Black Pepper,Black Pepper Seed,Piper nigrum,Piper:the Kind of spices,one of the oldest and the most popular spice in the world.


Research Update: Black pepper or Piper nigrum L.:

Black Pepper Piper Nigrum Black Pepper Fruit Blanc Poivre Kosho Pepe green peppercorns Pfeffer Pimenta Pimienta Poivre Noir White Pepper   Kinetics of Light-Induced Cis-Trans Isomerization of Four Piperines and Their Levels in Ground Black Peppers as Determined by HPLC and LC/MS.:J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jul 28;Kozukue N, Park MS, Choi SH, Lee SU, Ohnishi-Kameyama M, Levin CE, Friedman M.Department of Food Service Industry, Uiduk University, San 50 Yugeom, Gangdong, Gyeongju, Gyongbuk 780-713, Korea, Department of Food & Beverage, Kyungdong College of Techno-Information, Geongsan City, Gyongbuk 712-904, Korea,and Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Albany, California 94710.

 The pungent compounds piperine and isomers thereof, secondary metabolites present in black and white pepper fruit, undergo light-induced isomerizations. To facilitate studies in this area, an HPLC method has been developed for analysis and isolation of the following four possible piperine-derived photoinduced isomers: piperine, isopiperine, chavicine, and isochavicine. The limits of detection (LOD) estimated from calibration plots were approximately 15-30 ng for each isomer. Reproducibilities of the analyses were excellent, and recoveries of spiked samples were as follows (average +/- SD; n = 3): chavicine, 98.4 +/- 2.1%; isopiperine, 96.2 +/- 3.2%; piperine, 104 +/- 3.8%; isochavicine, 98.9 +/- 3.0%. To determine the kinetics of these isomerizations, fluorescent light, sunlight, and UV radiation at 254 nm was used to induce cis-trans geometric isomerization as a function of light intensities and time of exposure determined with the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography with diode array UV detection-mass spectrometry (LC-DAD/MS). HPLC was also used to determine the distribution of the isomers in four commercial ground black pepper products used as spices in culinary practice. Isomerization increased with light intensities and time of exposure and leveled off at the so-called photostationary phases. The piperine levels of the four products were quite similar, ranging (in wt %) from 10.17 to 11.68. The amounts of the other three isomers ranged from 0.01 to 0.07 of the total for chavicine; from 0.15 to 0.23 for isopiperine; and from 0.37 to 0.42 for isochavicine. The results establish the utility of the HPLC method for simultaneous analysis of the four isomers both in pure form and in black pepper extracts. The dietary significance of the results is discussed. Keywords: Piperine; isopiperine; chavicine; isochavicine; black peppers; photoisomerization; HPLC; LC-MS.

  Antioxidant activity of commonly consumed plant foods of India: contribution of their phenolic content.:Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2007 Jun;58(4):250-60.Saxena R, Venkaiah K, Anitha P, Venu L, Raghunath M.Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India.

 Antioxidants are important in protection against hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Polyphenols are potent antioxidants in plant foods, but their contribution to such protective effects is yet to be established. This study attempted to generate a database on the antioxidant activity (AOA) and phenolic content (PC) of some plant foods commonly consumed in India and to assess the contribution of the PC to their AOA. Plant foods belonging to different food groups such as cereals, legumes, oil seeds, oils, green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, spices, roots and tubers were analysed for AOA and PC. AOA was the highest in black pepper (0.43 mg food required for 50% inhibition of the coupled auto-oxidation of beta-carotene and linoleic acid in a mixture in vitro) and it had the highest PC (191 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g food). The AOA (18.4 mg) as well as the PC (not detectable) were the lowest in sunflower oil. PC in oil seeds was higher than that in the oil, which could be due to the hydrophilic nature of phenolics and suggests the need for greater use of oil seeds than oils. A significant correlation was observed between the AOA and PC of the plant foods studied in general (r=-0.465), but the coefficient of correlation and determination were high only in spices (r=-0.86 and r2 =74%, respectively) and dehusked legumes (r=-0.65 and r2 = 42.2%, respectively). The results suggest that phenolics may contribute significantly to the AOA of some plant foods, such as spices and dehusked legumes.

  Amides from Piper nigrum L. with dissimilar effects on melanocyte proliferation in-vitro.:J Pharm Pharmacol. 2007 Apr;59(4):529-36.Lin Z, Liao Y, Venkatasamy R, Hider RC, Soumyanath A.Department of Pharmacy, King's College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NN, UK.

 Melanocyte proliferation stimulants are of interest as potential treatments for the depigmentary skin disorder, vitiligo. Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) fruit (black pepper) water extract and its main alkaloid, piperine (1), promote melanocyte proliferation in-vitro. A crude chloroform extract of P. nigrum containing piperine was more stimulatory than an equivalent concentration of the pure compound, suggesting the presence of other active components. Piperine (1), guineensine (2), pipericide (3), N-feruloyltyramine (4) and N-isobutyl-2E, 4E-dodecadienamide (5) were isolated from the chloroform extract. Their activity was compared with piperine and with commercial piperlongumine (6) and safrole (7), and synthetically prepared piperettine (8), piperlonguminine (9) and 1-(3, 4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-decane (10). Compounds 6-10 either occur in P. nigrum or are structurally related. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 8 and 9 stimulated melanocyte proliferation, whereas 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10 did not. Comparison of structures suggests that the methylenedioxyphenyl function is essential for melanocyte stimulatory activity. Only those compounds also possessing an amide group were active, although the amino component of the amide group and chain linking it to the methylenedioxyphenyl group can vary. P. nigrum, therefore, contains several amides with the ability to stimulate melanocyte proliferation. This finding supports the traditional use of P. nigrum extracts in vitiligo and provides new lead compounds for drug development for this disease.

  Piperine protects cisplatin-induced apoptosis via heme oxygenase-1 induction in auditory cells.:J Nutr Biochem. 2007 Apr 4;Choi BM, Kim SM, Park TK, Li G, Hong SJ, Park R, Chung HT, Kim BR.Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Chonbuk 570-749, Republic of Korea.

 Piperine is a major component of black pepper, Piper nigrum Linn, used widely in traditional medicine. In this study, we examined whether piperine could protect House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cells against cisplatin-induced apoptosis through the induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression. Piperine (10-100 muM) induced the expression of HO-1 in dose- and time-dependent manners. Piperine also induced antioxidant response element-luciferase and translocated nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) to nucleus. Piperine activated the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, and the JNK pathway played an important role in piperine-induced HO-1 expression. Piperine protected the cells against cisplatin-induced apoptosis. The protective effect of piperine was abrogated by zinc protoporphyrin IX, an HO inhibitor, and antisense oligodeoxynucleotides against HO-1 gene. These results demonstrate that the expression of HO-1 by piperine is mediated by both JNK pathway and Nrf2, and the expression inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HEI-OC1 cells.

  Binding of bioactive phytochemical piperine with human serum albumin: a spectrofluorometric study.:Biopolymers. 2007 Jul;86(4):265-75.Suresh DV, Mahesha HG, Rao AG, Srinivasan K.Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020, Karnataka, India.

 Piperine, the bioactive alkaloid compound of the spice black pepper (Piper nigrum) exhibits a wide range of beneficial physiological and pharmacological activities. Being essentially water-insoluble, piperine is presumed to be assisted by serum albumin for its transport in blood. In this study, the binding of piperine to serum albumin was examined by employing steady state and time resolved fluorescence techniques. Binding constant for the interaction of piperine with human serum albumin, which was invariant with temperature in the range of 17-47 degrees C, was found to be 0.5 x 10(5)M(-1), having stoichiometry of 1:1. At 27 degrees C, the van't Hoff enthalpy DeltaH degrees was zero; DeltaS degrees and DeltaG degrees were found to be 21.4 cal mol(-1) K(-1) and -6.42 kcal mol(-1). The binding constant increased with the increase of ionic strength from 0.1 to 1.0M of sodium chloride. The decrease of Stern-Volmer constant with increase of temperature suggested that the fluorescence quenching is static. Piperine fluorescence showed a blue shift upon binding to serum albumin, which reverted with the addition of ligands -triiodobenzoic acid and hemin. The distance between piperine and tryptophan after binding was found to be 2.79 nm by F?rster type resonance energy transfer calculations. The steady state and time resolved fluorescence measurements suggest the binding of piperine to the subdomain IB of serum albumin. These observations are significant in understanding the transport of piperine in blood under physiological conditions.

  UV irradiation affects melanocyte stimulatory activity and protein binding of piperine.:Photochem Photobiol. 2006 Nov-Dec;82(6):1541-8.Soumyanath A, Venkatasamy R, Joshi M, Faas L, Adejuyigbe B, Drake AF, Hider RC, Young AR.Department of Pharmacy, King's College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NN, UK.

 Piperine, the major alkaloid of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.; Piperaceae), stimulates melanocyte proliferation and dendrite formation in vitro. This property renders it a potential treatment for the skin depigmentation disorder vitiligo. However, piperine does not stimulate melanin synthesis in vitro, and treatments based on this compound may therefore be more effective with concomitant exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation or sunlight. The present study investigated the effect of UVA and simulated solar radiation (SSR) on the chemical stability of piperine, its melanocyte stimulatory effects and its ability to bind protein and DNA. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis confirmed the anticipated photoisomerization of irradiated piperine and showed the absence of any hydrolysis to piperinic acid. Isomerization resulted in the loss of ability to stimulate proliferation of a mouse melanocyte cell line, and to bind to human serum albumin. There was no evidence of DNA binding by piperine either before or after irradiation, showing the absence of photoadduct formation by either piperine or its geometric isomers. This is unlike the situation with psoralens, which form DNA adducts when administered with UVA in treating skin diseases. The present study suggests that exposure to bright sunlight should be avoided both during active application of piperine to the skin and in the storage of piperine products. If UVA radiation is used with piperine in the treatment of vitiligo, application of the compound and irradiation should be staggered to minimize photoisomerization. This approach is shown to effectively induce pigmentation in a sparsely pigmented mouse strain.

  Fat, spices and gastro-oesophageal reflux.:Z Gastroenterol. 2007 Feb;45(2):171-5. German.v Sch?nfeld J, Evans DF.Abteilung Innere Medizin, Marienkrankenhaus, Dr. Robert-Koch-Strasse 18, 51465 Bergisch Gladbach, Germany.

 In spite of poor evidence, many patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux are advised to avoid fat and spices. We therefore measured gastro-oesophageal reflux after fatty and spicy meals. During three 24-h pH monitoring sessions, eight volunteers ate two identical, low fat and mild beef stews, or a hot and fatty Indian curry for lunch. Meals for dinner were the beef stew, the hot Indian curry or a mild curry. Day-time acid exposure was significantly longer after the hot curry (7.5 % [1.4 - 27.1]) than after the beef stews (2.3 % [0.4 - 9.8] and 2.5 % [0.7 - 15.7]). Night-time acid exposure was also significantly shorter after the beef stew (1.3 % [0 - 9]) than after the mild curry (2.9 % [0 - 19.1]) or the hot curry (4.6 % [0.2 - 22.5]). Within two hours postprandially, reflux was not different between the meals. The number of episodes, however, that occurred more than two hours after lunch was significantly lower after the beef stews (4 [2 - 14] and 4.5 [2 - 10]) than after the hot curry (9 [5 - 16]). The same phenomenon was observed after beef stew (0.5 [0 - 2]), mild curry (2 [0 - 4]) and hot curry (2 [1 - 9]) for dinner. We conclude that meals high in fat can provoke reflux, possibly through delayed gastric emptying. Additional spices, however, do not further increase reflux.

  Sodium sulphite enhances RNA isolation and sensitivity of Cucumber mosaic virus detection by RT-PCR in black pepper.:J Virol Methods. 2007 Apr;141(1):107-10. Epub 2007 Feb 2.Siju S, Madhubala R, Bhat AI.Division of Crop Protection, Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut 673012, Kerala, India.

 Isolation of intact high quality RNA suitable for RT-PCR from black pepper is greatly hindered by the presence of polyphenols and polysaccharides. These compounds adversely affect the sensitivity of virus detection by RT-PCR. The present study evaluated the effect of sodium sulphite in enhancing RNA yield and quality in a modified acid guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform (AGPC) protocol. The results were compared with the standard AGPC method and RNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen) for detection of Cucumber mosaic virus through RT-PCR. The addition of sodium sulphite in the extraction buffer increased the sensitivity of virus detection. Higher sensitivity of detection (than obtained from the kit) was seen when sodium sulphite was used at 0.5%. Similar levels of sensitivity were also observed for the detection of Cucumber mosaic virus from Piper longum.

  A randomized trial of olfactory stimulation using black pepper oil in older people with swallowing dysfunction.:J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006 Sep;54(9):1401-6.

 OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of olfactory stimulation with volatile black pepper oil (BPO) on risk factors for pneumonia. DESIGN: A 1-month randomized, controlled study. SETTING: Nursing homes that serve as long-term care facilities for older residents who are physically handicapped, mainly because of cerebrovascular disease. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred five poststroke residents. MEASUREMENTS: Latency of the swallowing reflex (LTSR), the number of swallowing movements, serum substance P (SP), and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). RESULTS: Nasal inhalation of BPO for 1 minute shortened LTSR, compared with that of lavender oil and distilled water (P < .03). Compared with the period before the study, the 1-month intervention using BPO improved LTSR with an increase of serum SP (P < .01). The number of swallowing movements for 1 minute during the nasal inhalation of BPO increased (P < .001). Multiple comparisons showed a poststudy increase in rCBF within the insular cortex (P < .001). Compared with the prestudy rCBF, BPO intervention increased rCBF in the right orbitofrontal and left insular cortex (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Inhalation of BPO, which can activate the insular or orbitofrontal cortex, resulting in improvement of the reflexive swallowing movement, might benefit older poststroke patients with dysphagia regardless of their level of consciousness or physical and mental status.

  Bactericidal activity of black pepper, bay leaf, aniseed and coriander against oral isolates.:Pak J Pharm Sci. 2006 Jul;19(3):214-8.Chaudhry NM, Tariq P.Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

 Present investigation focused on antibacterial potential of aqueous decoction of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L.), and coriander (Coriandum sativum L.) against 176 bacterial isolates belonging to 12 different genera of bacterial population isolated from oral cavity of 200 individuals. The disc diffusion technique was employed. Overall aqueous decoction of black pepper was the most bacterial-toxic exhibited 75% antibacterial activity as compared to aqueous decoction of bay leaf (53.4%) and aqueous decoction of aniseed (18.1%), at the concentration of 10 ml/disc. The aqueous decoction of coriander did not show any antibacterial effect against tested bacterial isolates.

  Effect of spices on lipid metabolism in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis.:J Med Food. 2006 Summer;9(2):237-45.Nalini N, Manju V, Menon VP.Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamilnadu, India.

 Colon cancer is the second most common cancer among men and women worldwide. We investigated the effect of red chilli (Capsicum annum L.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on colon cancer induced in rats by a colon-specific carcinogen, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Colon cancer was induced by subcutaneous injection of DMH at a dosage of 20 mg/kg of body weight (15 doses, at 1-week intervals). The rats were continued with the standard pellet diet and supplemented red chilli [C. annum L., 0.015% (wt/wt) mixed with the diet], cumin seeds [C. cyminum L., 1.25% (wt/wt) mixed with the diet], and black pepper (P. nigrum L., 0.5% (wt/wt) mixed with the diet] throughout the experimental period. After the total experimental period of 32 weeks (including 2 weeks of acclimatization) the incidence and number of tumors in the colon were observed to be significantly higher in the rats administered DMH and/or red chillis, as compared with the cumin + DMH and black pepper + DMH groups. No tumors were observed in the control, cumin + DMH, or black pepper + DMH groups. The levels of fecal bile acids and neutral sterols in 24-hour fecal samples were significantly decreased in DMH + chilli-administered rats, while the excretion of fecal bile acids and neutral sterols was significantly increased in cumin + DMH- and black pepper + DMH-administered rats. In DMH-, chilli-, and chilli + DMH-administered rats the levels of cholesterol, cholesterol/phospholipid ratio, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity were decreased in cumin + DMH- and black pepper + DMH-treated rats. The phospholipid levels were reduced in the DMH, chilli, and chilli + DMH groups as compared with the cumin + DMH and black pepper + DMH groups. Our results show that chilli supplementation promotes colon carcinogenesis, whereas cumin or black pepper suppresses colon carcinogensis in the presence of the procarcinogen DMH.

  Metabolic effects of spices, teas, and caffeine.:Physiol Behav. 2006 Aug 30;89(1):85-91. Epub 2006 Mar 30. Review.Westerterp-Plantenga M, Diepvens K, Joosen AM, Bérubé-Parent S, Tremblay A.Department of Human Biology, Nutrim, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

 Consumption of spiced foods or herbal drinks leads to greater thermogenesis and in some cases to greater satiety. In this regard, capsaicin, black pepper, ginger, mixed spices, green tea, black tea and caffeine are relevant examples. These functional ingredients have the potential to produce significant effects on metabolic targets such as satiety, thermogenesis, and fat oxidation. A significant clinical outcome sometimes may appear straightforwardly but also depends too strongly on full compliance of subjects. Nevertheless, thermogenic ingredients may be considered as functional agents that could help in preventing a positive energy balance and obesity.

  The antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) seeds.:Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005 Nov;56(7):491-9.Gül?in I.Department of Chemistry, Atatürk University, Faculty of Science and Arts, TR-25240, Erzurum, Turkey.

 Water and ethanol crude extracts from black pepper (Piper nigrum) were investigated for their antioxidant and radical scavenging activities in six different assay, namely, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. Both water extract (WEBP) and ethanol extract (EEBP) of black pepper exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. The 75 microg/ml concentration of WEBP and EEBP showed 95.5% and 93.3% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. On the other hand, at the same concentration, standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol exhibited 92.1%, 95.0%, and 70.4% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. Also, total phenolic content in both WEBP and EEBP were determined as gallic acid equivalents. The total phenolics content of water and ethanol extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and 54.3 and 42.8 microg gallic acid equivalent of phenols was detected in 1 mg WEBP and EEBP.

  Piperine: researchers discover new flavor in an ancient spice.:Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2005 Sep;26(9):437-9.Szallasi A.Department of Pathology, Monmouth Medical Center, Long Branch, NJ 07740, USA. ASZALLASI@SBHCS.COM

 Studies with animals that are deficient in the vanilloid (capsaicin) receptor TRPV1 have confirmed the pivotal role that TRPV1 has in the development of post-inflammatory hyperalgesia, and enhanced TRPV1 expression has been described in various human disorders. Natural products have provided several lead structures for the development of vanilloid ligands. A recent study shows that piperine, the irritant principle in black pepper, is more efficient than capsaicin in the desensitization of human TRPV1, which suggests that this pharmacological aspect of vanilloids can be dissociated from its potency. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that piperine can be used as a chemical template for the design of improved TRPV1 agonists.

  Analysis of Piperaceae germplasm by HPLC and LCMS: a method for isolating and identifying unsaturated amides from Piper spp extracts.:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Mar 23;53(6):1907-13.Scott IM, Puniani E, Jensen H, Livesey JF, Poveda L, Sanchez-Vindas P, Durst T, Arnason JT.Biology Department, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5, Canada.

 A method for extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS) analysis of the medicinally important genus Piper (Piperaceae) was developed. This allows for a rapid and accurate measure of unsaturated amides, or piperamides, in black pepper, Piper nigrum L., and in wild species from Central America. Reflux extraction provided the highest recovery of piperine (>80%) from leaf and peppercorn material. HPLC analysis using a binary gradient of acetonitrile and water separated the major amide peaks between 5 and 12 min. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-MS improved the detection limit to 0.2 ng, 10-fold below the 2 ng limit of the HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) based on linear standard curves between 0.1 and 250 microg/mL (R2 = 0.999). The HPLC-MS method identified pellitorine, piperylin, 4,5-dihydropiperlonguminine, piperlonguminine, 4,5-dihydropiperine, piperine, and pipercide. The biological activity of six Costa Rican Piper species assessed by mosquito larval bioassays correlated well with piperamide content.

  Effects of piperine, the pungent component of black pepper, at the human vanilloid receptor (TRPV1).:Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Mar;144(6):781-90.McNamara FN, Randall A, Gunthorpe MJ.Neurology & GI-CEDD, GlaxoSmithKline, New Fronteirs Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW

 1. We have characterised the effects of piperine, a pungent alkaloid found in black pepper, on the human vanilloid receptor TRPV1 using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. 2. Piperine produced a clear agonist activity at the human TRPV1 receptor yielding rapidly activating whole-cell currents that were antagonised by the competitive TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine and the non-competitive TRPV1 blocker ruthenium red. 3. The current-voltage relationship of piperine-activated currents showed pronounced outward rectification (25+/-4-fold between -70 and +70 mV) and a reversal potential of 0.0+/-0.4 mV, which was indistinguishable from that of the prototypical TRPV1 agonist capsaicin. 4. Although piperine was a less potent agonist (EC50=37.9+/-1.9 microM) than capsaicin (EC50=0.29+/-0.05 microM), it demonstrated a much greater efficacy (approximately two-fold) at TRPV1. 5. This difference in efficacy did not appear to be related to the proton-mediated regulation of the receptor since a similar degree of potentiation was observed for responses evoked by piperine (230+/-20%, n=11) or capsaicin (284+/-32%, n=8) upon acidification to pH 6.5. 6. The effects of piperine upon receptor desensitisation were also unable to explain this effect since piperine resulted in more pronounced macroscopic desensitisation (t(1/2)=9.9+/-0.7 s) than capsaicin (t(1/2)>20 s) and also caused greater tachyphylaxis in response to repetitive agonist applications. 7. Overall, our data suggest that the effects of piperine at human TRPV1 are similar to those of capsaicin except for its propensity to induce greater receptor desensitisation and, rather remarkably, exhibit a greater efficacy than capsaicin itself. These results may provide insight into the TRPV1-mediated effects of piperine on gastrointestinal function.

  Piperine enhances the bioavailability of the tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in mice.:J Nutr. 2004 Aug;134(8):1948-52.Lambert JD, Hong J, Kim DH, Mishin VM, Yang CS.Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.

 (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), from green tea (Camellia sinensis), has demonstrated chemopreventive activity in animal models of carcinogenesis. Previously, we reported the bioavailability of EGCG in rats (1.6%) and mice (26.5%). Here, we report that cotreatment with a second dietary component, piperine (from black pepper), enhanced the bioavailability of EGCG in mice. Intragastric coadministration of 163.8 micromol/kg EGCG and 70.2 micromol/kg piperine to male CF-1 mice increased the plasma C(max) and area under the curve (AUC) by 1.3-fold compared to mice treated with EGCG only. Piperine appeared to increase EGCG bioavailability by inhibiting glucuronidation and gastrointestinal transit. Piperine (100 micromol/L) inhibited EGCG glucuronidation in mouse small intestine (by 40%) but not in hepatic microsomes. Piperine (20 micromol/L) also inhibited production of EGCG-3"-glucuronide in human HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Small intestinal EGCG levels in CF-1 mice following treatment with EGCG alone had a C(max) = 37.50 +/- 22.50 nmol/g at 60 min that then decreased to 5.14 +/- 1.65 nmol/g at 90 min; however, cotreatment with piperine resulted in a C(max) = 31.60 +/- 15.08 nmol/g at 90 min, and levels were maintained above 20 nmol/g until 180 min. This resulted in a significant increase in the small intestine EGCG AUC (4621.80 +/- 1958.72 vs. 1686.50 +/- 757.07 (nmol/g.min)). EGCG appearance in the colon and the feces of piperine-cotreated mice was slower than in mice treated with EGCG alone. The present study demonstrates the modulation of the EGCG bioavailablity by a second dietary component and illustrates a mechanism for interactions between dietary chemicals.

  Antioxidant efficacy of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine in rats with high fat diet induced oxidative stress.:Redox Rep. 2004;9(2):105-10.Vijayakumar RS, Surya D, Nalini N.Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamilnadu, India.

 The present study was aimed to explore the effect of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on tissue lipid peroxidation, enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in rats fed a high-fat diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (95-115 g) were divided into 5 groups. They were fed standard pellet diet, high-fat diet (20% coconut oil, 2% cholesterol and 0.125% bile salts), high-fat diet plus black pepper (0.25 g or 0.5 g/kg body weight), high-fat diet plus piperine (0.02 g/kg body weight) for a period of 10 weeks. Significantly elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly lowered activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver, heart, kidney, intestine and aorta were observed in rats fed the high fat diet as compared to the control rats. Simultaneous supplementation with black pepper or piperine lowered TBARS and CD levels and maintained SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and GSH levels to near those of control rats. The data indicate that supplementation with black pepper or the active principle of black pepper, piperine, can reduce high-fat diet induced oxidative stress to the cells.

  Extraction of chili, black pepper, and ginger with near-critical CO2, propane, and dimethyl ether: analysis of the extracts by quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.:J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Aug 13;51(17):4853-60.Catchpole OJ, Grey JB, Perry NB, Burgess EJ, Redmond WA, Porter NG.Industrial Research Limited, P.O. Box 31-310, Lower Hutt, New Zealand.

 Ginger, black pepper, and chili powder were extracted using near-critical carbon dioxide, propane, and dimethyl ether on a laboratory scale to determine the overall yield and extraction efficiency for selected pungent components. The temperature dependency of extraction yield and efficiency was also determined for black pepper and chili using propane and dimethyl ether. The pungency of the extracts was determined by using an NMR technique developed for this work. The volatiles contents of ginger and black pepper extracts were also determined. Extraction of all spice types was carried out with acetone to compare overall yields. Subcritical dimethyl ether was as effective at extracting the pungent principles from the spices as supercritical carbon dioxide, although a substantial amount of water was also extracted. Subcritical propane was the least effective solvent. All solvents quantitatively extracted the gingerols from ginger. The yields of capsaicins obtained by supercritical CO(2) and dimethyl ether were similar and approximately double that extracted by propane. The yield of piperines obtained by propane extraction of black pepper was low at approximately 10% of that achieved with dimethyl ether and CO(2), but improved with increasing extraction temperature.

  Effects of gamma-irradiation on the free radical and antioxidant contents in nine aromatic herbs and spices.:J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Feb 12;51(4):927-34.Calucci L, Pinzino C, Zandomeneghi M, Capocchi A, Ghiringhelli S, Saviozzi F, Tozzi S, Galleschi L.Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici del CNR, Area della Ricerca, via G. Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa, Italy.

 Nine spice and aromatic herb samples (i.e., basil, bird pepper, black pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, oregano, parsley, rosemary, and sage) were gamma-irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy according to commercial practices. The effects of the disinfection treatment on the content of organic radicals and some nutrients (namely, vitamin C and carotenoids) in the samples were investigated by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Irradiation resulted in a general increase of quinone radical content in all of the investigated samples, as revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fate of these radicals after storage for 3 months was also investigated. The cellulose radical was clearly observed in a few samples. Significant losses of total ascorbate were found for black pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, oregano, and sage, whereas a significant decrease of carotenoids content was observed for cinnamon, oregano, parsley, rosemary, bird pepper, and sage.

  Antimutagenic properties of bell and black peppers.:Food Chem Toxicol. 2003 Jan;41(1):41-7.El Hamss R, Idaomar M, Alonso-Moraga A, Mu?oz Serrano A.Université Abdelmalek Essaadi, Unité de Biologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire (BCM) BP 2121, 93002 Tétouan, Morocco.

 The wing Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster was used to study the modulating action of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and black pepper (Piper nigrum) in combination with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and the promutagen agent ethyl carbamate (EC). Larvae trans-heterozygous for the third chromosome recessive markers multiple wing hairs (mwh) and flare-3 [flr(3)] were fed genotoxins alone or in combination with each of the two spices. Genetic changes induced in somatic cells of the wing's imaginal discs lead to the formation of mutant clones on the wing blade. Our results showed that bell pepper was effective in reducing the mutational events induced by EC and MMS and black pepper was only effective against EC. Pretreatment of 2-day-old larvae with the spices for 24 h followed by a treatment with EC and MMS was only effective in reducing mutations induced by EC. Suppression of metabolic activation or interaction with the active groups of mutagens could be mechanisms by which the spices exert their antimutagenic action.

  Biochemical properties of polysaccharides from black pepper.:Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Sep;25(9):1203-8.Chun H, Shin DH, Hong BS, Cho WD, Cho HY, Yang HC.Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Sungbuk-Ku, Seoul.

 The purified polysaccharides from Piper nigrum were prepared as follows: a hot water extract of pepper seeds was fractionated by ultrafiltration with a 5-kDa-membrane cartridge. A fraction with 5 kDa or bigger molecules was successively purified by open column chromatography on DEAE-Toyopearl 650C and Bio-gel P-60 with each active fraction, resulting in PN-Ib and PN-IIa, purified anti-complementary polysaccharides. None of the anti-complementary activity of any polysaccharide was changed by pronase digestion or polymyxin B treatment, but they were decreased by periodate oxidation. Analysis of component sugar and molecular mass determination of the anti-complementary polysaccharides indicated that PN-Ib with an average molecular mass of 21 kDa contained 88.5% glucose and other negligible minor monosaccharides, while PN-IIa showed a different monosaccharide composition, which contained a significant proportion of galactose, arabinose, galacturonic acid and rhamnose. The molar ratio of galactose and arabinose of PN-IIa (48 kDa) was 1.93:1. PN-1 did not react with beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent, however, PN-IIa did react, which indicated that PN-IIa might be an arabinogalactan. Based upon these results, the usefulness of purified anti-complementary polysaccharides from Piper nigrum is suggested as a supplement for immune enhancement.

  Effect of piperine, the active ingredient of black pepper, on intestinal secretion in mice.:Life Sci. 2002 Sep 27;71(19):2311-7.Capasso R, Izzo AA, Borrelli F, Russo A, Sautebin L, Pinto A, Capasso F, Mascolo N.Department of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Salerno, Italy.

 We have investigated the effect piperine on castor oil-stimulated fluid accumulation in the mouse small intestine. Piperine (2.5-20 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently reduced castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation. The inhibitory effect of piperine (10 mg/kg i.p.) was strongly attenuated in capsaicin (75 mg/kg in total, s.c.)-treated mice but it was not modified by the vanilloid receptor antagonist capsazepine (30 mg/kg i.p.). Pretreatment of mice with hexamethonium (1 mg/kg i.p.), naloxone (2 mg/kg i.p.), yohimbine (1 mg/kg i.p.) or the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist SR141716A (0.3 mg/kg i.p.) did not modify the inhibitory effect of piperine (10 mg/kg i.p.). These results suggest that piperine reduces castor oil-induced fluid secretion with a mechanism involving capsaicin-sensitive neurons, but not capsazepine-sensitive vanilloid receptors.

  Piperine, a major constituent of black pepper, inhibits human P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4.:J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):645-50.Bhardwaj RK, Glaeser H, Becquemont L, Klotz U, Gupta SK, Fromm MF.Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Auerbachstrasse 112, D-70376 Stuttgart, Germany.

 Dietary constituents (e.g., in grapefruit juice; NaCl) and phytochemicals (e.g., St. John's wort) are important agents modifying drug metabolism and transport and thereby contribute to interindividual variability in drug disposition. Most of these drug-food interactions are due to induction or inhibition of P-glycoprotein and/or CYP3A4. Preliminary data indicate that piperine, a major component of black pepper, inhibits drug-metabolizing enzymes in rodents and increases plasma concentrations of several drugs, including P-glycoprotein substrates (phenytoin and rifampin) in humans. However, there are no direct data whether piperine is an inhibitor of human P-glycoprotein and/or CYP3A4. We therefore investigated the influence of piperine on P-glycoprotein-mediated, polarized transport of digoxin and cyclosporine in monolayers of Caco-2 cells. Moreover, by using human liver microsomes we determined the effect of piperine on CYP3A4-mediated formation of the verapamil metabolites D-617 and norverapamil. Piperine inhibited digoxin and cyclosporine A transport in Caco-2 cells with IC(50) values of 15.5 and 74.1 microM, respectively. CYP3A4-catalyzed formation of D-617 and norverapamil was inhibited in a mixed fashion, with K(i) values of 36 +/- 8 (liver 1)/49 +/- 6 (liver 2) and 44 +/- 10 (liver 1)/77 +/- 10 microM (liver 2), respectively. In summary, we showed that piperine inhibits both the drug transporter P-glycoprotein and the major drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. Because both proteins are expressed in enterocytes and hepatocytes and contribute to a major extent to first-pass elimination of many drugs, our data indicate that dietary piperine could affect plasma concentrations of P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 substrates in humans, in particular if these drugs are administered orally.

  CYP3A4 inhibitory activity of new bisalkaloids, dipiperamides D and E, and cognates from white pepper.:Bioorg Med Chem. 2002 Sep;10(9):2981-5.

 Two new bisalkaloids, dipiperamides D and E, were isolated as inhibitors of a drug metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 from the white pepper, Piper nigrum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Dipiperamides D and E showed potent CYP3A4 inhibition with IC(50) values of 0.79 and 0.12 microM, respectively, and other metabolites from the pepper were moderately active or inactive.

  Piperine derived from black pepper increases the plasma levels of coenzyme Q10 following oral supplementation.:J Nutr Biochem. 2000 Feb;11(2):109-13.Badmaev V, Majeed M, Prakash L.Sabinsa Corporation, Piscataway, NJ, USA.

 An extract from the fruits of black pepper consisting of a minimum of 98% pure piperine was evaluated in a clinical study using a double-blind design. The relative bioavailability of 90 mg and 120 mg of coenzyme Q10 administered in a single-dose experiment or in separate experiments for 14 and 21 days with placebo or with 5 mg of piperine was determined by comparing measured changes in plasma concentration. The inter-subject variability was minimized by limiting the selection of individuals to healthy adult male volunteers with (presupplementation) fasting coenzyme Q10 values between 0.30 and 0.60 mg/L. The results of the single-dose study and the 14-day study indicate smaller, but not significant, increases in plasma concentrations of coenzyme Q10 in the control group compared with the group receiving coenzyme Q10 with a supplement of piperine. Supplementation of 120 mg coenzyme Q10 with piperine for 21 days produced a statistically significant (p = 0.0348), approximately 30% greater, area under the plasma curve than was observed during supplementation with coenzyme Q10 plus placebo. It is postulated that the bioenhancing mechanism of piperine to increase plasma levels of supplemental coenzyme Q10 is nonspecific and possibly based on its description in the literature as a thermonutrient.

  Stimulation of mouse melanocyte proliferation by Piper nigrum fruit extract and its main alkaloid, piperine.:Planta Med. 1999 Oct;65(7):600-3.Lin Z, Hoult JR, Bennett DC, Raman A.Department of Pharmacy, King's College London, U.K.

 During a herbal screening programme to find potential repigmenting agents for the treatment of vitiligo, Piper nigrum L. fruit (black pepper) extract was found to possess growth-stimulatory activity towards cultured melanocytes. Its aqueous extract at 0.1 mg/ml was observed to cause nearly 300% stimulation of the growth of a cultured mouse melanocyte line, melan-a, in 8 days (p < 0.01). Piperine (1-piperoylpiperidine), the main alkaloid from Piper nigrum fruit, also significantly stimulated melan-a cell growth. Both Piper nigrum extract and piperine induced morphological alterations in melan-a cells, with more and longer dendrites observed. The augmentation of growth by piperine was effectively inhibited by RO-31-8220, a selective protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, suggesting that PKC signalling is involved in its activity. This is the first full report on such an activity of black pepper and piperine.

  Effect of pepper and bismuth subsalicylate on gastric pain and surface hydrophobicity in the rat.:Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1998 May;12(5):483-90.Lichtenberger LM, Romero JJ, Carryl OR, Illich PA, Walters ET.Department of Integrative Biology, The University of Texas-Houston Medical School, 77030, USA.

 BACKGROUND: The mechanism by which dietary pepper causes dyspepsia and epigastric pain is poorly understood, as is the ability of bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) to relieve these symptoms. AIM: To investigate the ability of black pepper, red pepper and BSS to affect gastric surface hydrophobicity and induce/relieve visceral pain in rat model systems. METHODS: Fasted rats were administered intragastrically Vivonex containing varying concentrations of either black or red pepper (0-200 mg/mL) and gastric contact angles were read after 1-24 h. Some rats were post-treated with BSS (2.0-17.5 mg/mL) and contact angles were read after 2-18 h. To study pain sensitivity in rats treated with pepper/BSS, we compared tail-flick latencies after the application of radiant heat. RESULTS: Both black and red pepper rapidly (< 1 h) induced a decrease in gastric surface hydrophobicity in a dose-dependent fashion. This spice-induced increase in surface wettability was long-lasting, could be enhanced in the presence of ethanol and reversed by post-treating the rats with BSS. Both black and red pepper induced an increase in pain sensitivity, consistent with the presence of gastric pain, which could also be reversed by post-treating the rats with BSS. CONCLUSION: Both black and red pepper may induce epigastric pain by removing the stomach's hydrophobic lining and activating intramucosal pain receptors. BSS may provide relief from postprandial dyspepsia by restoring the stomach's non-wettable properties.

  Sister chromatid exchanges induced in vitro and in vivo by an extract of black pepper.:Food Chem Toxicol. 1997 Jun;35(6):567-71.Madrigal-Bujaidar E, Diaz Barriga S, Mota P, Guzman R, Cassani M.Laboratorio de Genética, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, I.P.N. Carpio y Plan de Ayala C.P., México, D.F., México.

 Black pepper is a spice widely used in human food. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether an alcoholic extract of the mature berries of black pepper induced genotoxic damage in vivo and in vitro. The first aspect was evaluated in mouse bone marrow cells and the second one in human lymphocytes. In both cases the rate of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and the replicative index were determined. For the in vivo assay, ip doses of 7.0, 14.0, 28.0 and 56.0 mg/kg body weight were tested, with the following results: (1) a significant increase of SCE frequency in all doses tested compared with the control level (the highest dose produced almost a duplication of the basal rate of SCEs); (2) a similar pattern with regard to cell proliferation kinetics at all doses tested, without significant differences between them. For the in vitro assay, doses of 25.0, 50.0, 75.0 and 100.0 micrograms/ml were tested, with the following results: (1) a significant increase in the frequency of SCEs at all doses tested; a linear regression analysis of the data produced a correlation coefficient of 0.98; (2) a significant reduction in the replicative index, at the two high doses. These results demonstrated that the extract of black pepper was genotoxic in both systems.

  Similarities and differences in the currents activated by capsaicin, piperine, and zingerone in rat trigeminal ganglion cells.:J Neurophysiol. 1996 Sep;76(3):1858-69.Liu L, Simon SA. Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

 1. Capsaicin, piperine, and zingerone are natural pungent-tasting compounds found in chili pepper, black pepper, and ginger, respectively. These structurally related compounds evoke many of the same physiological responses, but at comparable concentrations capsaicin produces complete tachyphylaxis, piperine produces partial tachyphylaxis, and zingerone can either induce or not induce tachyphylaxis. Whole cell patch-clamp studies were performed on rat trigeminal ganglion cells to determine the similarities and differences between these three pungent compounds. 2. Capsaicin (1 microM) activated a variety of inward currents having peak times ranging from 2 to 46 s that desensitized to various extents ranging from 0 to 100%. The inward currents activated by zingerone (30 mM) had peak times of approximately 2 s and all currents exhibited marked desensitization. The inward currents activated by piperine (100 microM) had peak times of approximately 25 s and all exhibited a small desensitization. 3. Piperine- and zingerone-induced currents were found only in cells that could be activated by capsaicin. 4. Capsazepine (10 microM), an established antagonist of capsaicin-induced currents, inhibited the currents evoked by piperine and zingerone, suggesting that all three compounds activate vanilloid receptors. 5. Dose-response relationships for capsaicin, piperine, and zingerone obtained at a holding potential of -60 mV had threshold and apparent dissociation constants of 0.1 and 0.68 microM, 3 and 35 microM, and 1 and 15 mM, respectively. These values were consistent with those previously obtained in behavioral studies. 6. After seven 30-s applications of 1 microM capsaicin or 100 microM piperine (in a buffer with 2 mM Ca2+), each interspersed with 2-min, 50-s washes, the peak currents were inhibited by approximately 60 and 40%, respectively. In contrast, 30 mM zingerone failed to evoke a current after six applications. After complete tachyphylaxis produced by 30 mM zingerone, 1 microM capsaicin failed to evoke a current, suggesting that these two compounds cross desensitize. 7. The similar physiological responses produced by these three compounds can be rationalized by their binding to receptors and activating currents that can all be inhibited by capsazepine. Their different physiological responses evoked by these compounds can be rationalized, in part, by their very different activation and desensitization kinetics, and perhaps by the existence of different subtypes of vanilloid receptors.

  Modulatory effect of piperine on benzo[a]pyrene cytotoxicity and DNA adduct formation in V-79 lung fibroblast cells.:Food Chem Toxicol. 1994 Apr;32(4):373-7.Chu CY, Chang JP, Wang CJ.Institute of Biochemistry, Chung-Shan Medical and Dental College, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China.

 Piperine, a major component of black pepper and long peppers, has been reported previously to have an effect on the activation and deactivation of some exogenous substances. In the present study, piperine was found to promote DNA damage and cytotoxicity induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in cultured V-79 lung fibroblast cells. The V-79 cells were treated with a non-toxic dose of piperine (1-20 microM) plus 10 microM B[a]P, or pretreated with piperine for 30 min or 2 hr prior to the administration of 10 microM B[a]P. B[a]P cytotoxicity was potentiated significantly by piperine under each experimental condition. The relative plating efficiency (RPE) was 71% when V-79 cells were exposed to 10 microM B[a]P alone. When the culture was exposed to B[a]P plus piperine or pretreated with piperine for 30 min prior to the administration of B[a]P, the RPE values were 63 and 44% (P < 0.001), respectively. Pretreatment with piperine for 2 hr had no significant effect (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the lowest activities (P < 0.05) of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and uridine diphosphate glucuronyl transferase (UDP-GTase) of piperine-treated V-79 cells occurred 30 min to 1 hr after the piperine pretreatment. Pretreatment of V-79 cells with piperine also caused an increase in the covalent binding of B[a]P-diol-epoxide to DNA, 2.3 times greater than that of the V-79 cells without piperine treatment. These results suggest that the promotion by piperine of B[a]P-induced cytotoxicity in V-79 lung fibroblast cells is due to mechanisms that decrease the activities of GST and UDP-GTase and increase the formation of a B[a]P-DNA adduct.

  Inhalation of vapor from black pepper extract reduces smoking withdrawal symptoms.:Drug Alcohol Depend. 1994 Feb;34(3):225-9.Rose JE, Behm FM.Nicotine Research Laboratory (151-S), V.A. Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705.

 Previous studies have suggested that sensory cues associated with cigarette smoking can suppress certain smoking withdrawal symptoms, including craving for cigarettes. In this study we investigated the subjective effects of a cigarette substitute delivering a vapor of black pepper essential oil. Forty-eight cigarette smokers participated in a 3-h session conducted after overnight deprivation from smoking. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: one group of smokers puffed on a device that delivered a vapor from essential oil of black pepper; a second group puffed on the device with a mint/menthol cartridge, and a third group used a device containing an empty cartridge. Subjects puffed and inhaled ad libitum from the device throughout the session during which no smoking was allowed. Reported craving for cigarettes was significantly reduced in the pepper condition relative to each of the two control conditions. In addition, negative affect and somatic symptoms of anxiety were alleviated in the pepper condition relative to the unflavored placebo. The intensity of sensations in the chest was also significantly higher for the pepper condition. These results support the view that respiratory tract sensations are important in alleviating smoking withdrawal symptoms. Cigarette substitutes delivering pepper constituents may prove useful in smoking cessation treatment.

  Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of extracts of three spices and a medicinal plant in Thailand.:Mutat Res. 1993 Nov;303(3):135-42.

 Three kinds of spices (caraway, coriander and black pepper seeds) and a medicinal plant called 'tong tak' in Thai (Baliospermum axillar, a species of the spurge family) were fractionated into hot water, methanol and hexane extracts. These extracts were not mutagenic for Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 by the Ames assay. However, when the extracts were treated with nitrite, samples of the water and methanol extracts were mutagenic for strain TA100 without metabolic activation. The mutagenicity of the nitrite-treated methanol and hot water extracts of black pepper was highest (8380 and 22,200 His+ per 0.1 g of spice powder, respectively), and that of the nitrite-treated hot water extracts of caraway and tong tak was moderate. The hot water extracts were examined for their antimutagenic activity against mutagenicity induced by various carcinogens by the Ames assay, using the preincubation technique. The tested samples (equivalent to 1-2 mg of spice powder) reduced the mutagenicity induced by 2.7 nmole (397 ng) of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine by more than 84%, and that induced by dimethylnitrosamine (1.48 mg) or ICR-170 (10 ng) by 30-60%. However, they did not inhibit the mutagenic activity of 1-nitropyrene, 3-nitrofluoranthene, AF-2, methyl methanesulfonate, N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, 2-aminoanthracene, 2-acetylaminofluorene, benzo[a]pyrene or IQ.

  Common Indian spices: nutrient composition, consumption and contribution to dietary value.:Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1993 Sep;44(2):137-48.Uma Pradeep K, Geervani P, Eggum BO. Foods and Nutrition Department, Postgraduate & Research Centre (Home Sicence) A.P. Agricultural University, Hyderabad, India.

 Nutrient composition of eight commonly consumed spices of South India was analysed. Spices analysed were red chillies (Capsicum annum), black pepper (Piper nigrum), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum), cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), garlic (Allium sativum), asafoetida (Ferula foetida), dry ginger (Zingiber officinale) and ajowan (Carum copticum). The nutrients analysed were proximate principles, minerals, starch, sugars, dietary fibre components, tannins, phytic acid, enzyme inhibitors and amino acids. Dry ginger, ajowan and asafoetida had high calcium (1.0-1.5%) and iron (54-62 mg/100 g) levels. The tannin content of spices was also high (0.9-1.3% DM). Dietary fibre ranged from 14-53%. Spices had appreciable amounts of essential amino acids like lysine and threonine. A survey revealed the average per capita consumption of spices to be 9.54 g and at that level, the nutrient contribution from spices ranged from 1.2 to 7.9% of an average adult Indian male's requirement for different nutrients.

  Evaluation of the modulatory influence of black pepper (Piper nigrum, L.) on the hepatic detoxication system.:Cancer Lett. 1993 Aug 16;72(1-2):5-9.Singh A, Rao AR.Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

 The present paper assesses the modifying potential of black pepper on the hepatic biotransformation system in mice. The modulatory effect was assessed on glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome b5 (cyt. b5), cytochrome P-450 (cyt. P-450), acid-soluble sulfhydryl (-SH) content and malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Swiss albino mice of either sex (eight weeks old) were fed on a diet containing 0.5%, 1% and 2% black pepper (w/w) for 10 and 20 days. The findings revealed a significant and dose-dependent increase in GST and -SH content in the experimental groups except the one maintained on 0.5% black pepper diet for 10 days. Elevated levels of cyt. b5 and cyt. P-450 were also statistically significant and dose-dependent. The level of MDA was lowered in the group fed on 2% black pepper diet for 20 days. Being a potential inducer of detoxication system, the possible chemopreventive role of black pepper in chemical carcinogenesis is suggested.

  Anticonvulsant effects of extracts of the west African black pepper, Piper guineense.:J Ethnopharmacol. 1993 Jun;39(2):113-7.Abila B, Richens A, Davies JA.Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Wales College of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK.

 A water extract of the West African black pepper Piper guineense L. was tested for activity against audiogenic seizures in DBA/2 mice, and against seizures induced in T.O. mice by N-methyl-DL-aspartate (NMDLA), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroschock. Single intraperitoneal doses of the extract produced significant protection of DBA/2 mice against audiogenic seizures. The highest of three doses tested produced 100% and 58% protection at 6 h and 18 h after treatment, respectively. The extract also protected T.O. mice against convulsions induced by NMDLA and maximal electroshock but it had no significant effect on PTZ-induced convulsions. The doses of the extract tested did not cause significant impairment of performance of T.O. mice on a rotarod test. The results indicate that the extract of P. guineense has prolonged anticonvulsant activity at doses which do not cause significant CNS depression.

  Carcinogenicity testing of some constituents of black pepper (Piper nigrum).:Exp Toxicol Pathol. 1992 Apr;44(2):61-5.Wrba H, el-Mofty MM, Schwaireb MH, Dutter A.Vienna University, Institute of Applied and Experimental Oncology, Austria.

 In mice, injection of safrole, tannic acid or methylcholanthrene (MCA) during the preweaning period induced tumors in different organs. Safrole and tannic acid (constituents of black pepper) were weak carcinogens when compared with MCA which was used as a carcinogenic control substance. Force feeding of d-limonene (one of the pepper terpenoids) for a long time to the mice which were injected with any of the above 3 substances reduced their carcinogenic activity, while force feeding of piperine (one of black pepper alkaloids) was ineffective.

  The effect of red and black pepper on orocecal transit time.:J Am Coll Nutr. 1992 Apr;11(2):228-31.Vazquez-Olivencia W, Shah P, Pitchumoni CS.Division of Gastroenterology and Clinical Nutrition, Our Lady of Mercy Medical Center, Bronx, New York.

 The effects of spices on intestinal peristalsis have not been studied in humans. In this pilot study we evaluated the effects of red pepper and black pepper on small intestinal peristalsis measuring orocecal transit time (OCTT) utilizing a lactulose hydrogen breath test. Subjects included 16 healthy volunteers. The lactulose hydrogen breath test was done on different days with or without the powdered red pepper (2 g) or black pepper (1.5 g) given in gelatin capsules. The baseline orocecal transit time was increased significantly after red pepper consumption (88 +/- 37.2 to 128 +/- 63.2 min, p less than 0.01). Although the change in OCTT was not statistically significant, a similar trend was observed after black pepper consumption (90 +/- 51 min to 122 +/- 88 min., p = 0.09). The pathogenesis of increased OCTT after red pepper may be attributed to the known effects of capsaicin, a constituent noted to be a potent stimulator of many biologically active peptides. Although the effect of spices on OCTT is likely to vary depending upon the dose and nature of the product, it is of clinical importance in the management of various gastrointestinal tract disorders.

  Carcinogenic effect of force-feeding an extract of black pepper (Piper nigrum) in Egyptian toads (Bufo regularis).:Oncology. 1991;48(4):347-50.el-Mofty MM, Khudoley VV, Shwaireb MH.Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, Egypt.

 50 male and 50 female Bufo regularis were treated, by force-feeding, with an extract of black pepper, at a dose level of 2 mg, 3 times a week for 5 months. The first tumors appeared after 2 months. Liver tumors (hepatocellular carcinomas, lymphosarcomas and fibrosarcomas) were found in 12 males and 18 females. Metastatic deposits of hepatocellular carcinomas were registered in the spleen, kidney, fat body and ovary.

  Carcinogenesis induced by black pepper (Piper nigrum) and modulated by vitamin A.:Exp Pathol. 1990;40(4):233-8.Shwaireb MH, Wrba H, el-Mofty MM, Dutter A.Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Egypt.

 Painting and feeding of mice with 2mg of an extract from black pepper on 3 days a week for 3 months results in a significant increase of the number of tumor-bearing mice. Tumor incidence is reduced in those groups of experimental animals receiving 5 or 10mg Vitamin A-palmitate twice weekly for 3 months by feeding or painting during and subsequent to application of pepper extract. Feeding of mice with powder of black pepper in diet (50g/3kg food) has no impact on carcinogenesis.

  Clastogenic effects produced by black pepper in mitotic cells of Vicia faba.:Mutat Res. 1989 Oct;224(2):281-5.Abraham S, John AT.Department of Botany, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum, India.

 Black pepper, as is well known, is an important spice widely used in the cooking and processing of meat and fish. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the clastogenic potential of black pepper. This was accomplished by treating root meristems of Vicia faba with aqueous extracts of black pepper. Examination of the treated roots showed the presence of chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks, gaps and exchanges. Statistically significant differences from controls were observed. Experiments to evaluate its clastogenic potential in mouse systems are in progress and the results will be published elsewhere.

  Carcinogenicity testing of black pepper (Piper nigrum) using the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis) as a quick biological test animal.:Oncology. 1988;45(3):247-52.el-Mofty MM, Soliman AA, Abdel-Gawad AF, Sakr SA, Shwaireb MH.Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Egypt.

 Milled black pepper (Piper nigrum) force-fed to Egyptian toads as a suspension in amphibian saline or injected subcutaneously in the dorsal lymph sac as an ethanol extract, induced primary tumours in the liver and secondary tumours in other organs (kidney and spleen). When applied to the skin of experimental animals as an ethanol extract, black pepper induced primary tumours in the liver and secondary tumours in the ileum and stomach. Tumours of the liver were diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinomas and those of the other organs as metastases of the primary liver tumours. It is speculated that one or more constituents of black pepper may be responsible for tumour induction in the organs of the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis.

  Effect of red pepper and black pepper on the stomach.:Am J Gastroenterol. 1987 Mar;82(3):211-4.Myers BM, Smith JL, Graham DY.

 Spices have long been implicated as a cause of gastric mucosal injury. We assessed the effects of red and black pepper on the gastric mucosa using double-blind intragastric administration of test meals containing red pepper (0.1-1.5 g) or black pepper (1.5 g) to healthy human volunteers; aspirin (655 mg) and distilled water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Serial gastric washes were performed after test meal administration and gastric contents were analyzed for DNA, pepsin, blood, sodium, potassium, parietal cell secretion, and nonparietal cell secretion. Both red pepper and black pepper caused significant increases in parietal secretion, pepsin secretion, and potassium loss. Gastric cell exfoliation (as reflected in DNA loss into gastric contents) was increased after red or black pepper administration; the increase after red pepper administration was dose dependent. Mucosal microbleeding was seen after spice administration and one subject had grossly visible gastric bleeding after both red pepper and black pepper administration. There were no significant differences from control between the test meals, in nonparietal volume, fractional recovery of the gastric secretions, or sodium secretion. Finally, no spice was significantly different from aspirin in any parameter studied; indeed, aspirin was comparable to the higher doses of pepper. The long-term result of daily pepper ingestion is unknown. Whether spices are detrimental, beneficial (e.g., inducing an adaptive cytoprotective response), or have no significant long-term effect on the gastric mucosa is unknown and deserves further study.

  Effect of black pepper and piperine on bile secretion and composition in rats.:Nahrung. 1987;31(9):913-6.Ganesh Bhat B, Chandrasekhara N.Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India.

 The influence of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and its active principle, piperine on the secretion and composition of bile was investigated in the rat. They were administered by gavage (black pepper at 250 or 500 mg and piperine at 12.5 or 25 mg/kg body wt.) or fed in the diet for 4 weeks (black pepper at 0.2 and 0.4%, piperine at 0.01 and 0.02%). The lower dose by gavage of black pepper caused an increase in bile solids while with other treatments bile secretion or dry matter in bile was not changed. Dietary feeding of black pepper caused an increase in bile flow with a concomitant decrease in bile solids -- a hydrocholagoguic effect. Cholesterol and bile acid output were not affected by black pepper or piperine at either level irrespective of the mode of administration; in contrast, the secretion of uronic acids in bile was enhanced by both levels of pepper as also of piperine indicating possible excretion of some of the components of black pepper or of piperine as glucuronides.

  Studies on the metabolism of piperine: absorption, tissue distribution and excretion of urinary conjugates in rats.:Toxicology. 1986 Jul;40(1):83-92.Bhat BG, Chandrasekhara N.

 Upon administration of piperine, the major bite factor of black pepper, to male albino rats at a dose of 30 mg (170 mg/kg) by gavage or 15 mg (85 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, about 97% was absorbed irrespective of the mode of dosing. Three per cent of the administered dose was excreted as piperine in the feces. Piperine was not detectable in urine. When everted sacs of rat intestines were incubated with 200-1000 micrograms of piperine, about 47-64% of the added piperine disappeared from the mucosal side. Only piperine was present in the serosal fluid and also the intestinal tissue, indicating that piperine did not undergo any metabolic change during absorption. Examination of the passage of piperine through the gut indicated that the highest concentration in the stomach and small intestine was attained at about 6 h. Only traces (less than 0.15%) of piperine were detected in serum, kidney and spleen from 30 min to 24 h. About 1-2.5% of the intraperitoneally administered piperine was detected in the liver during 0.5-6 h after administration as contrasted with 0.1-0.25% of the orally administered dose. The increased excretion of conjugated uronic acids, conjugated sulphates and phenols indicated that scission of the methylenedioxy group of piperine, glucuronidation and sulphation appear to be the major steps in the disposition of piperine in the rat.

  Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production on black and white pepper and the inhibitory action of their chemical constituents.:Appl Environ Microbiol. 1984 Aug;48(2):376-9.Madhyastha MS, Bhat RV.

 Aspergillus parasiticus Speare NRRL 2999 growth and aflatoxin production in black and white pepper and the penetration of the fungus in black pepper corn over various incubation periods were studied. Also, the effects of piperine and pepper oil on growth and aflatoxin production were studied. Under laboratory conditions, black and white pepper supported aflatoxin production (62.5 and 44 ppb (ng/g), respectively) over 30 days of incubation. Fungal growth measured in terms of chitin was considerably less in white pepper than in black pepper. A histological study of black pepper corn showed the fungus penetrating up to the inner mesocarp and establishing itself in the middle mesocarp. Piperine and pepper oil were found to inhibit fungal growth and toxin production in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, both black and white pepper could be considered as poor substrates for fungal growth and aflatoxin production.

  The influence of radapertization upon some sensory properties of black pepper.:Nahrung. 1983;27(5):461-8.Uchman W, Fiszer W, Mróz I, Pawlik A.

 Radapertization may be used as an effective method for sterilization of spices. A possible influence of irradiation upon the sensoric qualities should be considered in this context. Therefore the objectives of the work were: --to determine the influence of the irradiation of pepper upon its sensoric quality --to determine the qualitative changes of volatile chemical substances under the influence of the irradiation of pepper --to determine correlation between changes resulting from irradiation and the sensoric quality of pepper. The spice was irradiated with doses of 10, 20, 40 and 60 kGy. Thresholds of recognition and difference were determined. It was established that the quantity of the dose is related to the values of thresholds mentioned above. The larger the dose was the less intensive the flavour became and the higher the thresholds. These interdependences were written in a form of mathematical formulas. A significant influence of irradiation upon the decrease of the quantity of essential oils and carbohydrates was noticed. These relations were also presented in a form of mathematical formulas. The work provides evidence for the fact that there is a relation between the results of sensoric assessments and the chemical characteristics (the content of volatile carbonyl, sulphuric and nitrogenic substances). Correlation between these factors was determined on the basic statistical analysis of the results obtained during our investigations.


  • 1.Black Pepper,Black Pepper Seed,Piper nigrum,Piper:the Kind of spices,one of the oldest and the most popular spice in the world.

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  • Name:Black Pepper Extract
  • Serie No:R068.
  • Specifications:10:1 TLC.
  • EINECS/ELINCS No.:284-524-7
  • CAS:84929-41-9
  • Chem/IUPAC Name:Piper Nigrum Extract is an extract of the seeds of black pepper,Piper nigrum,Piperaceae
  • Other Names:Pepper,Piper nigrum L.,Piper,Pepe,P. nigrum,Black Pepper,Blanc Poivre,Kosho,Pfeffer,green peppercorns,Pimienta,Poivre,Poivre Noir,Lada hitan,White Pepper,Hei Hu Jiao,black pepper(with cortex),Bai Hu Jiao,white pepper(cortex removed),green peppercorns(green with cortex),Hu Jiao.

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