Black Pepper:Description,Varieties and Ethno-botanical Uses.
- Botanical Information of Black Pepper.
- Habitat,Cultivation and Origin of Piper nigrum.
- Black Pepper Planting and Production.
- Black Pepper:Description,Varieties and Ethno-botanical Uses.
- History of Black Pepper and its Medicinal Use.
- Table Black Peper,Coarse Black Pepper.
- Black Pepper Directions:Common use,healing qualities and cooking tips.
- Recipe and Spice Uses of Black Pepper.
- Phytochemicals and Constituents,Nutrients Analysis of Black Pepper.
- Black Pepper:its Health Benefits,Traditional and Medicinal Uses and Applications,Pharmacological Properties.
- Administration and Suggestions of Black Pepper.
- Research Update: Black pepper or Piper nigrum L.
Black Pepper:Description,Varieties and Ethno-botanical Uses.
Botanical Descriptions of Black Pepper.
A pinch of black pepper is added to almost every type of recipe imaginable. Once used as currency and presented to the gods as a sacred offering, it is fortunate that this most popular of spices is available throughout the year.
Black pepper comes from the pepper plant, a smooth woody vine that can grow up to 33 feet in hot and humid tropical climates. They begin to bear small white clustered flowers after 3 to 4 years and develop into berries known as peppercorns. Ground peppercorns produce the spice we call pepper.
Black peppercorns are made by picking the pepper berries when they are half ripe and just about to turn red. They are then left to dry which causes them to shrivel and become dark in color. Alternatively, green peppercorns are picked while still unripe and green in color, while white peppercorns are picked when very ripe and subsequently soaked in brine to remove their dark outer shell leaving just the white pepper seed.
Pink peppercorns are actually from a completely different plant species (Schinus molle) that is related to ragweed.
Black pepper is the most pungent and flavorful of all types of peppers and it is available as whole or cracked peppercorns or ground into powder.
Varieties of Black Pepper.
Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water, both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. The heat ruptures cell walls in the fruit, speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days, during which the fruit around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin, wrinkled black layer. Once dried, the fruits are called black peppercorns.
White pepper consists of the seed only, with the fruit removed. This is usually accomplished by allowing fully ripe berries to soak in water for about a week, during which the flesh of the fruit softens and decomposes. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit, and the naked seed is dried. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer fruit from the seed, including removal of the outer layer from black pepper produced from unripe berries.
In the U.S., white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes, where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. They do have differing flavours due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed.
An example of ground black pepperGreen pepper, like black, is made from the unripe berries. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour, such as treatment with sulphur dioxide or freeze-drying. Pickled peppercorns, also green, are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. Fresh, unpreserved green pepper berries, largely unknown in the West, are used in some Asian cuisines, particularly Thai cuisine.Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh, with a bright aroma.They decay quickly if not dried or preserved.
A rarely seen product called pink pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. Even more rarely seen, ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper.Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns", which are the fruits of a plant from a different family, the Peruvian pepper tree, Schinus molle, and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree, Schinus terebinthifolius. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns, which is mostly no longer an issue. Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper.
Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper, made from the largest, ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry.Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo, and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product, from Bangka Island.
Ethno-botanical information of Black Pepper.
Plant of Piper nigrum L:The plant is used in many Asian countries as a stimulant, for the treatment of colic, rheumatism, headache, diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, menstrual pains, removing excessive gas in system and increasing the flow of urine (Wee, 1992). Also used in folk medicine for stomach disorders and digestion problems, neuralgia, scabies. In Indian medicine, it is used in arthritis, asthma, fever, cough, catarrh, dysentery, dyspepsia, flatulence, haemorrhoids, hiccoughs, urethral discharge, and skin damage. In Chinese medicine, it is used for vomiting, diarrhea, gastric symptoms; homeopathically for irritation of mucous membrane and galactorrhea (Gruenwald et al, 2000). Heavy dose of pepper with wild bamboo shoots said to cause abortion (Duke and Ayensu, 1985). In Assam, a method of birth control includes Cissampelos pareira in combination with Piper nigrum, root of Mimosa pudica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Tiwari et al, 1982).
Piper nigrum Leaf:For urinary calculus. Used as a poultice for the treatment of headache (Duke and Ayensu, 1985).
Fruits of Piper nigrum L:To remove excessive gas in system, increase flow of urine, treat colic, rheumatism, headache, diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, menstrual pains (Wee and Hsuan, 1990). White pepper for cholera, malaria, stomachache, and black pepper for abdominal fullness, adenitis, cancer, cholera, cold, colic, diarrhoea, dysentery, dysmenorrhea, dysuria, furuncles, headache, gravel, nausea, poisoning due to fish, mushrooms or shellfish (Duke and Ayensu, 1985).
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