Habitat,Cultivation and Origin of Piper nigrum.
- Botanical Information of Black Pepper.
- Botanical Descriptions of Piper nigrum.
- Phytochemicals and Constituents,Nutrients Analysis of Black Pepper.
- History of Black Pepper and its Medicinal Use.
- Black Pepper Directions:Common use,healing qualities and cooking tips.
- Black Pepper:Health Benefits,Traditional Uses and Applications,Modern findings.
Botanical Descriptions of Piper nigrum.
Common herbal classics defined the herb Pepper(Hu Jiao) as the fruit of the Piperaceae family plant species (1).Piper nigrum L.This commonly used species is introduced as:
(1).Piper nigrum L.: The Piper nigrum L., is a plant of the Piperaceae family and Piper genus, it is commonly known as "Hu Jiao", Wood climbing vines; stems, branches hairless, section significantly enlarged, often with small roots. Leaves thick, nearly leathery, broadly ovate to ovate-oblong, rare suborbicular, 10-15 cm long, 5-9 cm wide, apical apex, base rounded, often slightly oblique, both surfaces hairless 5-7 leaf veins, rare 9; the uppermost one pair alternate, 1.5-3.5 centimeters from the base is emitted from the midrib, others are from the base, the outermost 1 pair is extremely weak, the net veins are obvious; petiole length 1-2 Centimeter, glabrous; leaf sheaths elongated, often half as petiolate.
Flower heterosexuality, usually monoecious; inflorescences and leaves opposite, shorter than leaves or as long as leaves; total pedicels and petioles nearly as long, glabrous; bracts spatulate oblong, 3-3.5 cm long, middle About 0.8 mm wide, broad and round at the top, separated from the axis of the inflorescence, lightly cup-shaped, narrow and long at maturity with inflorescence axis, only margins separated; 2 stamens, anthers reniform, filaments short; ovary globose, stigma 3- 4, rare 5.
Berry spherical, sessile, 3-4 mm in diameter, red when ripe, black after immature. Flowering from June to October.
Ecosystem:The Piper nigrum L., grows in the shade of the woods. slow growth, heat, cold, drought, wind, cut, easy to transplant. Not water resistant. Fertile sandy soils are preferred for cultivated soils, and drainage and light are required to be good. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributed in China provinces Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan, and Yunnan provinces.This species was Native to the Southeast Asia, it is now widely planted in the tropics.
A pinch of black pepper is added to almost every type of recipe imaginable. Once used as currency and presented to the gods as a sacred offering, it is fortunate that this most popular of spices is available throughout the year.
Black pepper comes from the pepper plant, a smooth woody vine that can grow up to 33 feet in hot and humid tropical climates. They begin to bear small white clustered flowers after 3 to 4 years and develop into berries known as peppercorns. Ground peppercorns produce the spice we call pepper.
Black peppercorns are made by picking the pepper berries when they are half ripe and just about to turn red. They are then left to dry which causes them to shrivel and become dark in color. Alternatively, green peppercorns are picked while still unripe and green in color, while white peppercorns are picked when very ripe and subsequently soaked in brine to remove their dark outer shell leaving just the white pepper seed.
Pink peppercorns are actually from a completely different plant species (Schinus molle) that is related to ragweed.
Black pepper is the most pungent and flavorful of all types of peppers and it is available as whole or cracked peppercorns or ground into powder.
Habitat,Cultivation and Origin of Piper nigrum.
In South India wild, Native to southwestern India, pepper is now cultivated in tropical areas around the world.and in Cochin-China; also cultivated in East and West Indies, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, Siam, Malabar, etc.
The fruit is harvested from plants at least 3 years old. Green peppercorns are picked unripe and pickled, black peppercorns are picked unripe and dried, red peppercorns are picked ripe and dried, and white peppercorns are picked ripe and soaked in water for 8 days before drying.
Origin of Pepper or Black Pepper.
Pepper refers to any of a great number of plants of the nightshade family, Solanaceae, notably Capsicum annuum L. (Sweet Pepper), Capsicum frutescens L.; and Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) DC. (Sichuan Pepper) of the family Rutaceae; extensively cultivated throughout tropical Asia and equatorial America for their edible, pungent fruits.
Peppers, which have been found in prehistoric remains in Peru, were widely grown in Central and South America in pre-Columbian times. Pepper seeds were carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread rapidly throughout Europe.
The genus Capsicum comprises all the varied forms of fleshy-fruited peppers grown as herbaceous annuals the red, green, and yellow peppers rich in vitamins A and C that are used in seasoning and as a vegetable food. Hot peppers, used as relishes, pickled, or ground into a fine powder for use as spices.
In addition to the cherry (Cerasiforme group) and red cluster (Fasciculatum), these hot varieties, which are red when mature, include the tabasco (Conoides), which is commonly ground and mixed with vinegar to produce a hot sauce, and the long hot chili and cayenne (Longum), often called capsicums.
Cayenne pepper, said to have originated in Cayenne in French Guiana, is one of the spices derived from these peppers and is produced in many parts of the world.
The mild bell or sweet peppers (Grossum) have larger, variously coloured but generally bell-shaped, furrowed, puffy fruits that are used in salads and in cooked dishes. These varieties are harvested when bright green in color before the appearance of red or yellow pigment about 60 to 80 days after transplanting.
Pepper plants are treated as tender summer annuals outside their native habitat. They are propagated by planting seed directly in the field or by transplanting seedlings started in greenhouses or hotbeds after six to ten weeks.
Pepper is used in traditional Chinese medicine as a warming herb. In China, pepper is mainly produced in the provinces Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, etc. Harvested at the end of autumn to spring of the next year when the fruit becomes red or dark green, it is dried in the sun, resulting in black pepper; or picked and reaped when the fruit turns red, soaked in water and dried in the sun after the pulp is rubbed away, making white pepper; then pounded for use when raw.
Black pepper is native to Malabar, a region in the Western Coast of South India; today, this region belongs to the union state Kerala. Pepper is cultivated since millennia. The wild form has not yet been unambigously identified, but there are closely related pepper species in South India and Burma. While black and white pepper were already known in antiquity, but green pepper (and even more, red pepper) is a recent invention.
Pepper reached South East Asia more than two thousand years ago and is grown in Malaysia and Indonesia since about that time. In the last decades of the 20.th century, pepper production increased dramatically as new plantations were founded in Thailand, Vietnam, China and Sri Lanka. In the New World, Brazil is the only important producer; pepper plantations there go back to the 1930s.
Black Pepper Planting and Production.:
Today, the major commercial producers of pepper are India and Indonesia. The most important producers are India before Indonesia, which together account for about 50% of the whole production volume.
In trade, the pepper grades are identified by their origin. The most important Indian grades are Malabar and Tellicherry (Thalassery). The Malabar grade is regular black pepper with a slightly greenish hue, while Tellicherry is a special product (see below). Both Indian black peppers, but especially the Tellicherry grade, are very aromatic and pungent. In the past, Malabar pepper was also traded under names like Goa or Aleppi. Cochin is the pepper trade center in India.
In South East Asia, the most reputated proveniences for black pepper are Sarawak in insular Malaysia and Lampong from Sumatra/Indonesia. Both produce small-fruited black pepper that takes on a greyish colour during storage; both have a less-developed aroma, but Lampong pepper is pretty hot. Sarawak pepper is mild and often described fruity. Black pepper from other countries where it has been introced to more recently is named after the trade center (Bangkok, Saigon); these proveniences are less valued, as they vary in heat and lack the complex aroma found in Indian and (to lesser degree) Malesian cultivars.
The most important source of white pepper is the small Indonesian island Bangka, south east of Sumatra.The peppercorns are named Muntok after the island's main port. Smaller amounts of white pepper are produced in Sarawak, which is particularily light-coloured; the best quality is known as Sarawak Cream Label. There is also Brazil white pepper, but it has a poorer flavour and is, therefore, less reputated in the international trade.
Brazil produces black, white and green peppercorns; the pepper is grown along the Amazonas river in the state of Para, where the paracress comes from. Brazil almost holds a monopoly for green pepper as the original production in Madagascar has declined. Brazil black and white pepper are quite mild. All Brazil pepper is named after its main port, Belem.
Varieties of Black Pepper.
Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water, both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. The heat ruptures cell walls in the fruit, speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days, during which the fruit around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin, wrinkled black layer. Once dried, the fruits are called black peppercorns.
White pepper consists of the seed only, with the fruit removed. This is usually accomplished by allowing fully ripe berries to soak in water for about a week, during which the flesh of the fruit softens and decomposes. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit, and the naked seed is dried. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer fruit from the seed, including removal of the outer layer from black pepper produced from unripe berries.
In the U.S., white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes, where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. They do have differing flavours due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed.
An example of ground black pepperGreen pepper, like black, is made from the unripe berries. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour, such as treatment with sulphur dioxide or freeze-drying. Pickled peppercorns, also green, are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. Fresh, unpreserved green pepper berries, largely unknown in the West, are used in some Asian cuisines, particularly Thai cuisine.Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh, with a bright aroma.They decay quickly if not dried or preserved.
A rarely seen product called pink pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. Even more rarely seen, ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper.Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns", which are the fruits of a plant from a different family, the Peruvian pepper tree, Schinus molle, and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree, Schinus terebinthifolius. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns, which is mostly no longer an issue. Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper.
Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper, made from the largest, ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry.Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo, and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product, from Bangka Island.
Ethno-botanical information of Black Pepper.
Plant of Piper nigrum L:The plant is used in many Asian countries as a stimulant, for the treatment of colic, rheumatism, headache, diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, menstrual pains, removing excessive gas in system and increasing the flow of urine (Wee, 1992). Also used in folk medicine for stomach disorders and digestion problems, neuralgia, scabies. In Indian medicine, it is used in arthritis, asthma, fever, cough, catarrh, dysentery, dyspepsia, flatulence, haemorrhoids, hiccoughs, urethral discharge, and skin damage. In Chinese medicine, it is used for vomiting, diarrhea, gastric symptoms; homeopathically for irritation of mucous membrane and galactorrhea (Gruenwald et al, 2000). Heavy dose of pepper with wild bamboo shoots said to cause abortion (Duke and Ayensu, 1985). In Assam, a method of birth control includes Cissampelos pareira in combination with Piper nigrum, root of Mimosa pudica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Tiwari et al, 1982).
Piper nigrum Leaf:For urinary calculus. Used as a poultice for the treatment of headache (Duke and Ayensu, 1985).
Fruits of Piper nigrum L:To remove excessive gas in system, increase flow of urine, treat colic, rheumatism, headache, diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, menstrual pains (Wee and Hsuan, 1990). White pepper for cholera, malaria, stomachache, and black pepper for abdominal fullness, adenitis, cancer, cholera, cold, colic, diarrhoea, dysentery, dysmenorrhea, dysuria, furuncles, headache, gravel, nausea, poisoning due to fish, mushrooms or shellfish (Duke and Ayensu, 1985).
Table Black Peper,Coarse Black Pepper.
Table Black Peper:
Ground Black Pepper: Due to modern technology, a tremendous amount of research and product development our ground black pepper has all the flavor of black pepper ground fresh at the table.
Process: The fresh grinding of the black pepper is one of the most important steps to impart the goodness of our newly developed product. Fresh Grinding is only one of the many many steps and natural processes before it is ready to ship with its full flavor intact. Although the processes are kept as highly regarded secrets an overview follows. Starting out with four processing steps and four quality control checks before grinding to assure only the best and purest black pepper. Next four natural processing steps (Other companies for speed do only one which destroys the flavor) along with four more quality control checks. The next four very important steps are taken in packaging to preserve the Natural punch of the freshly ground black pepper along with four more quality control checks.
Flavor Many people believe our ground black pepper is five times more potent however we only guarantee it to be three times more tasteful than the typical quality available elsewhere.
Natural: This black pepper is not spiked with anything to make it stronger like so many products are today. It is just our process which makes it so much better. It is no longer necessary to grind your own black pepper to get the true black pepper punch. You may find our black pepper stronger than what you grind yourself as the quality of the peppercorns is also an important factor. Order Table Black Pepper
Coarse Black Pepper:
Use: Often used in meat processing to help preserve the meat while curing.
Process: We grind this coarse and sift out all the fines to produce a uniform coarse ground black pepper.
Freshness: It is ground fresh and packaged the same day in special packaging to keep the flavors.
Flavor: Many people have learned that the taste of coarse black pepper is stronger than ground black pepper. This is true due to the blending of table grade pepper (by other manufacturers) with other products, the flavors leaving the smaller grind product faster and the loss of flavor due to heat in grinding (most commercial ground black pepper).
- 1.Black Pepper,Black Pepper Seed,Piper nigrum,Piper:the Kind of spices,one of the oldest and the most popular spice in the world.
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