Administration and Suggestions of Black Pepper.
- Botanical Information of Black Pepper.
- Habitat,Cultivation and Origin of Piper nigrum.
- Black Pepper Planting and Production.
- Black Pepper:Description,Varieties and Ethno-botanical Uses.
- History of Black Pepper and its Medicinal Use.
- Table Black Peper,Coarse Black Pepper.
- Black Pepper Directions:Common use,healing qualities and cooking tips.
- Recipe and Spice Uses of Black Pepper.
- Phytochemicals and Constituents,Nutrients Analysis of Black Pepper.
- Black Pepper:its Health Benefits,Traditional and Medicinal Uses and Applications,Pharmacological Properties.
- Administration and Suggestions of Black Pepper.
- Research Update: Black pepper or Piper nigrum L.
Administration and Suggestions of Black Pepper.
Dosages of Black Pepper:
Black Pepper, 5 to 15 grains in powder. Piperine, 1 to 8 grains. 2-4 g.
The root of the Pepper plant in India has been used by the natives as a cordial tonic and stimulant. Used either as an ingredient of boluses or powder or as seasonings in decoction for internal use. When grinded into powder for oral administration, a dosage of 0.5-1 g. is recommended. Use an adequate amount externally.
B.P. dose of Pepper, 1 to 2 drachms.
Oleoresin, U.S.P.: dose, 1/2 grain.
A single dose ranges from 300-600 mg. Daily dose of 1500 mg#. Homeopathic recommendations for irritation of mucous membranes and galactorrhea are 5-10 drops, 1 tablet or 5-10 globules 1-3 times daily or from D4:1 mL injectable solution subcutaneously 2 times weekly (Gruenwald et al., 2000).
For the treatment of hemorrhoids, 5-15 whole peppercorns are recommended to be taken (Duke et al., 2002).
For congestion, cold, head cold, spice chicken soup with black pepper can be taken (Rinzler, 1990).
The average daily dose of the berries is stated to be 1 to 3 g as a decoction, powder or pills, for the treatment of dyspepsia, vomiting, diarrhea and colic resulting from cold (Nguyen and Doan, 1989).
Heliotropin is recommended medicinally as an antiseptic and antipyretic. It is obtained by the oxidation of piperic acid and is used in perfumery. From the time of Hippocrates Pepper has been used as a medicine and condiment.
Pepper:Administration and Suggestions from Pharmacopoeias.
Indications and Dosage from CP for Fructus Piperis(Hu Jiao):The CP(Chinese-Pharmacopia) defined the herb Fructus Piperis(Hu Jiao) as the dry mature fruit or nearly ripe fruit of the Piperaceae family plant Piper nigrum L.It noted the herb taste pungent and nature hot.Enter into stomach,large intestine meridians.Main functions warming spleen and stomach for dispelling cold,descending Qi,eliminate phlegm.Indicated for
gastrofrigid vomiting,abdominal pain and diarrhea,anorexia or lack of appetite,epilepsy phlegm.Suggested Dosage 0.6 to 1.5grams,or grinded into powder and swallow,external proper amount.Store sealed,at dry cool place.
Indications and Dosage from CHMM for Pepper(Hu Jiao):The CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica) defined the herb Pepper(Hu Jiao) as the fruit of the Piperaceae family plant Piper nigrum L.It noted the herb taste pungent and nature hot.Enter into stomach,spleen,kidney,liver,lung,and large intestine meridians.Main functions warming spleen and stomach for dispelling cold,descending Qi and relieve pain,stop diarrhea,stimulate ones appetite,detoxify.Indicated for stomach cold pain,vomiting,poor appetite,fish and crab poison.Suggested Dosage internal as decoction 1~3grams,or into pellets,powder.External proper amount grinded powder,or add in plaster and paste to affected area.Cautions that cases Yin deficiency with fire should Not take this herb.(2)
Indications and Dosage from PDR for Black Pepper:The PDR 4th edition defined the Black Pepper as the Piper nigrum,and noted the "medicinal parts are the berries,which have been freed from the pericarp,and the dried berrylike fruit,which has been collected before ripening.",it give some brief indications of folk medicine,Chinese medicine,Indian medicine and Homeopathic application,"Unproven Uses:Folk medicine uses include stomach disorders and digestion problems,neuralgia,and scabies.Chinese Mecicine:Black Pepper is used for vomiting,diarrhea,and gastric symptoms.Indian Medicine:Indian uses include arthritis,asthma,fever,coughs,catarrh,dysentery,dyspepesia,flatulence,hemorrhoids,hiccoughs,urethral discharge,and skin damage.Homeopathic Uses:Black Pepper is used for irritation of the mucous membranes and galactorrhea.",it give some general information on cautions but the caution information sounds more like a standard expression but nothing useful,like this "Precautions and Adverse Reactions:No heath hazards or side effects are known in conjunction with the proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages",really "no health hazards"?it is Not correct,when take herb Pepper sure there are cautions and precautions too,for dosages it suggested like "Mode of Administration:Black Pepper is used internally for stomach disorders and externally as an irritant ointment for neuralgia and scabies.Daily Dosage:Single doses range from 0.3 to 0.6 gm.The daily dosage is 1.5 gm.Homeopathic Dosage:5 to 10 drops,1 tablet,or 5 to 10 globules 1 to 3 times a day or from D4:1 mL injection solution sc twice weekly(HAB1)."(3)
Safety and Toxicity of Black Pepper and Piperine.
Safety of Black Pepper
Black pepper is not a commonly allergenic food, is not included in the list of 20 foods that most frequently contain pesticide residues, and is also not known to contain goitrogens, oxalates, or purines. For people used to have flaring up of inner fire, manifesting red eyes, sore throat or thirst, pepper is contraindicated
Toxic in large amounts. Several children have died after eating a handful of black pepper (Fetrow and Avila, 2000). Non-toxic. P. nigrum, its oleoresin, or its active principle piperine fed to rats at doses 5 to 20 times normal human intake did not cause any adverse effect on: growth, feed efficiency ratio, and organ weights, red blood cell, white blood cell and differential counts, the levels of blood Hb, total serum proteins, albumin, globulin, sugar and cholesterol, the levels of serum aminotransferases and phosphatases, fat and N balance (Bhat and Chandrasekhara, 1986).
Safety and Toxicity of Piperine.
Chemical Name:Piperidine,1-piperoyl,(E,E)- Molecular Formula:C17H19NO3. Molecular Weight:285.37
Synonyms:(E,E)-1-Piperoyl-piperidine , 043501 (US EPA PC Code) , 05848 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 1-[5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-oxo-2,4-pentadienyl]-, (E,E)- , 5848 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 94-62-2 (CAS Number) , 94622 (CAS Number) , N-[(E,E)-Piperoyl]piperidine , Piperidine, 1-?(2E,4E)-5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-oxo-2,4-pentadienyl , Piperine;1,3-Benzodioxol-5-yl-1-oxo-2,4-pentadienyl-piperine;Piperidine,1-(5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-oxo-2,4-pentadienyl)-,(E,E)-;Piperin;1-Piperoylpiperidine.
CAS RN:94-62-2; U.S.EPA PC Code:043501; CA DPR Chem Code:5848 EINECS:202-348-0; FEMA:2909 melting Point:128~132 Deg C; Water Solubility: 40 mg/L(18 Deg C).
Note:Piperine is the alkaloid responsible for the pungency of black pepper along with chavicine (an isomer of piperine). It has also been used in some forms of traditional medicine and as an insecticide.
Acute Toxicity of Piperine.:
LD50-Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Oral.Rodent-rat.514 mg/kg.Toxic Effects:Behavioral-excitement;Behavioral-changes in motor activity(specific assay);Lungs,Thorax,or Respiration-other changes.Reference:TOLED5 Toxicology Letters.(Elsevier Science Pub.B.V.,POB 211,1000 AE Amsterdam,Netherlands)V.1-1977-Volume(issue)/page/year:16,351,1983
LD50-Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Intraperitoneal.Rodent-rat.34 mg/kg.Toxic Effects:Behavioral-excitement;Behavioral-changes in motor activity(specific assay);Lungs,Thorax,or Respiration-other changes.Reference:Same as Aboveffects:Lungs,Thorax,or Respiration-other changes.Reference:Same as Above
LD50-Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Intraperitoneal.Rodent-mouse.43 mg/kg.Toxic Effects:Behavioral-excitement;Behavioral-changes in motor activity(specific assay);Lungs,Thorax,or Respiration-other changes.Reference:Same as Above
LD50-Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Subcutaneous.Rodent-mouse.200 mg/kg.Toxic Effects:Lungs,Thorax,or Respiration-other changes.Reference:Same as Above
LD50-Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Intravenous.Rodent-mouse.15100 ug/kg.Toxic Effects:Lungs,Thorax,or Respiration-other changes.Reference:Same as Above
LD50-Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Intramuscular.Rodent-mouse.400 ug/kg.Toxic Effects:Lungs,Thorax,or Respiration-other changes.Reference:Same as Above
LD50-Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Intraperitoneal.Rodent-hamster.105 mg/kg.Toxic Effects:Behavioral-excitement;Behavioral-changes in motor activity(specific assay);Lungs,Thorax,or Respiration-other changes.Reference:Same as Above
Other Multiple Dose Toxicity Data.:Piperine
TDLo-Lowest published toxic dose.Oral.Rodent-rat.3500 mg/kg/7D-I.Toxic Effects:Gastrointestinal-ulceration or bleeding from stomach;Kidney,Ureter;Bladder-other changes;Related to Chronic data-Death.Reference:TOLED5 Toxicology Letters.(Elsevier Science Pub.B.V.,POB 211,1000 AE Amsterdam,Netherlands)V.1-1977-Volume(issue)/page/year:16,351,1983
TDLo-Lowest published toxic dose.Oral.Rodent-rat.700 mg/kg.Sex/Duration:female 1~7 days after conception;Toxic Effects:Reproductive-Fertility-pre-implantation mortality (e.g.reduction in number of implants per female:total number of implants per corpora lutea).Reference:IJSIDW Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.(Kalina,Santa Cruz(East),Bombay 400 029,India)V.40(2)-1978-Volume(issue)/page/year:40,113,1978.
TDLo-Lowest published toxic dose.Oral.Rodent-mouse.150 mg/kg.Sex/Duration:female 15-20 days after conception;Toxic Effects:Reproductive-Effects on Embryo or Fetus-fetotoxicity(except death,e.g.,stunted fetus);Reproductive-Effects on Embryo or Fetus-fetal death.Reference:CCPTAY Contraception.(Geron-X,Inc.,POB 1108,Los Altos,CA 94022)V.1-1970-Volume(issue)/page/year:26,625,1982
TDLo-Lowest published toxic dose.Oral.Rodent-mouse.400 mg/kg.Sex/Duration:female 2~5 day(s) after conception;Toxic Effects:Reproductive-fertility-pre-implantation mortality(e.g.reduction in number of implants per female:total number of implants per corpora lutea).Reference:Same as Above
TDLo-Lowest published toxic dose.Oral.Rodent-mouse.125 mg/kg.Sex/Duration:female 8~12 day(s) after conception;Toxic Effects:Reproductive-Fertility-abortion.Reference:Same as Above
TDLo-Lowest published toxic dose.Intraperitoneal.Rodent-mouse.100 mg/kg.Sex/Duration:female 2~5 day(s) after conception;Toxic Effects:Reproductive-fertility-pre-implantation mortality(e.g.reduction in number of implants per female:total number of implants per corpora lutea).Reference:Same as Above
TDLo-Lowest published toxic dose.Intraperitoneal.Rodent-mouse.25 mg/kg.Sex/Duration:female 8~12 day(s) after conception;Toxic Effects:Reproductive-fertility-abortion.Reference:Same as Above
Data in USA.:Piperine
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY.
Safety and Toxicity of Piperitone.:
Chemical Name:p-Menth-1-en-3-one Molecular Formula:C10H16O. Molecular Weight:152.26 Note:Primary Irritant.
CAS RN:89-81-6; RTECS:OT0257000; Beilstein RN:1907772 Reference:2-07-00-00075(Beilstein Handbook Reference)
Skin/Eye Irritation test.:Piperitone
Standard Draize Test.Administration onto the skin.Rodent-rabbit.500 mg/24 H.Reaction Severity:Moderate.Reference:FCTXAV Food and Cosmetics Toxicology.(London,UK)V.1-19,1963-81.For publisher information,see FCTOD7.Volume(issue)/page/year:16,863,1978
LD50-Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Oral.Rodent-rat.2450 mg/kg.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value.Reference:FCTXAV Food and Cosmetics Toxicology.(London,UK)V.1-19,1963-81.For publisher information,see FCTOD7.Volume(issue)/page/year:16,863,1978
LD50-Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Subcutaneous.Rodent-mouse.1420 mg/kg.Toxic Effects:Behavioral-convulsions or effect on seizure threshold.Reference:Same as above.
Data in USA.:Piperitone
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY.
Possible Negative Effects of Black Pepper:
According to at least one study, black pepper may cause an increase in parietal secretion (of hydrochloric acid~ the acid abovementioned as an aid to digestion) and pepsin secretion and a loss in potassium.
Also, there is a chance of mucosal mircrobleeding and even gastric bleeding due black pepper (due, at least in part, to the above-stated secretions).
Piperine may actually be carcinogenic (although some studies show that it is anti-carcinogenic...) and it might even have negative effects on sperm and interfere with reproductive processes.
All in all, it seems that more likely than not, black pepper has positive health benefits. But before you start loading black pepper onto every single meal, realize that there are possible negatives, as well (which can practically be said about most any food!)
Should not be used during pregnancy and lactation. Should not be given to children. Avoid in people who develop hypersensitivity to it (Skidmore-Roth, 2001).
Interactions with other drugs:
Avoid concurrent use with drugs metabolized by cytochrome P-450 (Skidmore-Roth, 2001).
Co-administration of piperine, an alkaloid isolated from P. nigrum enhanced bioavailability of beta lactam antibiotics, amoxycillin trihydrate and cefotaxime sodium significantly in rats (Hiwale et al, 2002).
Piperine (1-peperoyl piperidine), a major alkaloid isolated from P. nigrum potentiated pentobarbitone sleeping time in dose dependant manner, with peak effect at 30 min. Blood and brain pentobarbitone levels were higher in piperine treated animals (Mujumdar et al, 1990).
Avoid concurrent use with anti-coagulant agents (Fetrow and Avila, 2000).
1: Black Pepper,Black Pepper Seed,Piper nigrum,Piper:the Kind of spices,one of the oldest and the most popular spice in the world.
2: see CHMM(Zhong Hua Ben Cao,or Chinese Herbal Materia Medica)
3: see PDR for Herbal Medicines 4th Ed.under title "Black Pepper(Piper nigrum)",p107~108.
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