Fennel.Fructus Foeniculi.Foeniculum vulgare Mill.Xiao Hui Xiang.


Research Update:Fennel.Fructus Foeniculi.Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

Fennel Seed Foeniculum Vulgare Fructus Foeniculi   Effects of essential oils from fennel (Foeniculi aetheroleum) and caraway (Carvi aetheroleum) in pigs.:J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2006 Dec;90(11-12):500-10.Sch?ne F, Vetter A, Hartung H, Bergmann H, Biertümpfel A, Richter G, Müller S, Breitschuh G.Thuringian State Institute of Agriculture, Jena, Germany. f.schoene@jena.tll.de

 The ban of antibiotics as a feed additive requires alternatives to stabilize the health and performance particularly of the young animals. Essential oils obtained from fennel seed (Foeniculi aetheroleum) and caraway seed (Carvi aetheroleum) were tested in diets for weaned piglets in comparison with either a diet without feed additive or with a combination of formic acid and copper (positive control). Four groups of sixteen piglets (live weight 7 kg, age 26 days) received diets without (1) or with supplements of 7.5 g formic acid + 160 mg Cu/kg (2), 100 mg fennel oil/kg (3) or 100 mg caraway oil/kg (4) during 3 weeks after weaning. In the subsequent 4 weeks, all piglets were fed a diet without these additions. Fennel oil contained almost 2/3 anethol, approximately 1/5 fenchon and the remaining part consisting of alpha + beta-pinen, limonen (p-mentha-1,8-dien) and estragol. In the caraway oil, half of the contents was represented by limonen and the other half by carvon. There were no piglet losses and only few cases of diarrhoea. The combination of formic acid and copper increased feed consumption by 27% and daily weight gain by 25%. There were no differences in the performance between the group fed fennel oil and the control without additives. Piglets fed caraway oil tended to consume less feed and to gain approximately 10% less. In feed choice experiments, pigs consumed the same two diets from two troughs with 50% of total feed amount, as expected. The diets containing fennel or caraway oils were consumed at less than 50%. If the diet contained 100 mg fennel oil/kg, the decrease of percentual feed intake was significant. The results of the feeding experiment and of the feed choice experiment question the classification of fennel and caraway oils as flavour additives or as 'appetite promoters' in diets for weaned piglets.

  Comparative chemical composition and antioxidant activities of wild and cultivated Laurus nobilis L. leaves and Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum (Ucria) coutinho seeds.:Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Oct;29(10):2056-64.Conforti F, Statti G, Uzunov D, Menichini F.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Calabria, Rende, Italy. filomena.conforti@unical.it

 The chemical composition and antioxidant activities of wild and cultivated Laurus nobilis leaves and Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum seeds were determined. Differences were found in the total phenolic content of fennel. GC-MS analysis of the non polar fractions showed a different composition between wild and cultivated plants. Cultivated laurel had a high content of terpenes such as linool, alpha-terpinol, alpha-terpinyl acetate, thymol, caryophyllene, aromandrene, selinene, farnesene, and cadinene, while wild laurel had a high content of eugenol and methyl eugenol, vitamin E, and sterols. The antioxidant potential of the extracts was determined using three complementary methods. Wild plants showed greater radical scavenging activity than the cultivated plants. The extracts also exhibited a significant antioxidant capacity also in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid test system. A high level of antioxidant activity was observed in wild laurel (IC50 = 1 microg/ml). Significant antioxidant activity measured in bovine brain was observed in wild laurel.

  Volatile components and key odorants of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and supercritical fluid extraction.:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jun 29;53(13):5385-9.Díaz-Maroto MC, Díaz-Maroto Hidalgo IJ, Sánchez-Palomo E, Pérez-Coello MS.Area de Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain. MariaConsuelo.Diaz@uclm.es

 Volatile oil extracts of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In general, fennel oil extracted by SDE and SFE showed similar compositions, with trans-anethole, estragole, and fenchone as the main components. In contrast, thymol and p-cymene, the most abundant compounds in thyme leaves, showed big differences, with generally higher amounts of monoterpenes obtained by SDE. However, in this case, the differences between the extracts were higher. Key odorants of fennel seeds determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) showed similar patterns when applying SDE and SFE. trans-Anethole (anise, licorice), estragole (anise, licorice, sweet), fenchone (mint, camphor, warm), and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom) were the most intense odor compounds detected in fennel extracts. Thymol and carvacrol, with oregano, thyme, and spicy notes, were identified as key compounds contributing to the aroma of thyme leaves.

  Molecular epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serovar Agona: characterization of a diffuse outbreak caused by aniseed-fennel-caraway infusion.:Epidemiol Infect. 2005 Oct;133(5):837-44.Rabsch W, Prager R, Koch J, Stark K, Roggentin P, Bockemühl J, Beckmann G, Stark R, Siegl W, Ammon A, Tsch?pe H.National Reference Centre for Salmonella and other Enteric Pathogens, Robert Koch Institute, Wernigerode, Germany.

 During 2002-2003 increased numbers of notified salmonellosis due to S. enterica serovar Agona were observed in Germany. In order to understand the recent spread of this serovar and to trace the route of infection to its source, a new phage-typing scheme and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used to analyse these isolates. By using 14 bacteriophages, 52 phage types were distinguished among the S. Agona strains. PFGE also differentiated 52 different patterns. A combination of both methods generated 94 clonal types among 165 S. Agona strains originating from Germany and other countries including the United States, United Arab Emirates, Turkey, India, Austria and Finland, indicating a great biological diversity within this serovar. However, 36 recent S. Agona isolates from infantile gastroenteritis in Germany, from an untreated batch of aniseed imported from Turkey and from fennel-aniseed-caraway infusion (packed in tea bags) revealed clonal identity indicating their epidemiological relatedness as a new source of infection. It is suggested that strains of S. Agona will continue to be of public health concern, and that phage typing together with PFGE typing should be applied as reliable and rapid tools for epidemiological subtyping and future monitoring.

  Antibacterial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller Var. vulgare (Miller) essential oils.:J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Dec 29;52(26):7862-6.Lo Cantore P, Iacobellis NS, De Marco A, Capasso F, Senatore F.Dipartimento di Biologia, Difesa e Biotecnologie Agro Forestali, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Viale dell'Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza, Italy.

 Essential oils were extracted from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. vulgare (Miller) and assayed in vitro for antibacterial activity to Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium, bacteria routinely used for comparison in the antimicrobial assays, and 27 phytopathogenic bacterial species and two mycopathogenic ones responsible for cultivated mushroom diseases. A significant antibacterial activity, as determined with the agar diffusion method, was shown by C. sativum essential oil whereas a much reduced effect was observed for F. vulgare var. vulgare oil. C. sativum and F. vulgare var. vulgare essential oils may be useful natural bactericides for the control of bacterial diseases of plants and for seed treatment, in particular, in organic agriculture. The significant antibacterial activity of essential oils to the bacterial pathogens of mushrooms appears promising.

  On the way to a quality control of the essential oil of fennel by means of Raman spectroscopy.:Biopolymers. 2005 Jan;77(1):44-52.Strehle MA, R?sch P, Baranska M, Schulz H, Popp J.Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Friedrich-Schiller-Universit?t Jena, Helmholtzweg 4, D-07743 Jena, Germany.

 Essential oils are one of the most valuable natural products. The price of special essential oils that can be purchased on the market strongly depends on the quality of the product. The quality, which depends on the quantitative and qualitative variation of different monoterpenes, varies with respect of the origin and the harvesting period. This contribution reports on a Raman spectroscopic study on the essential oil occurring in fennel. Cross-sections of fennel seed were investigated by use of Raman spectroscopy and Raman mapping to localize the essential oil and to analyze its chemical composition directly in the plant. Furthermore the practicability of a home-built mobile transportable Raman spectrometer to perform on-site measurements was successfully tested.

  The effect of a herbal water-extract on histamine release from mast cells and on allergic asthma.:J Herb Pharmacother. 2003;3(4):41-54.Haggag EG, Abou-Moustafa MA, Boucher W, Theoharides TC.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Cairo, 11795, Egypt.

 A water extract of a mixture of eight herbs (chamomile, saffron, anise, fennel, caraway, licorice, cardomom and black seed) was tested for its inhibitory effect on histamine released from rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated either by compound 48/80 or be IgE/anti-IgE. The effect of the herb extract was compared to that of the flavonoid quercetin. The herbal water-extract inhibited histamine released from chemically- and immunologically-induced cells by 81% and 85%, respectively; quercetin treated cells were inhibited by 95% and 97%, respectively. The clinical results showed significant improvements of sleep discomfort, cough frequency and cough intensity in addition to increased percentages of FEV1/FVC in patients suffering from allergic asthma, who used the herbal tea compared to those who used the placebo tea.

  Study on selective isolation of volatile oil in the seed of Fructus foeniculi.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Mar;28(3):240-2.Wang C, Gong NB, Zheng QT, Guo WS, Lu Y.Institue of Materia Medica, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100050, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To study the selective isolation of a single chemical component from volatile oil of Fructus foeniculi by inclucion method. METHOD: The host molecule was selected and a single chemical component isolated from volatile oil by the host-guest recognition. RESULT: X-ray single crystal analysis showed that 1,1,6,6-tetraphenylhexa-2, 4-diyne-1, 6-diol could successfully include 4-[1-propenyl] benzaldehyde from volatile oil of Fructus foeniculi. CONCLUSION: The host-guest inclusion technology can be used to isolate a single component selectively from mixture.

  Antitumor activity of herbal supplements in human prostate cancer xenografts implanted in immunodeficient mice.:Anticancer Res. 2003 Sep-Oct;23(5A):3585-90.Ng SS, Figg WD.Molecular Pharmacology Section, Cancer Therapeutics Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

 BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. Therapeutic options for metastatic prostate cancer are limited. The use of herbal therapies in the treatment of this malignancy remains controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested five herbal supplements, designated FB, FM, PP, HF and FBL101, which contain different combinations of various natural herbs such as licorice, black cohosh, Dong Quai, false unicorn and vitex berry root extracts, fennel seed extract, red clover blossoms extract as well as genistein and gamma oryzanol, for antitumor activity in severely combined immunodeficient mice bearing CWR22R and PC3 prostate cancer xenografts. Their mechanisms of action were also explored. RESULTS: FB, FM, PP, HF and FBL101 inhibited PC3 tumor growth by 53%, 75%, 80%, 81% and 87%, respectively. In CWR22R tumors, similar growth suppression was observed with all supplements. Total plasma testosterone levels were not significantly altered by the supplements relative to the untreated control. PP and FBL101 significantly reduced VEGF levels in PC3 and CWR22R tumors, respectively. Intratumoral microvessel density was decreased in PC3 tumors treated with all five supplements but only in CWR22R tumors treated with HF. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that herbal supplements containing the aforementioned extracts inhibit the growth of prostate tumor xenografts, possibly in part by antiangiogenic mechanisms. The potential use of these herbal supplements as preventive and therapeutic agents in prostate cancer warrants further investigation.

  Antihirsutism activity of Fennel (fruits of Foeniculum vulgare) extract. A double-blind placebo controlled study.:Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):455-8.Javidnia K, Dastgheib L, Mohammadi Samani S, Nasiri A.Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. javidniak@sums.ac.ir

 Idiopathic hirsutism is defined as the occurrence of excessive male pattern hair growth in women who have a normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and normal levels of serum androgens. It may be a disorder of peripheral androgen metabolism. In this study we evaluated the clinical response of idiopathic hirsutism to topical Fennel extract. Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, is a plant, which has been used as an estrogenic agent. The ethanolic extract of Fennel was obtained by using a soxhlete apparatus. In a double blind study, 38 patients were treated with creams containing 1%, 2% of Fennel extract and placebo. Hair diameter was measured and rate of growth was considered. The efficacy of treatment with the cream containing 2% Fennel is better than the cream containing 1% Fennel and these two were more potent than placebo. The mean values of hair diameter reduction was 7.8%, 18.3% and -0.5% for patients receiving the creams containing 1%, 2% and 0% (placebo) respectively.

  The effect of fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare) seed oil emulsion in infantile colic: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.:Altern Ther Health Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;9(4):58-61.Alexandrovich I, Rakovitskaya O, Kolmo E, Sidorova T, Shushunov S.Department of Pediatrics, St. Petersburg Medical Academy of Postdoctoral Education, St. Petersburg, Kirochnaya, Russia.

 CONTEXT: Despite its benign, natural course, colic is a significant problem in infants and imparts a psychological, emotional, and physical burden to parents. Dicyclomine hydrochloride is the only pharmacological treatment for infantile colic that has been consistently effective. Unfortunately, 5% of infants treated with dicyclomine hydrochloride develop serious side effects, including death. Fennel seed oil has been shown to reduce intestinal spasms and increase motility of the small intestine. However, there have not been any clinical studies of its effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of fennel seed oil emulsion in infantile colic. DESIGN: Randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTINGS: Two large multi-specialty clinics. SUBJECTS: 125 infants, 2 to 12 weeks of age, who met definition of colic. INTERVENTION: Fennel seed oil emulsion compared with placebo. OUTCOME MEASURE: Relief of colic symptoms, which was defined as decrease of cumulative crying to less than 9 hours per week. RESULTS: The use of fennel oil emulsion eliminated colic, according to the Wessel criteria, in 65% (40/62) of infants in the treatment group, which was significantly better than 23.7% (14/59) of infants in the control group (P < 0.01). There was a significant improvement of colic in the treatment group compared with the control group [Absolute Risk Reduction (ARR) = 41% (95% CI 25 to 57), Number Needed to Treat (NNT) = 2 (95% CI 2 to 4)]. Side effects were not reported for infants in either group during the trial. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that fennel seed oil emulsion is superior to placebo in decreasing intensity of infantile colic.

  Essential oil composition and antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare Mill obtained by different distillation conditions.:Phytother Res. 2003 Apr;17(4):368-71.Mimica-Duki? N, Kujundzi? S, Sokovi? M, Couladis M.Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 3, 21000, Novi Sad, Yugoslavia. mimica@ih.ns.ac.yu

 The influence of different hydrodistillation conditions was evaluated from the standpoint of essential oil yield, chemical composition and antifungal activity from seeds of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Three hydrodistillation conditions were considered. The main constituents of the oils were: (E)-anethole (72.27%-74.18%), fenchone (11.32%-16.35%) and methyl chavicol (3.78%-5.29%). The method of distillation significantly effected the essential oil yield and quantitative composition, although the antifungal activity of the oils against some fungi was only slightly altered.

  Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and food allergy because of aniseed sensitization.:Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2002 May;88(5):518-22.García-González JJ, Bartolomé-Zavala B, Fernández-Meléndez S, Barceló-Mu?oz JM, Miranda Páez A, Carmona-Bueno MJ, Vega-Chicote JM, Negro Carrasco MA, Ameal Godoy A, Pamies Espinosa R.Allergy Section, Complejo Hospitalario Carlos Haya, Málaga, Spain. alergiab@hch.sas.cica.es

 BACKGROUND: Aniseed is a spice frequently used in Mediterranean cooking and, as with other Umbelliferae, it has been involved in clinical allergy. OBJECTIVE: This investigation was undertaken to study the allergens implicated in a case of occupational allergy to aniseed associated with rhinoconjunctivitis and gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: Skin prick tests were performed to inhalant allergens, spices used in the patient's workplace (aniseed and cinnamon), and 12 other Umbelliferae spices, birch, and mugwort. A nasal challenge test to aniseed and cinnamon and a double-blind placebo-controlled oral food challenge test to aniseed were also performed. The molecular weights of the allergens were studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis immunoblotting and cross-reactivity among Umbelliferae species by enzyme immunoassay inhibition. RESULTS: Skin prick tests showed a positive immediate response to aniseed, asparagus, caraway, coriander, cumin, dill, and fennel extracts, and an intense late response to aniseed. Skin prick tests to celery, carrot, birch pollen, and mugwort pollen extracts were negative. Results of a nasal challenge test were positive to aniseed and negative to cinnamon; an aniseed oral food challenge test yielded a positive response. The molecular weights of the main immunoglobulin (Ig)E-binding proteins in aniseed extracts were approximately 48, 42, 39, 37, 34, 33, and 20 kD. Caraway, fennel, cumin, and coriander extracts showed similar IgE-binding patterns. Enzyme immunoassay inhibition studies with the patient's serum revealed cross-reactivity among the IgE components from aniseed, caraway, coriander, fennel, and dill extracts. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the presence of aniseed allergens in a case of occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and food allergy, with molecular weights for this spice that differed from those previously reported.

  Anaerobic utilization of essential oils by denitrifying bacteria.:Biodegradation. 2000;11(1):55-63.Harder J, Heyen U, Probian C, Foss S.Department of Microbiology, Max-Planck-Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany. jharder@mpi-bremen.de

 Plant volatile organic compounds are a major carbon source in nature. We studied the degradability of these substances by anaerobic microorganisms in enrichment cultures with representative essential oils as organic substrates and nitrate as electron acceptor. Lemon and pine needle oil supported microbial growth in the presence of pure oil, whereas parsley seed, camphor, sage, fennel, and mint oil supported growth only when the essential oils were dissolved in an overlying phase of 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane. Thyme oil did not support denitrification. Analyses of the microbially degraded oils revealed the disappearance of monoterpenes, of several monoterpenoids, and of methoxy-propenyl-benzenes, including apiole and myristicin. Most-probable-number determinations for denitrifying communities in sewage sludge and forest soil yielded 10(6) to 10(7) monoterpene-utilizing cells ml(-1), representing 0.7 to 100% of the total cultivable nitrate-reducing microorganisms. The utilization of essential oils together with the common occurrence of this metabolic trait are indications for an environmentally important, but currently unexplored anaerobic turnover of plant volatile organic compounds in soil.

  Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and fractionation of fennel oil.:J Agric Food Chem. 1999 Apr;47(4):1635-40.Simándi B, Deák A, Rónyai E, Yanxiang G, Veress T, Lemberkovics E, Then M, Sass-Kiss A, Vámos-Falusi Z.Central Food Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary. simandi.vmt@chem.bme.hu

 Ground fennel seeds were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide. Small-scale subsequent extractions of the same sample showed that the composition of volatile compounds was changed with the extension of extraction time and only principal volatile components (limonene, fenchone, methylchavicol, and anethole) were present in the last-extracted sample. Fennel oil was successfully fractionated into the essential oil rich and fatty oil rich products in pilot-scale apparatus using two separators in series. Designed experiments were carried out to map the effects of pressure and temperature in the first separator on the yields and compositions of the products. The minimum level of the total undesired components in both essential oil rich and fatty oil rich products appeared at a pressure of 80-84 bar and a temperature of 31-35 degrees C in the first separator. Supercritical CO(2) extraction of fennel seeds resulted in higher yield (10.0%) than steam distillation (3.0%), almost the same yield as hexane extraction (10.6%), and lower yield than alcohol extraction (15.4%). Analysis of the volatile compounds revealed the significant difference of the composition in distilled oil and oleoresins prepared by CO(2) and solvent extractions. Sensory evaluation showed that the CO(2) extraction product and distilled oil were more intense in odor and taste than alcohol and hexane extracts.

  Influence of gamma-irradiation and microwaves on the antioxidant property of some essential oils.:Int J Food Sci Nutr. 1998 Mar;49(2):109-15.Farag RS, el-Khawas KH.Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

 The antioxidant property of anise, caraway, cumin and fennel essential oils extracted from untreated, gamma-irradiated and microwaved fruits against sunflower oil oxidative rancidity was evaluated. The fruits were exposed to gamma-irradiation at 10 KGy and to microwaves at low oven power setting for 1 min. The essential oils were added individually (200 ppm) to sunflower oil and the rate of oil oxidation was followed by determining the peroxide value during storage at room temperature. The irradiated and microwaved essential oils exhibited an antioxidant activity and was superior to that of sunflower oil catalysed by a mixture of BHT + BHA (200 ppm) in most cases. The present data show that gamma-irradiation and microwave treatments did not affect the antioxidant property of the essential oils under study. In addition the essential oils extracted from the gamma-irradiated fruits were more effective as an antioxidant in sunflower oil than those produced from microwaved fruits.

  Occupational allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma due to fennel seed.:Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1997 Jan;78(1):37-40.Schwartz HJ, Jones RT, Rojas AR, Squillace DL, Yunginger JW.Department of Medicine, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, Ohio, USA.

 BACKGROUND: A patient with complaints of rhinitis and asthma occurring at work presented for consultation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of the foods and spices with which he worked, in the causation of his complaints, and to evaluate his immune reactivity to these materials. METHODS: Allergy skin testing and in vitro RAST assays were carried out. After demonstrating specific reactivity to fennel, SDS-PAGE electrophoreses was carried out. RESULTS: Positive skin tests to grass, ragweed, and freshly prepared fennel seed were found. Serum IgE antibodies to fennel were quite high. Immunoblotting studies showed reactions to two components in fennel extract as well as to components in mugwort, paprika, short ragweed and black pepper. CONCLUSION: This case of occupational rhinitis and asthma in an atopic individual involves sensitivity to unique allergens in fennel, with molecular weights of 67 to 75 KD.

  Microbiological survey of selected imported spices and associated fecal pellet specimens.:J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1989 Jul-Aug;72(4):632-7.Satchell FB, Bruce VR, Allen G, Andrews WH, Gerber HR.Food and Drug Administration, Division of Microbiology, Washington, DC 20204.

 A microbiological survey was performed on 4 selected imported spices: black peppercorns, white peppercorns, coriander, and fennel seed. Aerobic plate count values ranged from 10(4) to 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU)/g for black and white peppercorns and from 10(3) to 10(5) CFU/g for coriander and fennel seed. Combined results of the 3-tube most probable number procedure and the API 20E kit indicated the presence of Escherichia coli in 4 test samples of black peppercorns, 1 test sample of white peppercorns, and 1 test sample of coriander. Two test samples of black peppercorns were positive for Salmonella contamination. Among the various Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the spices, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae were found most frequently in all spice types. Of 18 mammalian and avian fecal pellets removed from the spices and analyzed microbiologically, E. coli was found in only 2 pellet specimens. There was no apparent relationship between the enteric microflora found in spices and those found in the fecal pellets.

  Mycoflora of anise and fennel seeds in Egypt.:J Basic Microbiol. 1989;29(7):427-35.Moharram AM, Abdel-Mallek AY, Abdel-Hafez AI.Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Egypt.

 Using four medium types (glucose-, cellulose-, 50% sucrose- and 10% NaCl-Czapek's agar), it was possible to isolate 15 fungal genera, 78 species and 6 varieties. The collective fungal spectrum varied from one medium to another where the highest number of species (57 species/1000 seeds) was obtained on glucose- and the lowest (31 species/1000 seeds) on 10% NaCl-Czapek's agar. Aspergillus, Penicillium, and sometimes Rhizopus and Chaetomium were the most common genera on the different medium types. The most common fungal species especially on glucose- and cellulose-Czapek's agar were, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. fumigatus, A. flavus var. columnaris, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus stolonifer and Chaetomium globosum. Members of A. glaucus group were more frequently recovered on 10% NaCl- and 50% sucrose-Czapek's agar.

  Clonal propagation of chemically uniform fennel plants through somatic embryoids.:Planta Med. 1987 Feb;53(1):92-4.

 Somatic embryoids obtained from cell suspension cultures of fennel in Linsmaier-Skoog medium containing 2,4-D and kinetin readily developed into plantlets when plated on a hormone-free agar medium. These plants were transplanted to the field to be tested for the uniformity of the chemically as well as the morphologically important characteristics of fruits. The results of field trials conducted for two years have confirmed that the clonal plants derived from somatic embryoids are remarkably uniform in all the characteristics examined in comparison with the control plants propagated through seeds. It is suggested, therefore, that the quality control of fennel fruits used for spice or medicine could be achieved by means of clonal propagation through somatic embryoids.

  Effect of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seed extract on the genital organs of male and female rats.:Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1985 Jan-Mar;29(1):21-6.Malini T, Vanithakumari G, Megala N, Anusya S, Devi K, Elango V.

 Following the oral administration of acetone extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) seeds for 15 days is male rats, total protein concentration was found to be significantly decreased in testes and vas deferens and increased in seminal vesicles and prostate gland. There was a decrease in activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase in all these regions, except that alkaline phosphatase was unchanged in vasa. In female rats, oral administration of the extract for 10 days led to vaginal cornification and oestrus cycle. While moderate doses caused increase in weight of mammary glands, higher doses increased the weight of oviduct, endometrium, myometrium, cervix and vagina also. The results confirm the oestrogenic activity of the seed extract.

  Effects of fungal metabolites on the germination of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seeds.:Toxicol Lett. 1983 Jun;17(1-2):81-4.Sharma AK, Sharma KD.

 The metabolites of some test fungi adversely affected the seed germination. The maximum reduction was caused by a culture filtrate of Penicillium citrinum followed by Fusarium moniliforme and F. equiseti, while the minimum was caused by Mucor sp. A gradual increase in effective metabolite production was observed by all the fungi up to 15 days.

  The effect of fertilizer treatments on yield of seed and volatile oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.).:Pharmazie. 1978 Sep;33(9):607-8.Abdallah N, El-Gengaihi S, Sedrak E.

 Nitrogen fertilization gave higher number of compound umbels and increased oil percentage, seed yield and oil yield with increase in dose. Phosphorus and potassium produced significant increase in the previons aspects with the second dose only.

  The effect of date of sowing and plant spacing on yield of seed and volatile oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.).:Pharmazie. 1978 Sep;33(9):605-6.El-Gengaihi S, Abdallah N.

 Wider spacing produced taller fennel plants. The compound umbels per plant increased as the distance between plants increased. The yield of seed per plant was greater in wider spacing. On the other hand, the medium space (30 cm) produced higher seed and oil contant per acre. Early sown plants produced taller plants, with higher compound umbels. The oil percentage was not affected while higher yield of seed and oil were significantly obtained.

  On the phenolic acids of vegetables. IV. Hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxybenzoic acids of vegetables and potatoes (author's transl):Z Lebensm Unters Forsch. 1975 Dec 16;159(5):255-63.Schmidtlein H, Herrmann K.

 Lettuce, endive and chicory exclusively, cornsalad and sweet fennel almost exclusively contain caffeic acid derivatives beside traces of ferulic acid. Parsley exclusively and spinach almost exclusively show p-coumaric acid derivatives. Compared to root, fruit and seed vegetables the contents of phenolic acids in green leaves are considerably high. Rhubarb is the only vegetable, which contains gallic acid (chief phenolic acid) beside hydroxycinnamic, protocatechuic and vanillic acid derivatives. Furthermore hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives (salicylic, gentisic and vanillic acid) occur in cornsalad, sweet fennel, parsley and spinach in small concentrations; cornsalad shows p-hydroxybenzoic acid (ca. 20 mg/kg). Onions (Allium cepa) contain almost only protocatechuic acid beside small amounts of p-hydroxybenzoic and vanillic acid. In the outer dry coloured skins protocatechuic acid reaches concentrations up to 2% of plant material; the internal pulpy tissues show lower concentrations (ca. 20 mg/kg). On the contrary to the bulbs the green leaves of onions like chive and leek contain almost exclusively compounds of ferulic and p-coumaric acid. Garlic even shows a different phenolic acid pattern of skins and internal tissues. The caffeic acid derivatives of potatoes are mainly localized to a 1--2 mm thick outer layer. The different localization of phenolic acids in the different parts of vegetable plants is discussed.

  Determination of thirteen metal elements in the plant Foeniculum vulgare Mill. by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry.:Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2006 Oct;26(10):1935-8.Xue GQ, Liu Q, Han YQ, Wei HG, Dong T.Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Resources and Environment Chemistry of West China, Hexi University, Zhangye 734000, China.

 The objective of the paper is to determine the amount of metal elements of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cd, Cr and Pb in the planted Foeniculum vulgare Mill. by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS), after the cinefaction and the digestion with HNO3-HClO4 (phi 4:1) at 90-95 degrees C and normal pressure. The optimum parameters of FAAS and the effects of solution medium on the results were investigated. The analytical results show that the amount of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb was 1508.7, 27653.0, 2036.0, 4848.1, 24.8, 323.5, 15.2, 23.7 and 10.8 microg x g(-1), respectively, and that of Co, Ni, Cd and Cr was not checked out in the samples. The recovery of standard addition is 97.45%-102.50%, the relative standard deviation (n=9) was 0.34%-2.77%. The characteristic method is quick, simple and convenient and the results are satisfactory.

  Headspace solvent microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile compounds from Foeniculum vulgare Mill.:J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006 Jun 7;41(3):791-7. Epub 2006 Feb 20.Fang L, Qi M, Li T, Shao Q, Fu R.Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

 A novel and rapid headspace solvent microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSME-GC-MS) for the analysis of the volatile compounds of Foeniculum vulgare Mill is described. HSME parameters including extracting solvent, extraction temperature and time, headspace volume and particle size were optimized. As a result, benzyl alcohol was finally used for the extraction at 70 degrees C for 20 min with headspace volume of 12.1 ml and particle size of 120 mesh. Under the determined conditions, the powered samples of Foeniculum vulgare Mill were directly applied for the analysis. A comparison of HSME-GC-MS, solid phase microextraction (SPME)-GC-MS and steam distillation (SD)-GC-MS methods was made and showed that the HSME-GC-MS method was simple, inexpensive and effective and can be used for the analysis of volatile compounds in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs).

  Antioxidant properties of essential oils: autoxidation of essential oils from laurel and fennel and effects of mixing with essential oil from coriander.:Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2005 Nov-Dec;41(6):693-702.Misharina TA, Polshkov AN.

 Changes in the composition of essential oils from the seeds of laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling) and their mixture with essential oil from coriander were studied by capillary gas-liquid chromatography during storage in the dark and in light. Under these conditions, essential oil of laurel retained its composition for 12 months. Essential oil of fennel was rapidly oxidized in light. However, the rate of its oxidation in the dark was lower. The major component of essential oil of fennel, transanethol, had a lower antioxidant activity than essential oil of coriander. The mixture of essential oils from laurel and coriander possessed antioxidant properties and strongly inhibited the oxidation of components of the fennel oil.

  Exchangeable sodium induced changes in yield, water relation and cation composition of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).:J Environ Biol. 2005 Jun;26(2 Suppl):335-40.Garg VK, Singh PK, Pushpangadan P.Soil Science Division, National Botanical Research Institute, Rand Pratap Marg, Lucknow, India. vkgarg4@rediffmail.com

 A pot experiment was conducted with the objectives to assess the adaptation potential of fennel crop grown at 10, 20, 25, 35 and 40 ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) levels. Results showed that the rate of seed germination, plant growth including branching pattern, umbels per plant and 1000 test seed weight were adversely affected by sodic soils. Assuming that fifty percent reduction in seed yield and Na+/K+ ratio in leaf tissue as an index of alkali tolerance revealed that fennel was tolerant up to 25 ESP. The cell sap pH and EC reflected optimum osmoticum maintenance to withstand sodicity stress at this level and beyond this leaf water potential decreased (negatively) more to impede water uptake.

  Repellency and toxicity of aromatic plant extracts against the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae).:Pest Manag Sci. 2005 Jun;61(6):597-604.Traboulsi AF, El-Haj S, Tueni M, Taoubi K, Nader NA, Mrad A.Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon. abdallah@cyberia.net.lb

 The insecticidal activities of essential oil extracts from leaves, flowers and roots of aromatic plants against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus Forskal were determined. Extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill were the most toxic, followed by those of Ferula hermonis Boiss, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, Pinus pinea L, Laurus nobilis L and Eucalyptus spp with LC50 values of 24.5, 44.0, 60.0, 75.0, 117.0 and 120.0 mg litre(-1), respectively. Combination tests between the LC50 and the maximum sub-lethal concentration (MSLC) were determined. Over 20 major components were identified in extracts from each plant species tested. Five essential oils and nine pure components were studied for their repellency against mosquito bites. Terpineol and 1,8-cineole were the most effective against Culex pipiens molestus bites offering complete protection for 1.6 and 2 h, respectively.

  Chemical compositions and antibacterial effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on common foodborne pathogens.:J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Dec 29;52(26):8255-60.Dadalioglu I, Evrendilek GA.Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Tayfur Sokmen Campus, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Alahan, Hatay, Turkey.

 Chemical compositions and inhibitory effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz & P. H. Davis), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined. After the essential oils were applied on the foodborne pathogens at doses of 0 (control), 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 80 microL/mL, the resultant numbers of cells surviving were counted. Results revealed that all essential oils exhibited a very strong antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria (P < 0.05). Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry analyses revealed that carvacrol (68.23%), 1,8-cineole (60.72%), fenchone (55.79%), and trans-anethole (85.63%) were the predominant constituents in Turkish oregano, bay laurel, Spanish lavender, and fennel essential oils, respectively.

  Improved growth and essential oil yield and quality in Foeniculum vulgare mill on mycorrhizal inoculation supplemented with P-fertilizer.:Bioresour Technol. 2004 Jul;93(3):307-11.Kapoor R, Giri B, Mukerji KG.Environmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. rupam@biology.du.ac.in

 Two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus macrocarpum and Glomus fasciculatum significantly improved growth and essential oil concentration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. However, AM inoculation of plants along with phosphorus fertilization significantly enhanced growth, P-uptake and essential oil content of plants compared to either of the components applied separately. Among the two fungal inoculants, G. fasciculatum registered the highest growth at both levels of phosphorus used with up to 78% increase in essential oil concentration of fennel seeds over non-mycorrhizal control. The essential oil characterization by gas liquid chromatography revealed that the level of anethol was significantly enhanced on mycorrhization.

  Bioguided isolation and identification of the nonvolatile antioxidant compounds from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) waste.:J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Apr 7;52(7):1890-7.Parejo I, Viladomat F, Bastida J, Schmeda-Hirschmann G, Burillo J, Codina C.Departament de Productes Naturals, Biologia Vegetal i Edafologia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain.

 A bioguided isolation of an aqueous extract of fennel waste led to the isolation of 12 major phenolic compounds. Liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC/UV/APCI-MS) combined with spectroscopic methods (NMR) was used for compound identification. Radical scavenging activity was tested using three methods: DPPH*, superoxide nitro-blue tetrazolium hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase, and *OH/luminol chemiluminescence. In addition to products described in the literature, eight antioxidant compounds were isolated and identified for the first time in fennel: 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, rosmarinic acid, eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. The structures of eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide were completely elucidated by two-dimensional NMR experiments. The isolated compounds exhibited a strong antiradical scavenging activity, which may contribute to the interpretation of the pharmacological effects of fennel.

  Identification by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses and quantification of constituents of fennel teas and decoctions.:J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Oct;48(10):4734-8.Bilia AR, Fumarola M, Gallori S, Mazzi G, Vincieri FF.Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, University of Florence, via Gino Capponi 9, 50121 Florence, Italy. bilia@farmfi.scifarm.unifi.it

 Qualitative and quantitative differences among the constituents in various fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., family Apiaceae) teas prepared by classical infusion, microwave decoction, and dissolution are reported. Different commercial starting materials, such as fruit (unbroken and crushed), four herbal teas, and two instant herbal teas were evaluated. Chlorogenic acid (1), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide (2), p-anisaldehyde (3), and trans-anethole (4) were identified by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS as constituents of fennel teas. No coumarins, which are characteristic constituents of plants of Apiaceae family, were found. Trans-anethole (4), the main constituent of the essential oil, was present in all teas. In addition p-anisaldehyde (3), a degradation product of trans-anethole, was also identified in all teas with the exception of two samples. Chlorogenic acid (1) and quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide (2) were also present in all teas. In addition, minor unidentified flavonol constituents were found in two teas. Quality, activity, and safety of the content of the investigated preparations are also discussed.

  Effect of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seed extract on the genital organs of male and female rats.:Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1985 Jan-Mar;29(1):21-6.Malini T, Vanithakumari G, Megala N, Anusya S, Devi K, Elango V.

 Following the oral administration of acetone extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) seeds for 15 days is male rats, total protein concentration was found to be significantly decreased in testes and vas deferens and increased in seminal vesicles and prostate gland. There was a decrease in activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase in all these regions, except that alkaline phosphatase was unchanged in vasa. In female rats, oral administration of the extract for 10 days led to vaginal cornification and oestrus cycle. While moderate doses caused increase in weight of mammary glands, higher doses increased the weight of oviduct, endometrium, myometrium, cervix and vagina also. The results confirm the oestrogenic activity of the seed extract.

  Isolation and identification of flavon(ol)-O-glycosides in caraway (Carum carvi L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and of flavon-C-glycosides in anise. I. Phenolics of spices (author's transl).:Z Lebensm Unters Forsch. 1977 Jul 29;164(3):194-200.Kunzemann J, Herrmann K.

 The flavonoid constituents of various spices were separated by means of chromatography on cellulose colums, and the following compounds were obtained crystalline: Quercetin 3-glucuronide from caraway, fennel, anise, and coriander; isoquercitrin from caraway and fennel; rutin from fennel and anise; quercetin 3-O-caffeylglucoside and kaempferol 3-glucoside from caraway; quercetin 3-arabinoside from fennel, and luteolin 7-glucoside, isoorientin and isovitexin from anise. Other constitutents which were however not obtained crystalline, but which could be identified by the usual procedures were kaempferol 3-glucuronide and kaempferol 3-arabinoside in fennel, apigenin 7-glucoside and a luteolin glycoside in anise, and isoquercitrin and rutin in coriander. The glycosides contained in the fruit of the four spices also occur in the leaves. Leaves of caraway and fennel in addition contain isorhammetin glycosides in low concentration.


  • 1.Fennel Seed or Xiao HuiXiang,the seed of Foeniculum vulgare Mill,a pungent herb nature warm,its botanical introduction,chemical constituents,history and uses since ancient till today.

♥The article and literature were edited by Herbalist of MDidea Extracts Professional.It runs a range of descriptions about the titled herb and related phytochemicals, including comprehensive information related, summarized updating discoveries from findings of herbalists and clinical scientists from this field.The electronic data information published at our official website https://www.mdidea.com and https://www.mdidea.net, we tried to update it to latest and exact as possible.
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  • Name:Fennel Seed Extract
  • Serie No:R042.
  • Specifications:10:1TLC.
  • EINECS/ELINCS No.:283-414-6
  • CAS:84625-39-8
  • Chem/IUPAC Name:Foeniculum Vulgare Extract is an extract of the fruit of the fennel,Foeniculum vulgare,Umbelliferae
  • Other Names:Fructus Foenicuii Extract.Foeniculum vulgare Mill,Fenchel,Large fennel,Fenkel,Sweet Fennel,Anis,Wild Fennel,Fennel,Adas landi,Adas londa,Anis Vert,Comino,Finocchio Forte,Hsiao Hui Hsiang,Hui Hsiang Chiu,Kaneer Razbana,L'Anis,La Nuit,Raziyane,Rezene,Shamar,Shbint,Shatapushpa,Xiao Hui Xiang.

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