in the Protykin group. Formation of MDA was also reduced by Protykin treatment. In vitro studies demonstrated that Protykin possessed potent peroxyl and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The results of this study indicate that Protykin can provide cardioprotection, presumably by virtue of its potent free radical scavenging activity.

   Study on pharmacokinetics of emodin in Rhizoma Polygontum Cuspidatum and its compound.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005; 30(6):463-5 (ISSN: 1001-5302).Yao SK; Jiang Y; Hao XH; Liu HJ; Jang SH; Liu WN.Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To study the difference in the pharmacokinetics of emodin in Zhiganning capsules and Rhizoma Polygontum Cuspidatum by nonaqueous RP-HPLC. METHOD: The rats were orally administered with the extraction of Rhizoma Polygontum Cuspidatum and Zhiganning capsules. After hydrolysis and extraction, the content of emodin in the plasma is determined by Nonaqueous RP-HPLC. RESULT: The concentration-time profiles of emodin fit two-compartment model. The pharmacokinetics parameters including, t1/2alpha, AUC(0-infinity), CL(s) and C(max) of emodin in the group of Rhizoma Polygontum Cuspidatum were significantly different from these in the group of its compounds. CONCLUSION: There is a significant difference in pharmacokinetics of emodin between zhiganning capsules and the extraction of Rhizoma Polygontum Cuspidatum.

   Effect of crystal No 4 of Polygonum cuspidatum on microcirculatory disturbances during burn shock.:Zhonghua Zheng Xing Shao Shang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 1992; 8(2):133-5, 166 (ISSN: 1000-7806).Wu KY.First Medical College of PLA.

 A model of burn shock was reproduced in rat. The effects of crystal No 4 of Polygonum cuspidatum (p. c.) on microcirculation of spinotrapezius muscle in rat with burn shock were observed with a special Hitachi TV set with magnification of 4000x. The changes in water content in tissues of lung and burned skin were measured. The survival time of burned animals was recorded. The aggregation of WBC and the degree of tissue damage in lung were examined in pathologic slides. The results showed that during burn shock the number of adhesive WBC in venules was about 8 times more than normal, the amount of open capillaries was reduced by 3/5 of normal. There were apparent aggregation of WBC and tissue damage in the lung. The number of adhesive WBC was decreased by 80%, the amount of open capillary returned to near normal, and the aggregation of WBC and the degree of tissue damage in the lung were alleviated by administration of crystal No 4 of Polygonum cuspidatum. The survival time in p. c.-treated group was prolonged 1.9-fold of that in n.s.-treated group. The results indicated that the decrease of WBC adherence was caused by, on the one hand, the increase of driving force and wall stress after treatment of p.c., and on the other hand, p. c. might affect some humoral factors which promoted WBC adherence.

   Effect of crystal no. 4 of polygonum cuspidatum on the viability of island flaps with venous stasis: an experimental study.:Zhonghua Zheng Xing Shao Shang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 1994; 10(3):222-5 (ISSN: 1000-7806).Luo S; Luo L.Department of Plastic Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, First Military Medical University, Guangzhou.

 The effects of crystal No. 4 of Polygonum cuspidatum on microcirculatory changes of island flaps in rats following resumption of blood flow after venous occlusion of six hours were observed with a special TV set with magnification of 500X. The pathological events and survival rate of flaps were recorded as well. The results showed that the survival rate, amount of open capillaries, amount of blood flow, and velocity of blood flow of flaps treated by crystal No. 4 of polygonum cuspidatum were much higher than those of untreated control flaps. The white thrombosis and endothelial damage of dermal vessels were alleviated by administration of crystal No. 4 of polygonum cuspsidatum. The experiment also showed that there were no differences between flaps treated with crystal No. 4 of polygonum cuspidatum preoperatively and flaps treated with it postoperatively.

   Improving the method of processing Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. and Spatholobus suberectus Dunn.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1992; 17(8):474-6, 511 (ISSN: 1001-5302).

 This paper is concerned with a comparison of Polygonum cuspidatum with Spatholobus suberectus in cutting, drying time, products, chief compositions and aqueous extracts. The results showed that fresh cut was better than the customary cut, i. e. re-cut pieces, for the former could not only raise the quality specifications and contents of ingredients of the drinking tablets, but also avoid repeated labour, save energy for drying and eliminate waste of drug materials.

   Kinase inhibitors from Polygonum cuspidatum.:J Nat Prod. 1993; 56(10):1805-10 (ISSN: 0163-3864).Jayatilake GS; Jayasuriya H; Lee ES; Koonchanok NM; Geahlen RL; Ashendel CL; McLaughlin JL; Chang CJ Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907.

 Bioassay-directed fractionation of a medicinal plant, Polygonum cuspidatum (Polygonaceae), has led to the discovery of a hydroxystilbene, resveratrol [1], as an inhibitor of a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) partially purified from bovine thymus. Both trans and cis isomers of resveratrol possess comparable protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Comparison of the IC50 values of resveratrol for protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity with those of piceid (resveratrol-O3-beta-glucoside) [2] and resveratrol-O4'-beta-glucoside [3] shows the requirement of free hydroxyl groups on both phenyl rings for the protein-tyrosine kinase inhibition. Protein kinase C inhibitory analysis suggests the requirements of two free hydroxyl groups on one phenyl ring only.

   Emodin, a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor from Polygonum cuspidatum.:J Nat Prod. 1992; 55(5):696-8 (ISSN: 0163-3864).Jayasuriya H; Koonchanok NM; Geahlen RL; McLaughlin JL; Chang CJ.Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907.

 Bioassay-directed fractionation of a Chinese medicinal plant, Polygonum cuspidatum (Polygonaceae), has led to the discovery of an anthraquinone, emodin [1], as a strong inhibitor of a protein tyrosine kinase (p56lck) partially purified from bovine thymus. Comparison of the IC50 values of emodin for protein tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity with physcion [2] and emodin-O8-D-glucoside [3], also isolated from the same plant, reveal the importance of the hydroxyl groups at C-6 and C-8 for the observed activity.


  • Botanical Information,Super Function,Traditional Uses and Modern Research Findings of Antiviral Herb Polygonum Cuspidatum and its phytochemicals.

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