Botanical Description of Common Dandelion species.
- Basic Botanical Information of Dandelion.
- Botanical Description of Common Dandelion species.
- Phytochemicals and Constituents of Herb Dandelion.
- Herb Dandelion:Name Origin,Traditional and Contemporary Use.
- Internally and Externally use of Dandelion.
- Common Uses and Applications of Dandelion Herb and Dandelion Root.
Botanical Description of Common Dandelion species.:
There are about 1000 species of Taraxacum Genus plants on the earth, and about 100 species in China, among which 18 species used medicinally.The herb Dandelion is a commonly used TCM herb in China, it firstly recorded as the name "Pu Gong Cao" in ancient herbal classics Tang Ben Cao(Newly Revised Canon of Materia Medica),in which the plant was described as:“the leaves of Pu Gong Cao looks like endive, flower color yellow, and there are white liquid comes out from the fracture surface……”.
(1).Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.: This species is the common Dandelion, or known as "Pu Gong Ying", the whole plant crimped curly clumps. Root conical, multi-curved, 3-7cm long, the surface of brown, wrinkled, the head of the tan yellow and white hair, some have fallen off. Leaves basal, multi-wrinkled broken, complete leaf needle oblanceolate, 6-15 cm long, 2-3.5 cm wide, greenish brown or dark gray, apex acute or obtuse, margin lobed or pinnatifid split, lobes dentate Or triangular, base attenuate, the next was stalked, the main surface of the underlying obvious, was arachnoid hair. Stems 1 to several, each top turtle hairy. Flowering stems 1 to several, each terminal flower head; involucral bracts multi-layer, the total number of bracts outside the layer, with or without a small horn at the front, the inner 1 layer is 1.5-2 times longer than the outer layer, a small angle apex, corolla Tan or yellowish white. Some see the majority of white-crested oval oblong fruit. Slightly bitter smell.Round achenes. Light smells, slightly bitter taste.
It widely grows in the low altitude area of hillside grassland, roadside, fields, riverbanks. And widely spread in China provinces Anhui, northern Fujian, Gansu,northern Guangdong, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang, and other area of Asia.This species was collected in CP ever since CP1966,and was collected and recorded since the Chinese Traditional Medicine Records 1st Edition of 1961,2nd Edition of 1988.
(2).Taraxeamum sinicum Kitag.: This species is commonly known as Alkali lands Dandelion,or "Jian Di Pu Gong Ying",or "Hua Pu Gong Ying", also known as "Taraxacum borealisinense Kitam.", its leaves obovate branches appearance or narrow-lanceolate, length about 48cm, width 1.2-1.5cm, often more regular pinnately split, lobes 3-7 pairs, apex lobes long form, apex or hook, Base narrow, few glabrous. The total bracts 3 layers, the outer layer 2 front few corners, the inner 1 layer longer than the outer 2 times.
The Alkali lands Dandelion widely distributed in the areas of mainland China in Sichuan, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Hebei, Yunnan, Shanxi, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Gansu and Heilongjiang provinces, growing at altitudes of 300 to 2,900 meters, moist salinities, wilderness and gravel. This species was collected in CP ever since CP1977,was collected and recorded since the Chinese Traditional Medicine Records 1st Edition of 1961,2nd Edition of 1988.
(3).Taraxacum heterolepis Nakai et H.Koidz.: This species is commonly known as "Yi Bao Pu Gong Ying",Petiole base slightly purplish red, arachnoid hairy; leaf oblanceolate, 12-15cm long, 3-4cm wide, apex, base narrow, margin pinnate, lobes wide or narrow triangular, apex acute , Sparse teeth across the board or two were spider silk white hair; old leaves near smooth. The total bracts 3 layers, the outer layer has a small angle, the inner layer is 1.5-2 times longer than the outer layer, slightly smaller angle.This species was collected in CP ever since CP1977,was collected and recorded since the Chinese Traditional Medicine Records 2nd Edition of 1988.
The Taraxacum heterolepis has thick root, leaf hypertrophy, biomass larger. Early spring is one of the earliest plants to return to green, beginning in early April in northeast China. The flowering period is very long, it is more concentrated in June-July and has been extended to September. Fruit from July to September. The Taraxacum heterolepis is stronger in ecological adaptability, can grow in more humid environment and slightly saline soil. Usually grows in the wet grassland, roadside or near the edge of the forest.
(4).Taraxacum asiaticum Dahlst.: This species is commonly known as "Ya Zhou Pu Gong Ying" or "Asian Dandelion", leaves narrow or narrow-shaped, 2.5-9cm long, wide 0.3-0.9cm, pinnately lobed to deep cleft, lobes slightly inverted, triangle shape to the bar, the top lobes larger, or shaped or Narrow-shaped, glabrous or sparsely pilose. Outer bracts have not obvious small angle, the inner layer is longer than the outer layer of 2-2.5 times, no obvious small angle.
(5).Taraxacum erpyhropodium kitag.: This species is commonly known as "Hong Geng Pu Gong Ying" or "Red Stalk Dandelion", petiole short, reddish-purple brown; leaf blade oblanceolate or broadly oblong-obovate, 8-12cm long, 2.5-3cm wide, smooth, obovoid, base narrowed, margin regularly pinnate, lobes triangular, entire or Sparse teeth, red spots on the surface, both sides of spider silk hairy. The total bracts 3 layers, the inner layer 1 layer longer than the outer layer 2.5 times, Stamens color light purple, a small angle.
The Red Stalk Dandelion grows in hillsides, broadleaf forest, valleys, meadows, mild salinization meadow or meadow. Distributed in the northeast, north of China and provinces Gansu, Ningxia. This species was collected and recorded since the Chinese Traditional Medicine Records 1st Edition of 1961,2nd Edition of 1988.
(6).Taraxacum leucanthum Ledeb.: This species is commonly known as "White Flower Dandelion" or "Bai Hua Pu Gong Ying", perennial dwarf herb. The root of the neck is a large number of dark brown residual leaf base leaves linear-lanceolate, nearly entire to shallowly lobed, few for the half-split, with small teeth, long (2-) 3-5 (-8) Cm, 2-5 mm wide, glabrous on both surfaces. Scape 1 to several, 2-6 cm long, glabrous or apically sparsely cordate pilose at top; capitulum 25-30 mm in diam.; Involucre 9-13 mm, total bracts faded Dark green or dark green, apex with a small angle or thickened; outer bracts ovate-lanceolate, slightly wider than to ca. as wide as inner bracts, with broad membranous margin; ligulate usually white , Pale yellow, edge flower tongue back with dark stripes, stigma dry when black. Achenes obovate-oblong, dry straw yellow to light brown or grayish brown, 4 mm long, upper 1/4 with spines, apically constricted to 0.5-1.2 mm long beak base, beak stout, long 3 -6 mm. Crested long 4-5 mm, with pink or thin dirt. Fruit period 6-8 months.Grows in China at 2500-6 000 meters above sea level, hillside wet grassland, valleys, beaches and marsh meadow. Also spread in Iran, Pakistan, Northwest India, Russia and other countries. Mode specimens grows at the Altai mountains.This species was collected and recorded since the Chinese Traditional Medicine Records 2nd Edition of 1988.
(7).Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.: This species is commonly known as "Mountain Dandelion" or "Bai Yuan Pu Gong Ying", perennial herb. Root neck with dark brown remnant petioles. Leaves broadly oblanceolate or lanceolate-oblanceolate, 10-30 cm long, 2-4 cm wide, pinnately divided, 5-8 lobes on each side, lobes triangular, entire or sparsely toothed, lateral Larger lobes, triangular, sparsely arachnoid pilose or glabrous. Scape 1 to several, up to 45 cm, upper densely white spiderlike cottony; head large, ca. 40-45 mm in diam .; involucral broadly bell-shaped, 15-17 mm long, 4-layer, apex with or without horn; outer bracts broadly ovate, dark green central band, the edge of a broad white film quality, the top pink, thinning eyelashes, the inner bracts oblong linear or linear Lanceolate, ca. 2 × as long as outer eyelid; bracts yellow, margin flowers with purplish stripes on back, style and stigmas dark green, when dry ± black. Achenes light brown, about 4 mm long, 1-1.4 mm wide, the top of the spiny nodules, the top suddenly constricted into a conical to cylindrical beak base, beak base length of about 1 millimeter, beak slender, 8-12 mm long Crested white, 7-10 mm long. Fruit period March to June.Growing at area of altitude of 1,900 meters to 3,400 meters, found in hillside grassland and roadside, has not yet been introduced by artificial cultivation. This species was collected and recorded since the Chinese Traditional Medicine Records 1st Edition of 1961,2nd Edition of 1988.
(8).Taraxacum brassicaefolium Kitag.: This species is commonly known as "Mustard leaf Dandelion" or "Jie Ye Pu Gong Ying", perennial herb. Leaves broadly oblanceolate, or broadly linear, resembling mustard leaves, 10-35 cm long, 2.5-6 cm wide, pinnately fissured or large-furred half-cleft, base attenuate into short stalked, winged; Lateral lobes equaling triangle or linear, often upwardly or deciduous, entire or denticulate, without or sharply denticulate between lobes; apical lobes an equilateral triangle, exceedingly wide, entire. Scape number, height 30-50 cm, thick, sparsely arachnoid pilose, smooth, often purple brown; head inflorescence diameter of 55 mm; involucral broadly bell-shaped, 22 mm long, base circle Shaped or cut round, apex with short hornlike protrusions; outer bracts narrowly ovate or linear-lanceolate; inner bracts linear-lanceolate, apex purplish; inflorescences with small oval Membrane care tablets; tongue flowers yellow, edge flowers tongue with purple stripes on the back. Achenes oblong-oblong, pale greenish brown, ca. 4 mm, upper prickle-like, middle with short, blunt nodules, lower part smoothing, apex abruptly constricted into a cylindrical beak base, long 0. 5--0.7 mm, beak 10-15 mm long; crested white, 7-9 mm long. Fruiting from April to June.This species was collected and recorded since the Chinese Traditional Medicine Records 2nd Edition of 1988.
(9).Taraxacum ohwianum Kitam.: This species is commonly known as "East North Dandelion",or "Dong Bei Gong Ying", leaves oblong inverted technical appearance, length 9-20cm, width 2-5cm, big head rupture or the current situation of deep cleft, lobes slightly inverted, triangular or narrow triangle, the top lobes large, flat diamond or triangle, all, both sides were Glabrous hair. Outer bracts no or not obvious small angle, the inner layer is longer than the outer layer of 2-2.5 times, no horn.
The Taraxacum ohwianum Kitam normally grows in low altitude mountain or hillside road. Distributed in Northeast of China, Russia and other areas.
- 1.Dandelion:Taraxacum officinale or Pu Gong Ying,a traditional herb with bitter taste for detoxification and heat clear,its uses and applications guide,notes from ancient classics and modern discovery.
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