Black Pepper:its Health Benefits,Traditional and Medicinal Uses and Applications,Pharmacological Properties.
- Botanical Information of Black Pepper.
- Habitat,Cultivation and Origin of Piper nigrum.
- Black Pepper Planting and Production.
- Black Pepper:Description,Varieties and Ethno-botanical Uses.
- History of Black Pepper and its Medicinal Use.
- Table Black Peper,Coarse Black Pepper.
- Black Pepper Directions:Common use,healing qualities and cooking tips.
- Recipe and Spice Uses of Black Pepper.
- Phytochemicals and Constituents,Nutrients Analysis of Black Pepper.
- Black Pepper:its Health Benefits,Traditional and Medicinal Uses and Applications,Pharmacological Properties.
- Administration and Suggestions of Black Pepper.
- Research Update: Black pepper or Piper nigrum L.
Health Benefits,Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Black Pepper.
Health Benefits of Black Pepper.
Improve Digestion and Promote Intestinal Health:
Taste buds Stimulator:Black pepper (Piper nigrum)stimulates the taste buds in such a way that an alert is sent to to the stomach to increase hydrochloric acid secretion, thereby improving digestion. Hydrochloric acid is necessary for the digestion of proteins and other food components in the stomach. When the body's production of hydrochloric acid is insufficient, food may sit in the stomach for an extended period of time, leading to heartburn or indigestion, or it may pass into the intestines, where it can be used as a food source for unfriendly gut bacteria, whose activities produce gas, irritation, and/or diarrhea or constipation.
Problems with digestion are increasing in frequency, and black pepper seems to be effective in improving the digestion, probably due to the way in which black pepper stimulates the taste buds. This stimulation of the taste buds notifies the stomach to increase its secretion of hydrochloric acid, improving the digestion of food once it reaches the stomach. Insufficient production of stomach acid can lead to heartburn, indigestion, and other eating problems. Black pepper may help to alleviate this dilemmas.
In addition, black pepper is known to reduce the formation of intestinal gas, thus providing a natural solution to an embarrassing problem. This ability is most likely also the result of the stimulation of hydrochloric acid production.
Black pepper has also been shown to have significant antioxidant and antibacterial properties, which are important for fighting disease and maintaining overall good health.
Black pepper has long been recognized as a carminitive, (a substance that helps prevent the formation of intestinal gas), a property likely due to its beneficial effect of stimulating hydrochloric acid production. In addition, black pepper has diaphoretic (promotes sweating), and diuretic (promotes urination) properties.
Antioxidant and Antibacterial effects:
Black pepper has demonstrated impressive antioxidant and antibacterial effects--yet another way in which this wonderful seasoning promotes the health of the digestive tract. And not only does black pepper help you derive the most benefit from your food, the outer layer of the peppercorn stimulates the breakdown of fat cells, keeping you slim while giving you energy to burn.
Traditional Ethnic of Black Pepper.
Pepper is a universal table condiment used to flavor all types of dishes in cuisines worldwide. It's commonly used in stocks, pickling, and sausages.
Warms the middle-jiao and keeps the adverse qi flowing downward, clears away phlegm and toxic materials.
Due to its hot nature, pepper is good for expelling evil cold and warming up the body interior, especially when cold phlegm accumulates and stagnates in the body.
Pepper is also a stomachic when one's stomach suffers a cold invasion and is in need of warming. It also relieves pain, sends down adversely rising qi, as well as yields some antipyretic (reduces fever) action.
When used externally, it can treat skin and external diseases, poisonous snake or dog bites, and can also be used to remove poisonous quality of food.
Culinary use of Black Pepper:
It is used in processed meats and in applications where dark specking is not desired. Black pepper is added to fruit cakes and gingerbread and is also used as a light seasoning on fresh fruit. Black pepper oleoresin is also used for similar purposes.
Medicinal virtues of Black Pepper:
It dissolves wind in the stomach or bowels, provokes urine, helps the cough and other chest diseases and stirs up the appetite. The White Pepper, made from the ripe fruits after the rind has been removed, is sharper and more arornatic than the Black, which is made from the unripe berries. The White is used for agues, to warm the stomach, before the coming of the fit. All can be used against quinsy, being mixed with honey and taker inwardly or applied outwardly to disperse the kernels in the throat.
Medicinal Uses of Black Pepper.
Aromatic, stimulant, carminative; is said to possess febrifuge properties. Its action as a stimulant is specially evident on the mucous membrane of the rectum, and so is good for constipation, also on the urinary organs; externally it is a rubefacient, useful in relaxed conditions of the rectum when prolapsed; sometimes used in place of cubebs for gonorrhoea; given in combination with aperients to facilitate their action, and to prevent griping. As a gargle it is valued for relaxed uvula, paralysis of the tongue. On account of its stimulant action it aids digestion and is specially useful in atonic dyspepsia and torbid condition of the stomach. It will correct flatulence and nausea. It has also been used in vertigo, paralytic and arthritic disorders. It is sometimes added to quinine when the stomach will not respond to quinine alone. It has also been advised in diarrhoea, cholera, scarlatina, and in solution for a wash for tinea capititis. Piperine should not be combined with astringents, as it renders them inert. Black pepper also helps prevent the formation of intestinal gas, promotes urination, and promotes sweating. It is full of manganese, and it also has a good amount of iron and dietary fiber, as well.
Black pepper's aromatic, slightly musty odor comes from the volatile oils found largely in the flesh and skin; its pungent bite comes from the alkaloids- piperine and piperidine-and resins found mostly in the seeds. The oils go into perfumes and flavorings. The searing substances have served many purposes: they have gone into liniments and gargles; they have been used as carminatives, reducing stomach and intestinal gas; and they have been found to stimulate the activity of the heart and kidneys. Piperine is also an effective insectide against houseflies, and gardeners use pepper sprays against several kinds of pests.
Appetite Stimulants: Black pepper has long been recognized as a stimulant to appetite as well as an aid in the relief of nausea. In India it is being used since time immemorial as a medicine for a number of health problems.
Medicinal Properties :The main flavor is from piperine, but other essential oils, including terpenes, contribute to the aroma. Its alkaloids include the pungent tasting chavicine and piperidine.Alleviates hemorrhoids,Alleviates gas,Alleviates constipation,Alleviates loss of appetite,Improves digestion,Promotes sweating,Promotes urination,Anti-bacterial effect,Anti-oxidant effect,Stimulates the breakdown of fat cells.
Black Pepper:its Applications and Pharmacological Properties.
Black Pepper Applications and Common Indications.
1. To treat cold pain in the abdomen, vomiting and diarrhea due to stomach-cold:
a) Abdominal pain and vomiting due to stomach-cold: This herb can be ground alone into powder and stewed together with pig stomach or used with lesser galangal (Rhizoma Alpiniae Officinarum), long pepper (Fructus Piperis Longi), etc., for oral administration. Or, immerse some pepper in vinegar. Then take it out and dry under sunlight. Repeat the process 7 times. Grind the pepper into powder. Administer 3 g, twice daily.
b) Diarrhea due to deficiency-cold in the spleen and stomach: This herb can be used together with evodia fruit, largehead atractylodes rhizome (Radix Atractylodis Macrocephalae), etc., and it can also be ground alone into powder for application onto the umbilical region.
2. To warm up cold of wind-cold type: Prepare pepper and clove, each 3 g. Grind them as powder. Use 2 white bulbs from Chinese onion and pound, then mix with the prepared powder. Put a small mass onto the palm. Close both palms together and put the closed hands in between the two thighs until one sweats.
3. To treat epilepsy: This herb can be ground together with long pepper (Fructus Piperis Longi) in an equal amount for oral administration, or the pepper is placed in turnip and dried in the air and ground into powder for oral administration in the manner described in the book 'Recipes for Emergency'. In addition, it can induce appetite and digestion if used as a seasoning.
4. For dyspepsia (indigestion) in children: Grind 1 g white pepper as powder and 9 g glucose powder. Mix them together. Administer 0.3-0.8 g (less than 1 year old), 0.5-1.5 g (less than 3 years old), three times daily, 1-3 days for a therapeutic course.
5. For prolapse (sinking) of stomach: Clean a pig's or sheep's stomach (about 500 g) to which 1.5 g pepper is added. Simmer with slow fire until well done. Consume the stomach and soup.
Pharmacological Properties of Black Pepper.
Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli.: Growth inhibitory action of I (2.25 mmol/L) was nearly equal to that of 4-methylcatechol (2 mmol/L), while II was less effective (7.6 mmol/L) probably due to its unstable nature (Pradhan et al, 1999). The ripe fruit of P. nigrum showed anti-bacterial activity against penicillin G resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (Perez and Anesini, 1994).
Anti-Fungal.: P. nigrum essential oil was most active against S. cerevisiae (Hector et al, 2004).
Anti-Inflammatory: Piperine acted on early acute changes in inflammatory processes and chronic granulative changes. It also acted partially through stimulation of pituitary adrenal axis (Mujumdar et al, 1990).
Anti-Neoplatic.: Simultaneous administration of piperine with tumour induction produced a significant reduction (95.2%) in tumour nodule formation induced by B16F-10 melanoma cells in C57BL/6 mice. Increased lung collagen hydroxyproline (22.37 ug/mg protein) in the metastasized lungs of the control animals compared to normal animals (0.95 ug/mg protein) was significantly reduced (2.59 ug/mg protein) in the piperine-treated animals. The high amount of uronic acid (355.83 ug/100 mg tissue) in the metastasized control animals was significantly reduced (65 ug/100 mg tissue) in the animals treated with piperine. Lung hexosamine content was also significantly reduced in the piperine-treated animals (0.98 mg/100 mg lyophilized tissue) compared to the untreated tumour-bearing animals (4.2 mg/100 mg lyophilized tissue). The elevated levels of serum sialic acid and serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activity in the untreated control animals were significantly reduced in the animals treated with piperine. Piperine-treated animals survived the experiment as well (90 days) (Pradeep and Kuttan, 2002).
Antioxidant.: Significantly elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly lowered activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver, heart, kidney, intestine and aorta were observed in rats fed the high fat diet as compared to the control rats. Simultaneous supplementation with black pepper (0.25 g or 0.5 g/kg body weight) or piperine (0.02 g/kg body weight) lowered TBARS and CD levels and maintained SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and GSH levels to near those of control rats (Vijayakumar et al, 2004).
CYP3A4 Inhibitory.: EtOAc extract of white pepper showed strong inhibitory activity. On a continuous experiment, the fractions 2, 4 and 5 of white pepper EtOAc extract showed remarkable inhibitory activity (Cha, 2003). Dipiperamides A-C isolated from the white pepper (P. nigrum) inhibited cytochrome P 450 (CYP) 3A4 activity (Tsukamoto et al, 2002). Dipiperamides D and E showed potent CYP3A4 inhibition with IC50 values of 0.79 and 0.12 uM respectively (Tsukamoto et al, 2002).
Hypolipidaemic.: P. nigrum at 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight and its active principle, piperine at 20 mg/kg body weight administered to high fat fed rats for a period of 10 weeks resulted in a remarkable reduction in the levels of total cholesterol, free fatty acids, phospholipids and triglycerides in black pepper as well as in the piperine treated groups. The concentration of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was elevated and the concentrations of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the plasma were reduced (Vijayakumar et al, 2002).
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition.: At concentration of 0.1 mg/mL, an extract of the seeds of P. nigrum showed 50-65% inhibitory activity on AChE (Ingkaninan et al, 2003).
Anti-Mutagenic.: The wing Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART) in D. melanogaster was used to study the modulating action of P. nigrum in combination with methyl methanesulfonate and the promutagen agent ethyl carbamate. Results showed that black pepper was effective against the promutagen agent ethyl carbamate but not the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate. Pretreatment of 2-day-old larvae for 24 h followed by a treatment with EC and MMS was only effective in reducing mutations induced by EC (El Hamss et al, 2003).
Anti-Thyroidal.: Daily oral administration of 2.50 mg/kg of piperine for 15 days lowered the serum levels of thyroxin (T (4)) and triiodothyronine (T (3)) as well as glucose concentrations with a simultaneous decrease in hepatic 5'D enzyme and glucose-6-phospatase (G-6-Pase) activity (Panda and Kar, 2003).
Cell Growth Promoter.: P. nigrum fruit extract was found to possess growth stimulatory activity towards cultured melanocytes. At 0.1 mg/mL, the aqeous extract was observed to cause nearly 300% stimulation of the growth of a cultured mouse melanocyte line, melan-a, in 8 days. Piperine, the main alkaloid from P. nigrum fruit also significantly stimulated melan-a cell growth (Lin et al, 1999).
Gastric Acid Secretion Stimulatory.: Increasing the dose of piperine from 20 mg/kg body weight to 142 mg/kg body weight produced significant dose dependent increases in gastric acid secretion in white albino rats when compared with control basal acid secretion. 20 mg/kg produced a 22.2% increase while the highest dose 142 mg/kg produced 334.6% increase in the gastric acid secretion. Piperine was however about 40 times less effective than histamine in increasing gastric acid secretion. The effect of piperine was significantly antagonized by cimetidine (1 mg/kg but not by atropine (1 mg/kg) (Ononiwu et al, 2002).
Gastroprotective.: P. nigrum may protect the colon by decreasing the activity of b-glucuronidase and mucinase. Histopathological studies also showed lesser infiltration into the submucosa, fewer papillae and lesser changes in the cytoplasm of the cells in the colon in black pepper groups (Nalini et al, 1998).
Hepatoprotective.: Piperine exerted a significant protection against tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide and CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity by reducing both in vitro and in vivo lipid peroxidation, enzymatic leakage of GPT and AP and by preventing the depletion of GSH and total thiols in the intoxicated mice. Piperine showed lower hepatoprotective potency than silymarin, a known hepatoprotective drug (Koul and Kapil, 1993). Swiss albino mice of either sex (eight weeks old) fed on a diet containing 0.5%, 1% and 2% black pepper (w/w) for 10 and 20 days revealed a significant and dose-dependent increase in glutathione S-transferase and acid-soluble sulfhydryl content in the experimental groups. Mice maintained on 0.5% black pepper diet for 10 days showed elevated levels of cytochrome b5 and cytochrome P-450. The level of malondialdehyde was lowered in the group fed on 2% black pepper diet for 20 days (Singh and Rao, 1993).
Insecticidal: Pipertipine and pipercitine demonstrated toxicity against fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Siddiqui et al, 2002). Pipnoohine and pipyahyine demonstrated toxicity at 35.0 and 30.0 ppm respectively against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L (Siddiqui et al, 2004). A new insecticidal amide piptigrine demonstrated toxicity at 15.0 ppm against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Siddiqui BS et al, 2004). Biologically active constituents of P. nigrum fruits (isobutylamide alkaloids: pellitorine, guineensine, pipercide, and retrofractamide A) showed activity against third instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens, Aedes aegypti and A. togoi (Park et al, 2002).
Melanogenesis Stimulatory.: Methanolic extract from the leaves of P. nigrum showed significant stimulatory effect on melanogenesis in cultured murine B16 melanoma cells. (-)-cubebin and (-)-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-desmethylenedioxycubebin showed a significant stimulatory activity of melanogenesis without any significant effects on cell proliferation (Matsuda et al, 2004).
Tumor Stimulatory.: 50 male and 50 female Bufo regularis treated by force-feeding with an extract of black pepper at a dose level of 2 mg, 3 times a week for 5 months showed first tumours after 2 months. Liver tumours (hepatocellular carcinomas, lymphosarcomas and fibrosarcomas) were found in 12 males and 18 females. Metastatic deposits of hepatocellular carcinomas were registered in the spleen, kidney, fat body and ovary (el-Mofty et al, 1991). In mice, injection of safrole, tannic acid or methylcholanthrene (MCA) during the preweaning period induced tumours in different organs. Safrole and tannic acid were weak carcinogens when compared with MCA. Force feeding of d-limonene (one of the pepper terpenoids) for a period of time to the mice which were injected with any of the above 3 substances reduced their carcinogenic activity, while force feeding of piperine was ineffective (Wrba et al, 1992).
Cosmetic uses of Black Pepper Oil:
Black pepper essential oil has good rubefacient and analgesic properties for skin care and therefore has a warming effect, which stimulates blood flow while reducing pain. It is also most effective in dispersing bruising.
The essential oil is composed of various chemical constituents and includes thujone, A-pinene, camphene, sabinene, B-pinene, A-phellandrene, myrcene, limonene, caryophyllene, B-farnesene, B-bisabolene, linalool and terpine-4-ol.
The therapeutic properties of black pepper oil include the following:analgesic,antiseptic,antispasmodic,antitoxic,
aphrodisiac,digestive,diuretic,febrifuge,laxative,rubefacient,tonic (especially the spleen)
Black pepper oil can be used to help in the treatment of pain relief, rheumatism, chills, flu, colds, to increase circulation, relieve exhaustion, calm muscular aches, physical and emotional coldness, as a nerve tonic and to relieve fevers.
Black pepper oil is especially effective when treating bruises on the skin, and it rubefacient property makes it very valuable when you wish to increase circulation to the skin and the supportive tissue underneath the skin.
Due to fact that black pepper essential oil helps to boost circulation and has a "warming" action on the skin, it can use useful for cellulite cream and other similar products.
- 1.Black Pepper,Black Pepper Seed,Piper nigrum,Piper:the Kind of spices,one of the oldest and the most popular spice in the world.
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