Frankincense,fraunk-encens,the Oleo-gum-resin and the magical sun luck carrier.Frankincense Olibanum Extract.


Research Update:Boswellia and Frankincense.:

Frankincense Olibanum Boswellia Carterii Serrata Boswellic Acids   Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of some oleogum resin essential oils from Boswellia spp. (Burseraceae).:Ann Chim. 2007 Sep;97(9):837-44.Camarda L, Dayton T, Di Stefano V, Pitonzo R, Schillaci D.Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

 The chemical composition of Boswellia carteri (Somalia), B. papyrifera (Ethiopia), B. serrata (India) and B. rivae (Ethiopia) oleogum resin essential oils was investigated using GC-MS to identify chemotaxonomy marker components. Total ion current peak areas gave good approximations to relative concentrations based on GC-MS peak areas. B. carteri and B. serrata oleogum resin oils showed similar chemical profiles, with isoincensole and isoincensole acetate as the main diterpenic components. Both n-octanol and n-octyl acetate, along with the diterpenic components incensole and incensole acetate, were the characteristic compounds of B. papyrifera oleogum resin oil. Hydrocarbon and oxygenated monoterpenes were the most abundant classes of compounds identified in the B. rivae oleogum resin oil. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were individually evaluated against different microorganisms including fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. The essential oils with the best activity against fungal strains were those obtained from B. carteri and B. papyrifera with MIC values as low as 6.20 microg/ml. The essential oil of B. rivae resin showed the best activity against C. albicans with a MIC value of 2.65 microg/ml.

  Identification and functional analysis of cyclooxygenase-1 as a molecular target of boswellic acids.:Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 Sep 14;Siemoneit U, Hofmann B, Kather N, Lamkemeyer T, Madlung J, Franke L, Schneider G, Jauch J, Poeckel D, Werz O.Department of Pharmaceutical Analytics, Institute of Pharmacy, Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen, Germany.

 Boswellic acids (BAs) are assumed as the anti-inflammatory principles of Boswellia species. Initially, it was found that BAs inhibit leukotriene biosynthesis and 5-lipoxygenase (EC number, whereas suppression of prostaglandin formation and inhibition of cyclooxygenases (COX, EC number has been excluded. Recently, we demonstrated that BAs also interfere with platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase. Here, we show that BAs, preferably 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-beta-BA (AKBA), concentration-dependently inhibit COX-1 product formation in intact human platelets (IC(50)=6muM) as well as the activity of isolated COX-1 enzyme in cell-free assays (IC(50)=32muM). The inhibitory effect of AKBA is reversible, and increased levels of arachidonic acid (AA) as substrate for COX-1 impair the efficacy. COX-1 in platelet lysates or isolated COX-1 selectively bound to an affinity matrix composed of immobilized BAs linked via glutaric acid to sepharose and this binding was reversed by ibuprofen or AA. Automated molecular docking of BAs into X-ray structures of COX-1 yielded positive Chemscore values for BAs, indicating favorable binding to the active site of the enzyme. In contrast, COX-2 was less efficiently inhibited by BAs as compared to COX-1, and pull-down experiments as well as docking studies exclude strong affinities of BAs towards COX-2. In conclusion, BAs, in particular AKBA, directly interfere with COX-1 and may mediate their anti-inflammatory actions not only by suppression of lipoxygenases, but also by inhibiting cyclooxygenases, preferentially COX-1.

  Incensole Acetate, a Novel anti-inflammatory compound Isolated from Boswellia Resin, Inhibits Nuclear Factor (NF)-kappa B Activation.:Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Sep 26;Moussaieff A, Shohami E, Kashman Y, Fride E, Schmitz ML, Renner F, Fiebich BL, Munoz E, Ben-Neriah Y, Mechoulam R.Hebrew University.

 Boswellia resin is a major anti-inflammatory agent in herbal medical tradition, as well as a common food supplement. Its anti-inflammatory activity has been attributed to boswellic acid and its derivatives. Here, we re-examined the anti-inflammatory effect of the resin, using IkappaBalpha degradation in TNFalpha-stimulated HeLa cells as a read-out for a bioassay-guided fractionation. We thus isolated two novel NF-kappaB inhibitors from the resin, their structures elucidated as incensole acetate (IA) and its non-acetylated form, incensole (IN). IA inhibited TAK/TAB-mediated IkappaB kinase (IKK) activation loop phosphorylation, resulting in the inhibition of cytokine and LPS mediated NF-kappaB activation. It had no effect on IKK activity in vitro, nor did it suppress IkappaBalpha phosphorylation in costimulated T-cells, indicating that the kinase inhibition is neither direct, nor is it affecting all NF-kappaB activation pathways. The inhibitory effect appears specific as IA did not interfere with TNFalpha-induced activation of JNK and p38 MAPK. IA treatment had a robust anti-inflammatory effect in a mouse inflamed paw model. Cembrenoid diterpenoids, and specifically IA and its derivatives may thus constitute a potential novel group of NF-kappaB inhibitors, originating from an ancient anti-inflammatory herbal remedy.

  Hypoglycemic and other related effects of Boswellia glabra in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.:Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007 Jan-Mar;51(1):29-39.Kavitha JV, Rosario JF, Chandran J, Anbu P, Bakkiyanathan .LN College of Pharmacy, Bhopal.

 The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves and roots of Boswellia glabra was examined using alloxan-induced diabetic rats. A single oral administration of Boswellia glabra leaf and root extract decreased the blood glucose level. The continued use of leaf and root extract for 28 days produced significant hypoglycemic effects; also there was a decrease in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea and creatinine levels and enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase). Ultra structural studies of beta cell of alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with root extract showed numerous granulated sacs in comparison to rats treated with leaf extract. Thus, rats treated with root extract showed less degranulated sacs and more number of filled secretory granules in comparison to diabetic rats. Thus the use of aqueous extract of Boswellia glabra increased the synthesis of secretory granules in the beta-cell.

  Analysis of frankincense in archaeological samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.:Ann Chim. 2007 Jul;97(7):433-45.Mathe C, Connan J, Archier P, Mouton M, Vieillescazes C.Université d'Avignon et des pays de Vaucluse Laboratoire de Chimie Bioorganique, 33 rue Louis Pasteur F-84000 Avignon.

 Four archaeological samples, unearthed from Qana in Yemen were analysed by analytical technique, currently applied in the field of petroleum geochemistry, and by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Sample no 1286 comes from a burned warehouse and samples no 964, 963 and 962 from the central sanctuary. These specimens were probably exposed to a heating source. In each case olibanum resin was identified according to the presence of their chemical markers corresponding to alpha- , beta-boswellic and lupeolic acids (3alpha-hydroxy-olean-12-en-24-oic, 3alpha-hydroxy-urs-12-en-24-oic and 3alpha-hydroxy-lup-20(29)en-24-oic acids) and their respective O-acetyled derivatives (3alpha- O-acetyl-olean-12-en-24-oic, 3alpha-O-acetyl-urs-12-en-24-oic and 3-O-acetyl-lup-20(29)-en-24-oic acids). Concerning the thermal degradation state of samples, the GC-MS results are in agreement with the geochemical ones. Sample no 1286 and 964 correspond to ageing incense which has not undergone any heating action and are consequently relatively well preserved. Lastly, samples no 963 and 962 are thermally degraded resins and their gross composition data permits to conclude that sample no 963 is only partially burnt while sample no 962 has been much more degraded.

  Boswellia serrata extract for the treatment of collagenous colitis. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial.:Int J Colorectal Dis. 2007 Dec;22(12):1445-51. Epub 2007 Sep 2.Madisch A, Miehlke S, Eichele O, Mrwa J, Bethke B, Kuhlisch E, B?stlein E, Wilhelms G, Morgner A, Wigginghaus B, Stolte M.Medical Department I, Technical University Hospital, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany,

 BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Boswellia serrata extract (BSE) on symptoms, quality of life, and histology in patients with collagenous colitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with chronic diarrhea and histologically proven collagenous colitis were randomized to receive either oral BSE 400 mg three times daily for 6 weeks or placebo. Complete colonoscopy and histology were performed before and after treatment. Clinical symptoms and quality of life were assessed by standardized questionnaires and SF-36. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients with clinical remission after 6 weeks (stool frequency
   A triterpenediol from Boswellia serrata induces apoptosis through both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in human leukemia HL-60 cells.:Apoptosis. 2007 Oct;12(10):1911-26.

 A triterpenediol (TPD) comprising of isomeric mixture of 3alpha, 24-dihydroxyurs-12-ene and 3alpha, 24-dihydroxyolean-12-ene from Boswellia serrata induces apoptosis in cancer cells. An attempt was made in this study to investigate the mechanism of cell death by TPD in human leukemia HL-60 cells. It inhibited cell proliferation with IC50 approximately 12 microg/ml and produced apoptosis as measured by various biological end points e.g. increased sub-G0 DNA fraction, DNA ladder formation, enhanced AnnexinV-FITC binding of the cells. Further, initial events involved massive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) formation, which were significantly inhibited by their respective inhibitors. Persistent high levels of NO and ROS caused Bcl-2 cleavage and translocation of Bax to mitochondria, which lead to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim) and release of cytochrome c, AIF, Smac/DIABLO to the cytosol. These events were associated with decreased expression of survivin and ICAD with attendant activation of caspases leading to PARP cleavage. Furthermore, TPD up regulated the expression of cell death receptors DR4 and TNF-R1 level, leading to caspase-8 activation. These studies thus demonstrate that TPD produces oxidative stress in cancer cells that triggers self-demise by ROS and NO regulated activation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic signaling cascades.

  Pure compound from Boswellia serrata extract exhibits anti-inflammatory property in human PBMCs and mouse macrophages through inhibition of TNFalpha, IL-1beta, NO and MAP kinases.:Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Apr;7(4):473-82. Epub 2007 Jan 8.

 The aim of the present study is to probe the anti-inflammatory potential of the plant Boswellia serrata by studying the effect of the crude extract and the pure compound isolated from it on key inflammatory mediators like TNFalpha, IL-1beta, and NO thus enabling the understanding of the key signaling events involved. The crude methanolic extract and the pure compound were analysed for their inhibitory effect on TNFalpha, IL-1beta and IL-6. The results demonstrated that all three cytokines are down regulated when PBMCs are cultured in the presence of crude extract or the pure compound at various time points. Observations on Th1/Th2 cytokines revealed marked down regulation of Th1 cytokines IFNgamma and IL-12 while the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were up regulated upon treatment with crude extract and pure compound. The extract and the pure compound isolated also showed considerable inhibition of NO production in activated RAW 264.7 cells, possibly via suppression of inducible NO synthase mRNA expression. Further to elucidate the underlying mechanism of action the effect of 12-ursene 2-diketone on LPS-induced activation of MAPK has also been examined. Our results demonstrated that 12-ursene 2-diketone inhibits the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators via inhibition of phosphorylation of the MAP kinases JNK and p38 while no inhibition was seen in ERK phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated PBMCs. The above study therefore indicates that the crude methanolic extract and the isolated pure compound are capable of carrying out a natural anti-inflammatory activity at sites where chronic inflammation is present by switching off the pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators, which initiate the process.

  Estimation of boswellic acids from market formulations of Boswellia serrata extract and 11-keto beta-boswellic acid in human plasma by high-performance thin-layer chromatography.:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2007 Apr 1;848(2):232-8. Epub 2006 Nov 13.

 A rapid and sensitive high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for the quantitative estimation of boswellic acids in formulation containing Boswellia serrata extract (BSE) and 11-keto beta-boswellic acid in human plasma. Simple extraction method was used for isolation of boswellic acid from formulation sample and acidified plasma sample. The isolated samples were chromatographed on silica gel 60F(254)-TLC plates, developed using ternary-solvent system (hexane-chloroform-methanol, 5:5:0.5, v/v) and scanned at 260 nm. The linearity range for 11-KBA spiked in 1 ml of plasma was 29.15-145.75 ng with average recovery of 91.66%. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for 11-KBA in human plasma were found to be 8.75 ng/ml and 29.15 ng/ml. The developed method was successfully applied for the assay of market formulations containing BSE and to determine plasma level of 11-keto beta-boswellic acid in a clinical pilot study.

  Separation and quantification of terpenoids of Boswellia serrata Roxb. extract by planar chromatography techniques (TLC and AMD).:J Sep Sci. 2006 Sep;29(14):2245-50.Pozharitskaya ON, Ivanova SA, Shikov AN, Makarov VG.Interregional Center "Adaptogen", St. Petersburg, Russia.

 An high-performance TLC (HPTLC) method for the separation of boswellic acids, the active constituents in Boswellia serrata extract, has been developed and TLC of these compounds on silica by automated multiple development (AMD) using solvent gradients was performed. Enhancement of the separation of boswellic acids on HPTLC plates was carried out by AMD chromatography. Densitometric analysis of the developed plate was carried out to quantify the four boswellic acids. 11-Keto-beta-boswellic acid (KBA) and acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) were quantified by densitometric scanning of the developed plate at 254 nm. beta-Boswellic acid (BA) and acetyl-beta-boswellic acid (ABA) were quantified after derivatization with anisaldehyde sulfuric acid reagent at 560 nm. The AMD system provided a clean separation according to polarity for each of the four groups studied and good results were obtained. The proposed HPTLC method for the simultaneous quantification of the major boswellic acids BA, ABA, KBA, and AKBA was found to be simple, precise, specific, sensitive, and accurate and can be used for routine quality control and for the quantification of these compounds in plant materials. The study of market products revealed significant variations in the content of these pharmacologically active compounds in commercial samples.

  A 32-Week Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Evaluation of RA-11, an Ayurvedic Drug, on Osteoarthritis of the Knees.:J Clin Rheumatol. 2004 Oct;10(5):236-245.Chopra A, Lavin P, Patwardhan B, Chitre D.From the *Center for Rheumatic Diseases, Inlaks and Budhrani Hospital, Bharati Hospital Medical College (Deemed University), Pune, India; ?Averion, Inc., Framingham, Massachusetts; the ?School of Health Sciences, University of Pune, India; and §BIO-VED Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Jose, California.

 BACKGROUND:: The ancient Indian (Asian) Ayurvedic medicinal system uses herbomineral drugs to treat arthritis. Despite centuries of use, very few have been tested by drug trials. RA-11 (ARTREX, MENDAR), a standardized multiplant Ayurvedic drug (Withania somnifera, Boswellia serrata, Zingiber officinale, and Curcuma longa) is currently used to treat arthritis. OBJECTIVE:: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of RA-11 in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) of the knees. METHODS:: A total of 358 patients with chronic knee pain were screened free-of-cost in "arthritis camps" in an Indian metropolis. Ninety patients with primary OA of the knees (ACR classification; Arthritis Rheum 1986;29:1039-1049) were found eligible (postanalgesic washout pain visual analog score [VAS] >/=40 mm in either or both knees on body weight-bearing activities) to enroll into a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel efficacy, single-center, 32-week drug trial (80% power to detect 25% difference, P = 0.05, 2-sided). Concurrent analgesics/nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and steroids in any form were not allowed. Lifestyle and/or dietary restrictions, as per routine Ayurveda practices, were not imposed. Pain VAS (maximum pain in each knee recorded by the patient during the preceding 48 hours) and modified WOMAC (Western Ontario McMaster University OA Index, Likert scale, version 3.0) were the primary efficacy variables. The WOMAC section on "physical function difficulty" was modified for Indian use and validated before the trial. Routine laboratory testing was primarily done to monitor drug safety. At baseline, the groups (active = 45, placebo = 45) were well matched for several measures (mean pain VAS: active = 6.17; placebo = 6.5). RESULTS:: 1) Efficacy: Compared with placebo, the mean reduction in pain VAS at week 16 (active = 2.7, placebo = 1.3) and week 32 (active = 2.8, placebo = 1.8) in the active group was significantly (P <0.05, analysis of variance [ANOVA]) better. Similarly, the improvement in the WOMAC scores at week 16 and week 32 were also significantly superior (P <0.01, ANOVA) in the active group. 2) Safety: Both the groups reported mild adverse events (AE) without any significant difference. 3) Withdrawals: Twenty-eight patients were discontinued. None reported drug-related toxicity. The majority failed follow up/compliance. No differences were observed between the groups. CONCLUSION:: This controlled drug trial demonstrates the potential efficacy and safety of RA- 11 in the symptomatic treatment of OA knees over 32 weeks of therapy.

  Boswellic acids in chronic inflammatory diseases.:Planta Med. 2006 Oct;72(12):1100-16. Review.Ammon HP.Dept. of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.

 Oleogum resins from BOSWELLIA species are used in traditional medicine in India and African countries for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Animal experiments showed anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. The mechanism of this action is due to some boswellic acids. It is different from that of NSAID and is related to components of the immune system. The most evident action is the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. However, other factors such as cytokines (interleukins and TNF-alpha) and the complement system are also candidates. Moreover, leukocyte elastase and oxygen radicals are targets. Clinical studies, so far with pilot character, suggest efficacy in some autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and bronchial asthma. Side effects are not severe when compared to modern drugs used for the treatment of these diseases.

  Characterization of 3alpha-acetyl-11-keto-alpha-boswellic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.:Planta Med. 2006 Nov;72(14):1285-9. Epub 2006 Oct 4.Büchele B, Zugmaier W, Estrada A, Genze F, Syrovets T, Paetz C, Schneider B, Simmet T.Institute of Pharmacology of Natural Products and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

 3Alpha-acetyl-11-keto-alpha-boswellic acid (3alpha-acetoxy-11-oxo-olean-12-en-24-oic acid, 1) was synthesized by a radical-type reaction using bromine and 3alpha-acetyl-alpha-boswellic acid isolated from the oleo-gum-resin of Boswellia carterii. 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HMBC, ROESY) at 500 MHz were used for shift assignments and structure verification. The compound investigated is present in a herbal preparation extracted from Boswellia serrata oleo-gum-resin, it inhibits the growth of chemotherapy-resistant human PC-3 prostate cancer cells in vitro and induces apoptosis as shown by activation of caspase 3 and the induction of DNA fragmentation. In addition, compound 1 is active IN VIVO as shown by inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in PC-3 prostate cancer cells xenotransplanted onto the chick chorioallantoic membrane.

  A lipoxygenase inhibitor in breast cancer brain metastases.:J Neurooncol. 2007 Mar;82(1):91-3. Epub 2006 Sep 26.Flavin DF.Foundation for Collaborative Medicine and Research, Greenwich, CT 06831, USA.

 The complication of multiple brain metastases in breast cancer patients is a life threatening condition with limited success following standard therapies. The arachidonate lipoxygenase pathway appears to play a role in brain tumor growth as well as inhibition of apoptosis in in-vitro studies. The down regulation of these arachidonate lipoxygenase growth stimulating products therefore appeared to be a worthwhile consideration for testing in brain metastases not responding to standard therapy. Boswellia serrata, a lipoxygenase inhibitor was applied for this inhibition. Multiple brain metastases were successfully reversed using this method in a breast cancer patient who had not shown improvement after standard therapy. The results suggest a potential new area of therapy for breast cancer patients with brain metastases that may be useful as an adjuvant to our standard therapy.

  Cancer chemopreventive effects and cytotoxic activities of the triterpene acids from the resin of Boswellia carteri.:Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Sep;29(9):1976-9. Erratum in: Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Dec;29(12):2536. Nishihara, Reiko

 Fifteen triterpene acids, viz., seven of the beta-boswellic acids (ursane-type) (1-7), two of the alpha-boswellic acids (oleanane-type) (8, 9), two of the lupeolic acids (lupane-type) (10, 11), and four of the tirucallane-type (12-14, 16), and two cembrane-type diterpenes (17, 18), isolated from the MeOH extract of the resin of Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae), together with a triterpene acid 15 (the acetyl derivative of 14), were examined for their inhibitory effects on the induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells and on activation of (+/-)-(E)-methyl-2[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-6-methoxy-3-hexemide (NOR 1), a nitrogen oxide (NO) donor, and cytotoxic activities against three human neuroblastoma cell lines, IMR-32, NB-39, and SK-N-SH in vitro. On evaluation against the EBV-EA activation induced by TPA, seven compounds, 2, 10, 11, and 13-16, showed potent inhibitory effects on EBV-EA induction. Upon evaluation against activation of NOR 1, five compounds, 7, 13, and 14-16, showed potent inhibitory effects. Further, fifteen compounds, 1-7, 9-11, 13-15, 17, and 18, exhibited potent cytotoxic activities with IC(50) values of 4.1-82.4 muM against all of the three human neuroblastoma cells tested.

  Modulation of Pgp function by boswellic acids.:Planta Med. 2006 May;72(6):507-13.Weber CC, Reising K, Müller WE, Schubert-Zsilavecz M, Abdel-Tawab M.Institute of Pharmacology, ZAFES, Biocenter, University of Frankfurt, Germany.

 Boswellic acids, the main active ingredients of Boswellia serrata, are gaining more and more importance in the treatment of peritumoural oedema and chronic inflammatory diseases. They may be even considered as alternative drugs to corticosteroids in reducing cerebral peritumoural oedema. An important focus for drugs acting in the central nervous system is achieving a high extent of brain penetration. Today there is increasing evidence for the importance of transporters, especially P-glycoprotein (Pgp), for drug disposition and resulting clinical response. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that the concentrations of the potent keto derivatives, the 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (KBA) and the acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA), in proportion to boswellic acids lacking a keto group, like the beta-boswellic acid, are much lower in plasma than in the orally administered extract. Moreover the brain/plasma ratio for KBA and AKBA determined in preliminary experiments on rats was only about 0.51 and 0.81, respectively, in spite of their lipophilicity. Until now little is known about the cerebral pharmacokinetics of boswellic acids and how it may be influenced. Since many drugs are known to interact with Pgp at the level of the intestine and the blood-brain barrier the modulatory potencies of the Boswellia serrata extract of H15(R) and the major boswellic acids on the transport activity of Pgp have been determined in two in vitro assays. A human lymphocytic leukaemia cell line (VLB cells) expressing Pgp was chosen as model for human Pgp, and porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCEC cells) were taken as model for the blood-brain barrier using calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) as Pgp substrate. It was found that the Boswellia extract, as well as the keto-boswellic acids inhibit the transport activity of Pgp in the micromolecular range in both cell types. No modulation was observed using those boswellic acids which have no keto group in their structure. The inhibition of Pgp at the blood-brain barrier by Boswellia extract is probably not relevant for the brain availability of other Pgp substrates, because of the low plasma levels determined for KBA and AKBA. However the presented data could not exclude the possibility of drug interactions caused by modulation of Pgp by extracts of Boswellia serrata on the gastrointestinal level.

  Effect of hexane extract of Boswellia serrata oleo-gum resin on chemically induced liver damage.:Pak J Pharm Sci. 2006 Apr;19(2):129-33.Y J, Kamath JV, Asad M.Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, 5, Sarjapur Road, Koramangala, Bangalore-560 034, India.

 The hexane extract of oleo-gum-resin of Boswellia serrata (BSHE) was evaluated for its effect on liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride, paracetamol or thioacetamide. The BSHE was given in two different doses (87.5 mg/kg p.o. and 175 mg/kg p.o.). Silymarin, a known hepatoprotective agent was used as standard. The lower dose of BSHE (87.5 mg/kg p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated levels of serum marker enzymes and prevented the increase in liver weight in all three models of liver injury, while the higher dose showed mild hepatoprotective activity. The hepatoprotective effect of lower dose of BSHE was supported by changes in histopathology. It was concluded that hexane extract of oleo-gum-resin of Boswellia serrata plant in lower doses possess hepatoprotective activity.

  Regulation of vascular responses to inflammation: inducible matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in human microvascular endothelial cells is sensitive to antiinflammatory Boswellia.:Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006 Mar-Apr;8(3-4):653-60.Roy S, Khanna S, Krishnaraju AV, Subbaraju GV, Yasmin T, Bagchi D, Sen CK.Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

 Endothelial cells are critical elements in the pathophysiology of inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha potently induces inflammatory responses in endothelial cells. Recently we have examined the genetic basis of the antiinflammatory effects of Boswellia extract (BE) in a system of TNFalpha-induced gene expression in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). Of the 522 genes induced by TNFalpha in HMECs, 113 genes were sensitive to BE. BE prevented the TNFalpha-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In the current work, we sought to test the effects of BE on TNFalpha-inducible MMP expression in HMECs. Acetyl-11-ketobeta- boswellic acid (AKBA) is known to be an active principle in BE. To evaluate the significance of AKBA in the antiinflammatory properties of BE, effects of BE containing either 3% (BE3%) or 30% (BE30%, 5- Loxin) were compared. Pretreatment of HMECs for 2 days with BE potently prevented TNFalpha-induced expression and activity of MMP-3, MMP-10, and MMP-12. In vivo, BE protected against experimental arthritis. In all experiments, both in vitro and in vivo, BE30% was more effective than BE3%. In sum, this work lends support to our previous report that BE has potent antiinflammatory properties both in vitro as well as in vivo.

  Chemical study of triterpenoid resinous materials in archaeological findings by means of direct exposure electron ionisation mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.:Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2006;20(11):1787-800.Modugno F, Ribechini E, Colombini MP.Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Pisa, via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa, Italy.

 A systematic study of standard triterpenes (alpha-amyrine, oleanolic acid, betulin, lupeol, betulinic acid and lupenone) and of raw resinous materials (frankincense resin, mastic resin and birch bark pitch) was performed using direct exposure electron ionisation mass spectrometry (DE-MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). DE-MS provides a mass spectral fingerprint of organic materials in a few minutes which highlights the compounds that are the main components in the sample. The application of principal component analysis (PCA) on DE-MS data in the mass ranges m/z 181-260 and m/z 331-500, corresponding to the fragmentation of triterpenoid molecules, enabled us to distinguish between different triterpenoid materials such as mastic resin, frankincense resin and birch bark pitch, and to graphically plot the resinous substances in three separate clusters, retaining 89% of the total variance. GC/MS analysis of the same materials has permitted us to elucidate in detail the molecular composition and to identify minor components and species that act as markers of the degradation undergone by the materials. The paper also reports the results for the organic residues contained in an Egyptian censer (5th-7th century AD) which was recovered in the excavation of the Necropolis of Antinoe (Egypt), and for the hafting material found on a Palaeolithic tool recovered at the site of Campitello (Arezzo, Tuscany), dating back to the Mid-Pleistocene period. Although DE-MS was found to be a fast analytical tool, it failed to give any information on the presence of less abundant compounds when applied to mixtures of different materials: only mastic resin was found in the residues from the Roman censer, whereas GC/MS analysis identified the presence of a vegetable oil from Brassicaceae seeds and Pinaceae resin. Birch bark pitch as a pure material was identified in the sample from the Palaeolithic flint flake using both procedures.

  Modulation of Pgp Function by Boswellic Acids.:Planta Med. 2006 Apr 24.Weber CC, Reising K, Müller WE, Schubert-Zsilavecz M, Abdel-Tawab M.Institute of Pharmacology, ZAFES, Biocenter, University of Frankfurt, Germany.

 Boswellic acids, the main active ingredients of BOSWELLIA SERRATA, are gaining more and more importance in the treatment of peritumoural oedema and chronic inflammatory diseases. They may be even considered as alternative drugs to corticosteroids in reducing cerebral peritumoural oedema. An important focus for drugs acting in the central nervous system is achieving a high extent of brain penetration. Today there is increasing evidence for the importance of transporters, especially P-glycoprotein (Pgp), for drug disposition and resulting clinical response. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that the concentrations of the potent keto derivatives, the 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (KBA) and the acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA), in proportion to boswellic acids lacking a keto group, like the beta-boswellic acid, are much lower in plasma than in the orally administered extract. Moreover the brain/plasma ratio for KBA and AKBA determined in preliminary experiments on rats was only about 0.51 and 0.81, respectively, in spite of their lipophilicity. Until now little is known about the cerebral pharmacokinetics of boswellic acids and how it may be influenced. Since many drugs are known to interact with Pgp at the level of the intestine and the blood-brain barrier the modulatory potencies of the BOSWELLIA SERRATA extract of H15(R) and the major boswellic acids on the transport activity of Pgp have been determined in two IN VITRO assays. A human lymphocytic leukaemia cell line (VLB cells) expressing Pgp was chosen as model for human Pgp, and porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCEC cells) were taken as model for the blood-brain barrier using calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) as Pgp substrate. It was found that the BOSWELLIA extract, as well as the keto-boswellic acids inhibit the transport activity of Pgp in the micromolecular range in both cell types. No modulation was observed using those boswellic acids which have no keto group in their structure. The inhibition of Pgp at the blood-brain barrier by BOSWELLIA extract is probably not relevant for the brain availability of other Pgp substrates, because of the low plasma levels determined for KBA and AKBA. However the presented data could not exclude the possibility of drug interactions caused by modulation of Pgp by extracts of BOSWELLIA SERRATA on the gastrointestinal level.

  Effect of Boswellia serrata on intestinal motility in rodents: inhibition of diarrhoea without constipation.:Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Jun;148(4):553-60. Epub 2006 Apr 24. Borrelli F, Capasso F, Capasso R, Ascione V, Aviello G, Longo R, Izzo AA.Department of Experimental Pharmacology, University of Naples Federico II, Italy.

 Clinical studies suggest that the Ayurvedic plant Boswellia serrata may be effective in reducing diarrhoea in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of a Boswellia serrata gum resin extract (BSE) on intestinal motility and diarrhoea in rodents. BSE depressed electrically-, acetylcholine-, and barium chloride-induced contractions in the isolated guinea-pig ileum, being more potent in inhibiting the contractions induced by acetylcholine and barium chloride. The inhibitory effect of BSE on acetylcholine-induced contractions was reduced by the L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers verapamil and nifedipine, but not by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid, by the phosphodiesterase type IV inhibitor rolipram or by the lipoxygenase inhibitor zileuton. 3-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, one of the main active ingredients of B. serrata, inhibited acetylcholine-induced contractions. BSE inhibited upper gastrointestinal transit in croton oil-treated mice as well as castor oil-induced diarrhoea. However, BSE did not affect intestinal motility in control mice, both in the small and in the large intestine. It is concluded that BSE directly inhibits intestinal motility with a mechanism involving L-type Ca(2+) channels. BSE prevents diarrhoea and normalizes intestinal motility in pathophysiological states without slowing the rate of transit in control animals. These results could explain, at least in part, the clinical efficacy of this Ayurvedic remedy in reducing diarrhoea in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  Anti-inflammatory activities of the triterpene acids from the resin of Boswellia carteri.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Sep 19;107(2):249-53. Epub 2006 Mar 17.

 Boswellic acids are the main well-known active components of the resin of Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) and these are still dealing with the ethnomedicinal use for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. Although several studies have already been reported on the pharmacological properties, especially on the anti-inflammatory activity, of Boswellia carteri resin and boswellic acids, the ethnomedicinal importance of Boswellia carteri and its components, boswellic acids, prompted us to undertake detailed investigation on the constituents of the resin and their anti-inflammatory activity. Fifteen triterpene acids, viz., seven of the beta-boswellic acids (ursane-type) (1-7), two of the alpha-boswellic acids (oleanane-type) (8, 9), two of the lupeolic acids (lupane-type) (10, 11), and four of the tirucallane-type (12-14, 16), along with two cembrane-type diterpenes (17, 18), were isolated and identified from the methanol extract of the resin of Boswellia carteri. Upon evaluation of 17 compounds, 1-14 and 16-18, and compound 15, semi-synthesized from 14 by acetylation, for their inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation (1 microg/ear) in mice, all of the compounds, except for 18, exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity with a 50% inhibitory dose (ID(50)) of 0.05-0.49 mg/ear.

  Analysis of frankincense from various Boswellia species with inhibitory activity on human drug metabolising cytochrome P450 enzymes using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry after automated on-line extraction.:J Chromatogr A. 2006 Apr 21;1112(1-2):255-62. Epub 2005 Dec 20.Frank A, Unger M.Institute of Pharmacy and Food Chemistry, Julius Maximilians-University Würzburg, 97074 Würzburg, Germany.

 In our search for herbal remedies with inhibitory activity on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, we identified extracts of the gum-resin of Boswellia carteri, Boswellia frereana, Boswellia sacra and Boswellia serrata as equally potent, non-selective inhibitors of the major drug metabolising CYP enzymes 1A2/2C8/2C9/2C19/2D6 and 3A4. LC/LC/ESI-MS fingerprint analyses of the boswellic acids 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, alpha-boswellic acid, beta-boswellic acid and their 3-O-acylated derivatives were used for the authentication of the commercially obtained frankincense samples. Although the boswellic acids could be identified as moderate to potent inhibitors of the applied CYP enzymes, they are not the major CYP inhibitory principle of frankincense.

  In vitro micropropagation of Boswellia ovalifoliolata.:Z Naturforsch [C]. 2005 May-Jun;60(5-6):505-7. Chandrasekhar T, Hussain TM, Jayanand B.Department of Botany, Sri Venkateswara Univerity, AP, India.

 A protocol for micropropagation of Boswellia ovalifoliolata Bal & Henry (Burseraceae) was developed using cotyledonary nodal explant on Murashige and Skoog modified medium (MS). A comparative study of micropropagation with 6-benzyladenine, kinetin and thidiazuron along with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (0.054 microM) was conducted. The highest shoot multiplication (7.1 +/- 0.2 shoots per node) was achieved in 50 d on MS supplemented with thidiazuron (2.72 microM). Excised shoot cuttings of 3.0 cm were placed on the MS basal medium supplemented with indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid alone and in combinations for rooting. Activated charcoal (100 mg l(-1)) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (40 mg l(-1)) were added to the medium to prevent browning of cultures. The regenerated plantlets have been successfully acclimatized and transferred to soil.

  Extract of gum resins of Boswellia serrata L. inhibits lipopolysaccharide induced nitric oxide production in rat macrophages along with hypolipidemic property.:Indian J Exp Biol. 2005 Jun;43(6):509-16.

 Boswellia serrata, Linn F (Burseraceae) is commonly used in Indian system of medicine (Ayurvedic) as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-arthritic and anti-proliferative agent. This study was planned to investigate the water-soluble fraction of the oleoresin gum of Boswellia serrata (BS extract) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages under in vivo and in vitro conditions. In the previous condition, rats were fed on atherogenic diet (2.5% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid, 15.7 % saturated fat) along with the BS extract for 90 days. Blood was collected for lipid profile and toxicological safety parameters. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated and cultured to see the LPS induced NO production. Under in vivo experiment, BS extract significantly reduced serum total cholesterol (38-48 %), increased serum high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol, 22-30%). Under in vitro experiments with thioglycolate activated macrophages, it inhibited LPS induced (NO) production with IC 50 value at 662 ng /ml. Further, this fraction, in the dose of 15 mg/100 g body wt for 90 days, did not show any increase in serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and blood urea, in normal control animals. However, it significantly reversed the raised SGPT and blood urea in the atherogenic diet-fed animals. Transverse section of liver and kidney also supported its protective effect. Thus it may be concluded that water extract of Boswellia serrata possesses strong hypocholesterolemic property along with increase in serum HDL. It inhibits the LPS induced NO production by the activated rat peritoneal macrophages and show hepato-protective and reno-protective property.

  Effects of an acetone extract of Boswellia carterii Birdw. (Burseraceae) gum resin on adjuvant-induced arthritis in lewis rats.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct 3;101(1-3):104-9.Fan AY, Lao L, Zhang RX, Zhou AN, Wang LB, Moudgil KD, Lee DY, Ma ZZ, Zhang WY, Berman BM.Center for Integrative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, 3rd Floor, James Kernan Hospital Man, 2200 Kernan Drive, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

 Ruxiang (Gummi olibanum), the dried gum resin of Boswellia carterii (BC), has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate pain and inflammation for thousands of years. In this random, blinded study, the anti-arthritic effects of a BC extract were observed and compared to vehicle control in a Lewis rat adjuvant arthritis model (n=8/group). Arthritis was induced by injecting CFA subcutaneously into the base of the tail, and the extract was administered orally (i.g.) for 10 consecutive days beginning on day 16 after the injection. Arthritic scores, paw edema, and the local tissue pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) were assessed. Toxicity and adverse effects of the extract were evaluated. At 0.90 g/kg per day, BC significantly decreased arthritic scores between days 20 and 25 (p<0.05) and reduced paw edema on days 18, 20 and 22 compared to control (p<0.05). It also significantly suppressed local tissue TNF-alpha and IL-1beta (p<0.05). No major adverse effects were observed in animals during the repeated-dose treatment profile although mild fur discoloration was noted. The data show that BC extract has significant anti-arthritic and anti-inflammation effects and suggest that these effects may be mediated via the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  A chemical investigation by headspace SPME and GC-MS of volatile and semi-volatile terpenes in various olibanum samples.:Phytochemistry. 2005 Jun;66(12):1499-514.Hamm S, Bleton J, Connan J, Tchapla A.Groupe de Chimie Analytique de Paris Sud (LETIAM) EA 3343, Institut Universitaire de Technologie d'Orsay, Plateau de Moulon, F-91400 Orsay, France.

 Six different olibanum samples with certified botanical origin were analyzed by headspace SPME-GC/MS in order to define their mono-, sesqui- and diterpenic composition, as pertinent criteria of identification. Boswellia carteri and Boswellia sacra olibanum have quite similar chemical composition, with isoincensole acetate as the main diterpenic biomarker. Although Boswellia serrata olibanum also exhibits this biomarker, the presence of methylchavicol, methyleugenol and an unidentified oxygenated sesquiterpene distinguishes B. serrata olibanum from the two other species. The characteristic chemical compounds of Boswellia papyrifera are the diterpenic biomarkers incensole and its oxide and acetate derivatives, n-octanol and n-octyl acetate. Boswellia frereana olibanum is devoid of diterpenes of the incensole family but contains a high amount of many dimers of alpha-phellandrene. The chemical composition of olibanum, which is demonstrated to be different for each Boswellia species allowed the determination of the taxonomic origin of frankincense samples purchased on various markets in East Africa, in the Near East and in Yemen. Moreover, terpenic fingerprints allowed the botanical origin of olibanum used in traditional incense mixtures to be identified. Furthermore, this study gave us the opportunity to assign a botanical origin to an archaeological frankincense sample.

  Boswellia carterii extract inhibits TH1 cytokines and promotes TH2 cytokines in vitro.:Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005 May;12(5):575-80.Chevrier MR, Ryan AE, Lee DY, Zhongze M, Wu-Yan Z, Via CS.Research Service, Baltimore VAMHCS and Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.

 Traditional herbal formulas used to treat inflammatory arthritis in China and India include Boswellia carterii or Boswellia serrata. They both contain boswellic acids (BAs) which have been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic properties. This study tests the hypothesis that mixtures of BAs derived from B. carterii have immunomodulatory properties. B. carterii plant resin obtained from China was prepared as an ethanol extract, and the presence of seven BAs was confirmed by column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and UV laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectroscopy. The extract was then tested for its ability to alter in vitro production of TH1 cytokines (interleukin-2 [IL-2] and gamma interferon) and TH2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) by murine splenocytes. Delivery of the resin extract using ethanol as a solvent resulted in significant cellular toxicity not seen with the addition of ethanol alone. By contrast, delivery of the resin extract using a sesame oil solvent resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of TH1 cytokines coupled with a dose-dependent potentiation of TH2 cytokines. These results indicate that a purified mixture of BAs from B. carterii plant resin exhibits carrier-dependent immunomodulatory properties in vitro.

  Effects of an acetone extract of Boswellia carterii Birdw. (Burseraceae) gum resin on rats with persistent inflammation.:J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Apr;11(2):323-31.Fan AY, Lao L, Zhang RX, Wang LB, Lee DY, Ma ZZ, Zhang WY, Berman B.Center for Integrative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21207, USA.

 OBJECTIVE: Ruxiang, or Gummi olibanum, an herbal medicine derived from the gum resin of Boswellia carterii Birdw. (BC) of the family Burseraceae, has been used traditionally in China to alleviate pain and reduce inflammation. The present study is an investigation of the effects of a BC extract on persistent hyperalgesia and edema in rats with peripheral inflammation. DESIGN: In this randomized, blinded study, the antihyperalgesic and antiedema effects of 3 dosages of BC were compared to a vehicle control. Inflammation was induced in rats by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into one hind paw. A single oral dose of the BC extract was administered daily for 7 days, beginning one day before CFA. Hyperalgesia was assessed using a paw withdrawal latency (PWL) test pre-CFA and 2 hours, 5 hours, 1 day, and 5 days post-CFA. Edema was determined by measuring paw thickness at the same time points. Spinal Fos protein expression was analyzed 2 hours post-CFA. Adverse effects of the extract were monitored by observing the animals closely for unusual behavioral changes. RESULTS: Compared to control, a dosage of 0.45 g/kg BC significantly lengthened PWL and reduced paw edema on day 5 post-CFA. At 0.90 g/kg, BC significantly lengthened PWL at 5 hours, 1 day, and 5 days, and reduced paw edema at 2 hours, 5 hours, 1 day, and 5 days. This dosage also significantly suppressed spinal Fos expression in the medial half of laminae I-II. At 1.80 g/kg, BC significantly lengthened PWL and reduced paw edema at all time points. No noticeable adverse effects were observed in animals given the lower dosages of BC, but adverse effects in some animals were observed at 1.80 g/kg per day. In the acute toxicity study, the maximal single dose of 2.50 g/kg produced no adverse effects in the treated rats during the 14 days of observation. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that BC produces significant antihyperalgesia and anti-inflammation effects and that the antihyperalgesia may be mediated by suppressed inflammation-induced Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn neurons.

  Boswellia: an evidence-based systematic review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.:J Herb Pharmacother. 2004;4(3):63-83. Review.Basch E, Boon H, Davies-Heerema T, Foppo I, Hashmi S, Hasskarl J, Sollars D, Ulbricht C.

 An evidence-based systematic review including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.

  Human genome screen to identify the genetic basis of the anti-inflammatory effects of Boswellia in microvascular endothelial cells.:DNA Cell Biol. 2005 Apr;24(4):244-55.Roy S, Khanna S, Shah H, Rink C, Phillips C, Preuss H, Subbaraju GV, Trimurtulu G, Krishnaraju AV, Bagchi M, Bagchi D, Sen CK.Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

 Inflammatory disorders represent a substantial health problem. Medicinal plants belonging to the Burseraceae family, including Boswellia, are especially known for their anti-inflammatory properties. The gum resin of Boswellia serrata contains boswellic acids, which inhibit leukotriene biosynthesis. A series of chronic inflammatory diseases are perpetuated by leukotrienes. Although Boswellia extract has proven to be anti-inflammatory in clinical trials, the underlying mechanisms remain to be characterized. TNF alpha represents one of the most widely recognized mediators of inflammation. One mechanism by which TNFalpha causes inflammation is by potently inducing the expression of adhesion molecules such as VCAM-1. We sought to test the genetic basis of the antiinflammatory effects of BE (standardized Boswellia extract, 5-Loxin) in a system of TNF alpha-induced gene expression in human microvascular endothelial cells. We conducted the first whole genome screen for TNF alpha- inducible genes in human microvascular cells (HMEC). Acutely, TNF alpha induced 522 genes and downregulated 141 genes in nine out of nine pairwise comparisons. Of the 522 genes induced by TNF alpha in HMEC, 113 genes were clearly sensitive to BE treatment. Such genes directly related to inflammation, cell adhesion, and proteolysis. The robust BE-sensitive candidate genes were then subjected to further processing for the identification of BE-sensitive signaling pathways. The use of resources such as GenMAPP, KEGG, and gene ontology led to the recognition of the primary BE-sensitive TNF alpha-inducible pathways. BE prevented the TNF alpha-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinases. BE also prevented the inducible expression of mediators of apoptosis. Most strikingly, however, TNF alpha-inducible expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were observed to be sensitive to BE. Realtime PCR studies showed that while TNF alpha potently induced VCAM-1 gene expression, BE completely prevented it. This result confirmed our microarray findings and built a compelling case for the anti-inflammatory property of BE. In an in vivo model of carrageenan-induced rat paw inflammation, we observed a significant antiinflammatory property of BE consistent with our in vitro findings. These findings warrant further research aimed at identifying the signaling mechanisms by which BE exerts its anti-inflammatory effects.

  Bioactive constituents from Boswellia papyrifera.:J Nat Prod. 2005 Feb;68(2):189-93.Atta-ur-Rahman , Naz H, Fadimatou , Makhmoor T, Yasin A, Fatima N, Ngounou FN, Kimbu SF, Sondengam BL, Choudhary MI.H. E. J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

 Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark extract of Boswellia papyrifera afforded two new stilbene glycosides, trans-4',5-dihydroxy-3-methoxystilbene-5-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), trans-4',5-dihydroxy-3-methoxystilbene-5-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), and a new triterpene, 3alpha-acetoxy-27-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-24-oic acid (3), along with five known compounds, 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (4), beta-elemonic acid (7), 3alpha-acetoxy-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (8), beta-boswellic acid (9), and beta-sitosterol (10). The stilbene glycosides exhibited significant inhibition of phosphodiesterase I and xanthine oxidase. The triterpenes (3-9) exhibited prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory activities.

  Effect of food intake on the bioavailability of boswellic acids from a herbal preparation in healthy volunteers:Planta Med. 2004 Dec;70(12):1155-60.Sterk V, Büchele B, Simmet T.Department of Pharmacology of Natural Products & Clinical Pharmacology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

 In this study we investigated the effects of concomitant food intake on the bioavailability of distinct boswellic acids (BAs) from the test preparation BSE-018, a dry extract from Boswellia serrata gum resin. In a randomised, open, single-dose, two-way crossover study, healthy male subjects received three capsules of BSE-018 equivalent to 786 mg dry extract of Boswellia serrata gum resin either in the fasted state or together with a standardised high-fat meal. BA plasma concentrations were analysed for up to 60 h after oral dosing by reversed phase HPLC. As compared to the fasted state (treatment A), the administration of BSE-018 concomitantly with a high-fat meal (treatment B) led to several-fold increased areas under the plasma concentration-time curves as well as peak concentrations of beta-boswellic acid (betaBA), 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (KbetaBA) and acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKbetaBA). Plasma levels of both acetyl-alpha-boswellic acid (AalphaBA) and alphaBA became only detectable when administered with treatment B, i.e., the high-fat meal. Accordingly, pharmacokinetic data could be calculated for betaBA, KbetaBA and AKbetaBA (treatment A) and for betaBA, KbetaBA, AKbetaBA, alphaBA, and AalphaBA (treatment B). For the first time these data reveal detailed kinetics of BAs after oral dosing of an extract and demonstrate a profound effect of food intake on the pharmacokinetic profile of the BAs. This finding should be very important whenever BAs would be considered for therapeutic use.

  Effects of Boswellia serrata in mouse models of chemically induced colitis.:Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005 Apr;288(4):G798-808. Epub 2004 Nov 11.Kiela PR, Midura AJ, Kuscuoglu N, Jolad SD, Sólyom AM, Besselsen DG, Timmermann BN, Ghishan FK.Dept. of Pediatrics, Children's Research Center, Univ. of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.

 Extracts from Boswellia serrata have been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity, primarily via boswellic acid-mediated inhibition of leukotriene synthesis. In three small clinical trials, boswellia was shown to improve symptoms of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, and because of its alleged safety, boswellia was considered superior over mesalazine in terms of a benefit-risk evaluation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of boswellia extracts in controlled settings of dextran sulfate- or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice. Our results suggest that boswellia is ineffective in ameliorating colitis in these models. Moreover, individual boswellic acids were demonstrated to increase the basal and IL-1beta-stimulated NF-kappaB activity in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro as well as reverse proliferative effects of IL-1beta. We also observed hepatotoxic effect of boswellia with pronounced hepatomegaly and steatosis. Hepatotoxity and increased lipid accumulation in response to boswellia were further confirmed in vitro in HepG2 cells with fluorescent Nile red binding/resazurin reduction assay and by confocal microscopy. Microarray analyses of hepatic gene expression demonstrated dysregulation of a number of genes, including a large group of lipid metabolism-related genes, and detoxifying enzymes, a response consistent with that to hepatotoxic xenobiotics. In summary, boswellia does not ameliorate symptoms of colitis in chemically induced murine models and, in higher doses, may become hepatotoxic. Potential implications of prolonged and uncontrolled intake of boswellia as an herbal supplement in inflammatory bowel disease and other inflammatory conditions should be considered in future clinical trials with this botanical.

  Immunomodulatory activity of boswellic acids of Boswellia serrata Roxb:Indian J Exp Biol. 2003 Dec;41(12):1460-2.Pungle P, Banavalikar M, Suthar A, Biyani M, Mengi S.C. U. Shah College of Pharmacy, Sir Vithaldas Vidya Vihar, SNDT Women's University, Juhu, Santacruz (W), Mumbai 400 049, India.

 Extract of gum resin of B. serrata containing 60% acetyl 11-keto beta boswellic acid (AKBA) along with other constituents such as 11-keto beta-boswellic acid (KBA), acetyl beta-boswellic acid and beta-boswellic acid has been evaluated for antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilizing activity using passive paw anaphylaxis and compound 48/80 induced degranulation of mast cell methods. The extract inhibited the passive paw anaphylaxis reaction in rats in dose-dependant manner (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg, po). However, the standard dexamethasone (0.27 mg/kg, po) revealed maximum inhibition of edema as compared to the extract. A significant inhibition in the compound 48/80 induced degranulation of mast cells in dose-dependant manner (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg, po) was observed thus showing mast cell stabilizing activity. The standard disodium cromoglycate (50 mg/kg, ip) was found to demonstrate maximum per cent protection against degranulation as compared to the extract containing 60% AKBA. The results suggest promising antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilizing activity of the extract.

  Anti-inflammatory properties of BHUx, a polyherbal formulation to prevent atherosclerosis.:Inflammopharmacology. 2004;12(2):131-52.Tripathi YB, Reddy MM, Pandey RS, Subhashini J, Tiwari OP, Singh BK, Reddanna P.Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India.

 BHUx is a polyherbal formulation consisting of water-soluble fractions of five medicinal plants (Commiphora mukul, Terminalia arjuna, Boswellia serrata, Semecarpus anacardium and Strychnos nux vomica). The present study was undertaken to evaluate its antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. BHUx, standardized by HPLC fingerprinting and filtered through 0.2 microm filter paper, was employed for different studies under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Under in vivo conditions, BHUx significantly reduced inflammation in the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model of inflammation, suggesting its anti-inflammatory properties. In order to test the mechanism of action of BHUx, further in vitro studies were undertaken on cumene-hydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation (CHP) in liver homogenate, LPS-induced NO production in peritoneal macrophages and on key enzymes of arachidonic acid cascade, involved in the mediation of inflammation. Under the conditions, BHUx showed concentration-dependent inhibition of CHP-induced lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate, suggesting its antioxidant properties. Similarly the potent anti-inflammatory effects of BHUx are evident by (a) preferential inhibition of COX-2 (IC50 for COX-2 = 80 microg/ml and IC50 for COX-1 = 169 microg/ml), (b) low ratios in the IC50 values of COX-2/COX-1 (0.47), (c) decreased production of NO in LPS-induced peritoneal macrophages and (d) inhibition of 5-LOX (IC50 = 795 microg/ml). BHUx also showed a preference for inhibiting 15-lipoxygenase (IC50 = 44 microg/ml), a key enzyme implicated in LDL oxidation. These studies suggest that BHUx is acting mainly at three levels, i.e., as a potent natural antioxidant, by reduction of key inflammatory mediators of arachidonic acid cascade and by preventing 15-LOX-mediated LDL oxidations, to prevent atherosclerosis.

  Pharmacokinetic study of 11-Keto beta-Boswellic acid.:Phytomedicine. 2004 Feb;11(2-3):255-60.

 INTRODUCTION: Boswellia serrata has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory diseases since antiquity. However human kinetic studies are lacking for this. Hence to better elucidate its effects in humans and determine its optimal dosing, this study was planned. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve healthy adult men volunteers were given capsule Wok Vel containing 333 mg of Boswellia Serrata Extract, orally, after a seven days washout period. Venous blood samples were drawn through indwelling canula from each volunteer prior to drug administration and at 30, 60, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 300, 360, 480, 600, 720, 840 minutes after drug administration. Plasma obtained after centrifuge was analyzed to measure concentration of 11-Keto beta-Boswellic Acid (KBA) by HPLC. Various kinetic parameters were then calculated from the plasma concentrations. RESULTS: The results are expressed as mean +/- Standard Error of Mean. The peak plasma levels (2.72 x 10(-3) +/- 0.18 micromoles/ml) of BSE were reached at 4.5 +/- 0.55 h. The concentration declined with a mean elimination half life of 5.97 +/- 0.95 h. The apparent volume of distribution averaged 142.87 +/- 22.78 L and the plasma clearance was 296.10 +/- 24.09 ml/min. The AUC(0-infinity) was 27.33 x 10(-3) +/- 1.99 micromoles/ml h. CONCLUSION: Elimination half life of nearly six hours suggests that the drug needs to be given orally at the interval of six hours. The plasma concentration will attain the steady state after approximately 30 hours. BSE is a safe drug and well tolerated on oral administration. No adverse effects were seen with this drug when administered as single dose in 333 mg.

  Dietary support with Boswellia resin in canine inflammatory joint and spinal disease.:Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2004 Feb;146(2):71-9.Reichling J, Schm?kel H, Fitzi J, Bucher S, Saller R.Institut für Pharmazie und Molekulare Biotechnologie (IPMB), Abteilung Biologie, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Germany.

 An open multi-centre veterinary clinical trial, comparing conditions before and after treatment with a herbal dietary supplement consisting of a natural resin extract of Boswellia serrata, was conducted by 10 practicing veterinarians in Switzerland. This traditional plant-based supplement is known for its anti-rheumatic and anti-inflammatory properties. 29 dogs with manifestations of chronic joint and spinal disease were enrolled. Osteoarthritis and degenerative conditions were confirmed radiologically in 25 of 29 cases. The resin extract (BSB108, product of Bogar AG) was administered with the regular food at a dose of 400 mg/10 kg body weight once daily for 6 weeks. Already after two weeks of treatment, an overall efficacy of the dietary supplement was evident in 71% of 24 eligible dogs. A statistically significant reduction of severity and resolution of typical clinical signs in individual animals, such as intermittent lameness, local pain and stiff gait, were reported after 6 weeks. Effects of external factors that aggravate lameness, such as "lameness when moving" and "lameness after a long rest" diminished gradually. In 5 dogs, reversible brief episodes of diarrhea and flatulence occurred, but only once was a relationship to the study preparation suspected. Because quality and stability of the resin extract were ensured, these data suggest that a standardized preparation can be recommended as a herbal dietary supplement providing symptomatic support in canine osteoarthritic disease.

  Characterization of archaeological frankincense by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.:J Chromatogr A. 2004 Jan 16;1023(2):277-85.Mathe C, Culioli G, Archier P, Vieillescazes C.Laboratoire de Chimie Bio-Organique et des Systèmes Moléculaires Vectoriels, Faculté des Sciences, Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, 33 rue Louis Pasteur, Avignon F-84000, France.

 A simple gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method has been developed for the characterization of frankincense in archaeological samples. After trimethylsilylation of the methanolic extract, 15 triterpenoids have been found among the chemical constituents of commercial olibanum (alpha-boswellic acid, 3-O-acetyl-alpha-boswellic acid, beta-boswellic acid, 3-O-acetyl-beta-boswellic acid, alpha-amyrin, beta-amyrin, lupeol, 3-epi-beta-amyrin, 3-epi-beta-amyrin, 3-epi-lupeol, alpha-amyrenone, beta-amyrenone, lupenone, 3alpha-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-24-oic acid and 3-O-acetyl-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-24-oic acid). These compounds have been unequivocally identified by retention time and mass spectral comparison with pure standards previously isolated, for the most part, in our laboratory. Within these triterpenes, acid ones, the corresponding O-acetates, and their products of degradation were found to be characteristic of frankincense (Boswellia resin). The presence of these unusual triterpenic compounds in an archaeological resinous sample, recovered during excavations from Dahshour site (Egypt, XIIth Dynasty), enabled us to identify unambiguously frankincense resin among several other materials. Additional chromatographic peaks of this sample were assigned to broad chemical classes using retention time and mass spectra features.

  Optimization of headspace solid phase microextraction for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of widely different volatility and polarity terpenoids in olibanum.:J Chromatogr A. 2003 Nov 7;1018(1):73-83.Hamm S, Lesellier E, Bleton J, Tchapla A.Groupe de Chimie Analytique de Paris Sud (LETIAM) EA 3343, Institut Universitaire de Technologie d'Orsay, Plateau de Moulon, 91400 Orsay, France.

 The aim of this study was the optimization of headspace SPME conditions for trapping diterpenes present in frankincense (olibanum). Diterpenes like cembrenes or incensole and its derivatives are characteristic of olibanum. So in order to detect by SPME the occurrence of olibanum in archeological objects, it appears essential to have the best extraction conditions for these diterpenes that will be in very small quantities. Both sampling time and extraction temperature were studied and five fiber coatings were tested: polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) and carbowax/divinylbenzene (CW/DVB). The PDMS/DVB fiber was found to be the most efficient for trapping olibanum characteristic diterpenes, with a sampling time of 1 h and a sampling temperature of 80 degrees C.

  Analysis of 12 different pentacyclic triterpenic acids from frankincense in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection..:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Oct 5;795(2):355-62.Büchele B, Simmet T.Department of Pharmacology of Natural Products and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Ulm, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.

 For the determination of pentacyclic triterpenes of the boswellic acid family in human plasma a novel sensitive method was developed combining serial extraction on diatomaceous earth and graphitized carbon black followed by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and photodiode array detection. The overall average extraction yield of 12 different pentacyclic triterpenic acids was approximately 66%. The calibration graphs were linear with coefficients of correlation for all compounds greater than 0.999. The overall within-day and between-day coefficients of variation (CV) for the 12 pentacyclic triterpenic acids were 5.6 and 6.8%, respectively. This HPLC procedure delivers the analytical sensitivity, precision and accuracy required for clinical pharmacokinetic and therapeutic studies.

  Two new macrocyclic diaryl ether heptanoids from Boswellia ovalifoliolata.:Chem Pharm Bull. 2003 Sep;51(9):1081-4.

 The stems of Boswellia ovalifoliolata BAL. & HENRY (Burseraceae) afforded two new macrocyclic diaryl ether heptanoids, ovalifoliolatin A (1) and B (2) together with three known compounds; acerogenin C (3), 3 alpha-hydroxyurs-12-ene (4), and sitost-4-en-3-one (5). The structures were established by means of spectroscopic analysis and compounds 1, 3-5 were evaluated for their antibacterial activity.

  Analysis of pentacyclic triterpenic acids from frankincense gum resins and related phytopharmaceuticals by high-performance liquid chromatography. Identification of lupeolic acid, a novel pentacyclic triterpene.:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jul 5;791(1-2):21-30.Büchele B, Zugmaier W, Simmet T.Department of Pharmacology of Natural Products and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Ulm, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.

 An HPLC gradient method with photodiode array detection was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 12 different pentacyclic triterpenic acids in Indian and African frankincense gum resins as well as in related phytopharmaceuticals. The triterpenic acids were obtained by an exhaustive extraction procedure. Identification of the compounds was based on retention times, UV-spectra and add on technique with standards isolated from African frankincense. The method allows differentiation of frankincense of different origin and standardization of frankincense-based phytopharmaceuticals. Further, this is the first report identifying a novel pentacyclic triterpene, lupeolic acid, as a constituent of frankincense gum resins.

  Study on the detecting methods of the imported materia medica--olibanum.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2002 Mar;27(3):170-3. Chinese.Shi SM, Tian JG, Wang BQ.National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing 100050.

 OBJECTIVE: To analyse the chemical components of the essential oil of Gum olibanum somalilnds and Gum olibanum Ethiopia, and to set up determination methods of their main components. METHOD: Two kinds of essential oil are identified by GC-MS, and assayed by Gas chromatography, using SE-54 as the packing material (column 2.1 m x 3.2 mm), with column temperature starting from 80 degrees C, holding for 1 min, and then rising at the rate of 15 degrees C per minute to 170 degrees C. RESULT: 40 kinds of chemical compounds in the essential oil of Gum olibanum somalilnds and 22 kinds of those of Gum olibanum Ethiopia were identified by GC-MS, the main component in the essential oil of Gum olibanum somalilnds being alpha-pinene, and the main one of Gum olibanum Ethiopia being Octyl acetate 17 batches of samples were determined with the linear range of alpha-pinene being 0-10.80 micrograms, the correlation coefficient being 0.9995, the recovery being 98.16%, RSD being 1.83%; the linear range of Octyl acetate being 0-10.32 micrograms, the correlation coefficient being 0.9996, the recovery being 99.56%, and RSD being 1.36%. CONCLUSION: This study can be used for the setting up of the specification of Olibanum.

  Chemistry and immunomodulatory activity of frankincense oil.:Z Naturforsch [C]. 2003 Mar-Apr;58(3-4):230-8.Mikhaeil BR, Maatooq GT, Badria FA, Amer MM.Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt.

 The yield of steam distillation of frankincense essential oil (3%); and its physicochemical constants were determined. Capillary GC/MS technique was used for the analysis of the oil. Several oil components were identified based upon comparison of their mass spectral data with those of reference compounds published in literature or stored in a computer library. The oil was found to contain monoterpenes (13.1%), sesquiterpenes (1%), and diterpenes (42.5%). The major components of the oil were duva-3,9,13-trien-1,5alpha-diol-1-acetate (21.4%), octyl acetate (13.4%), o-methyl anisole (7.6%), naphthalene decahydro-1,1,4a-trimethyl-6-methylene-5-(3-methyl-2-pentenyl) (5.7%), thunbergol (4.1%), phenanthrene-7-ethenyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8,9,10,10a-dodecahydro-1,1,4a,7-tetramethyl (4.1%), alpha-pinene (3.1%), sclarene (2.9%), 9-cis-retinal (2.8%), octyl formate (1.4%), verticiol (1.2%) decyl acetate (1.2%), n-octanol (1.1%). The chemical profile of the oil is considered as a chemotaxonomical marker that confirmed the botanical and geographical source of the resin. Biologically, the oil exhibited a strong immunostimulant activity (90% lymphocyte transformation) when assessed by a lymphocyte proliferation assay.

  Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) is cytotoxic for meningioma cells and inhibits phosphorylation of the extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1 and 2.:Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002;507:387-93.Park YS, Lee JH, Harwalkar JA, Bondar J, Safayhi H, Golubic M.Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue/NB2-120A, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

 Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpene isolated from the gum resin exudate from the stem of the tree Boswellia serrata (frankincense). AKBA has been recently identified as a novel, orally active, non-redox and non-competitive 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor that also inhibits topisomerase I and II in vitro. Because natural pentacyclic triterpenes have an antiproliferative effect against different tumor types, we investigated the effects of AKBA on the proliferation of 11 primary cell cultures established from human surgical specimens of meningiomas, common central nervous system tumors. Treatment of meningioma cells by AKBA revealed a potent cytotoxic activity with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 2-8 microM. At similar, physiologically achievable concentrations, AKBA rapidly (within minutes) and potently inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk-1 and Erk-2) in meningioma cells stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor BB. High expression level of 5-LO was detected in primary meningioma cells and surgical specimens by immunoblotting analysis, suggesting the possible role of 5-LO in meningioma tumorigenesis. Considering the critical importance of the Erk-1/2 signal transduction pathway not only in meningiomas but in other human neoplasms, the interruption of signaling through this evolutionarily conserved pathway might be one of the mechanisms by which AKBA induces suppression of proliferation and apoptosis of different tumor types.

  Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee--a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial.:Phytomedicine. 2003 Jan;10(1):3-7.

 Osteoarthritis is a common, chronic, progressive, skeletal, degenerative disorder, which commonly affects the knee joint. Boswellia serrata tree is commonly found in India. The therapeutic value of its gum (guggulu) has been known. It posses good anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and analgesic activity. A randomized double blind placebo controlled crossover study was conducted to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of Boswellia serrata Extract (BSE) in 30 patients of osteoarthritis of knee, 15 each receiving active drug or placebo for eight weeks. After the first intervention, washout was given and then the groups were crossed over to receive the opposite intervention for eight weeks. All patients receiving drug treatment reported decrease in knee pain, increased knee flexion and increased walking distance. The frequency of swelling in the knee joint was decreased. Radiologically there was no change. The observed differences between drug treated and placebo being statistically significant, are clinically relevant. BSE was well tolerated by the subjects except for minor gastrointestinal ADRs. BSE is recommended in the patients of osteoarthritis of the knee with possible therapeutic use in other arthritis.

  Chemical components of Boswellia carterii.:Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2002 Aug;37(8):633-5. Chinese.Zhou JY, Cui R.Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China.

 AIM: To investigate the chemical components of Boswellia carterii. METHODS: Chromatographic technologies were used for separation and purification, while spectral analysis was used for structure elucidation. RESULTS: Six compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as acetyl-alpha-boswellic acid (1), acetyl-beta-boswellic acid (2), lup-20(29)-ene-3 alpha-acetoxy-24-oic acid (3), alpha-boswellic acid (4), beta-boswellic acid (5) and acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (6). CONCLUSION: Compound 3 is a new constituent.

  A lupane triterpene from frankincense (Boswellia sp., Burseraceae).:Phytochemistry. 2003 Feb;62(4):537-41.Culioli G, Mathe C, Archier P, Vieillescazes C.Laboratoire de Chimie Bio-Organique et des Systèmes Moléculaires Vectoriels, Faculté des Sciences, Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, 33, Rue Louis Pasteur, F-84000 Avignon, France.

 A new lupane-type triterpene, 3alpha-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-24-oic acid, was isolated from the methanolic extract of "Erytrean-type" resin of commercial frankincense together with the known 3alpha-hydroxy-olean-12-en-24-oic acid (alpha-boswellic acid) and 3alpha-hydroxy-urs-12-en-24-oic acid (beta-boswellic acid). Their structures were characterized on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence including two dimensional NMR experiments and mass spectrometric techniques.

  Cytostatic and apoptosis-inducing activity of boswellic acids toward malignant cell lines in vitro.:Anticancer Res. 2002 Sep-Oct;22(5):2853-62.Hostanska K, Daum G, Saller R.Departmment of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Zürich, R?mistrasse 100, 8091 Zürich, Switzerland.

 Boswellic acids from frankincense were indentified as the active compounds which inhibit leukotriene biosynthesis, 5-lipoxygenase and exert antiproliferative activity toward a variety of malignant cells. Because of the relevance for the clinical application, we tested the ethanolic extract of Boswellia serrata gum resin containing a defined amount of boswellic acids for its cytotoxic, cytostatic and apoptotic activity on five leukemia (HL-60, K 562, U937, MOLT-4, THP-1) and two brain tumor (LN-18, LN-229) cell lines by WST-1 assay and flow cytometry. The Boswellia serrata extract induced dose-dependent antiproliferative effects on all human malignant cells tested with GI50 values (extract concentration producing 50% cell growth inhibition) between 57.0 and 124.1 micrograms/ml. In three haematological cell lines (K562, U937, MOLT-4) the effect of total extract expressed in GI50 was 2.8-, 3.3- and 2.3-times more potent (p < 0.05) than pure 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA). Morphological changes after 24-27 hours and the detection of apoptotic cells by AnnexinV-binding and/or by the detection of propidium iodide-labelled DNA with flow cytometry, confirmed the apoptotic cell death. The results of this study suggest the effectiveness of Boswellia serrata extract with defined content of boswellic acids.

  Boswellic acids trigger apoptosis via a pathway dependent on caspase-8 activation but independent on Fas/Fas ligand interaction in colon cancer HT-29 cells.:Carcinogenesis. 2002 Dec;23(12):2087-93.Liu JJ, Nilsson A, Oredsson S, Badmaev V, Zhao WZ, Duan RD.Cell Biology B, Biomedical Center, B11, Lund University, Sweden.

 Boswellic acids are the effective components of gum resin of Boswellia serrata, which has anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies on brain tumors and leukemic cells indicate that boswellic acids may have antiproliferative and apoptotic effects with the mechanisms being not studied in detail. We studied their antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on colon cancer cells and the pathway leading to apoptosis. HT-29 cells were treated with beta-boswellic acid (BA), keto-beta-boswellic acid (K-BA) and acetyl-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AK-BA), respectively. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry, by cytoplasmic DNA-histone complex and the activity of caspase-3. The cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) and expression of Fas were examined by western blot. Specific caspase inhibitors, polyclonal Fas antibody, and antagonistic Fas antibody ZB4 were employed to elucidate apoptotic pathways. DNA synthesis and cell viability were examined. Both K-BA and AK-BA increased cytoplasmic DNA-histone complex dose-dependently and increased pre-G(1) peak in flow cytometer analysis, with the effects of AK-BA being stronger than K-BA. BA only increased the formation of DNA-histone complex at a high concentration. K-BA and AK-BA increased caspase-8, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities accompanied by cleavage of PARP. The effects of AK-BA on formation of cytoplasmic DNA histone and on caspase-3 activation were 3.7- and 3.4-fold, respectively, more effective than those induced by camptothecin. The apoptosis induced by AK-BA was inhibited completely by caspase-3 or caspase-8 inhibitor and partially by caspase-9 inhibitor. ZB4 blocked exogenous Fas ligand-induced apoptosis, but had no effect on AK-BA-induced apoptosis. AK-BA had no significant effect on expression of Fas. Apart from apoptotic effect, these acids also inhibited [(3)H]thymidine incorporation and cell viability to different extent. In conclusion, boswellic acids, particularly AK-BA and K-BA have antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in human HT-29 cells. The apoptotic effect is mediated via a pathway dependent on caspase-8 activation but independent of Fas/FasL interaction.

  Boswellic acids (components of frankincense) as the active principle in treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.:Wien Med Wochenschr. 2002;152(15-16):373-8. Review. German.Ammon HP.Lehrstuhl Pharmakologie für Naturwissenschaftler, Pharmazeutisches Institut der Universit?t Tübingen, Deutschland.

 Preparations from the gum resin of Boswellia serrata have been used as a traditional remedy in Ayurvedic medicine in India for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Compounds from the gum with genuine antiinflammatory effects are pentacyclic triterpenes of the boswellic acid type. Boswellic acids inhibit the leukotriene biosynthesis in neutrophilic granulocytes by a non-redox, noncompetitive inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. The effect is triggered by boswellic acids binding to the enzyme. Moreover certain boswellic acids have been described to inhibit elastase in leukocytes, to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis and to inhibit topoisomerases of leukoma- and glioma cell lines. A series of chronic inflammatory diseases are thought to be perpetuated by leukotrienes. In clinical trials promising results were observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, chronic colitis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, bronchial asthma und peritumoral brains edemas.

  Experimental study on Jurkat cell apoptosis induced by Boswellia carterii Birdw extractive.:Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2000 Jun 28;25(3):241-4. Chinese.Liu X, Qi ZH.Department of Hematology, Xiangya Hospital, Hunan Medical University, Changsha 410008.

 OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of Boswellia carterii Birdw(BCB) extractive of different concentrations on human Jurkat cell apoptosis at different time points. METHODS: Agarose gel electrophoresis, transmission electron microscope(TEM) and flow cytometry(FCM) were used for observing DNA ladders, morphology of Jurkat cells and cell cycle, respectively. RESULTS: BCB induced apoptosis of Jurkat cells and typical DNA ladders; TEM demonstrated the presence of apoptosis Jurkat cells, condensation of cytoplasm, numerous vaculoes in cytoplasm, compaction of the nuclear chromatin and formation of apoptosis dody. The sub-G1 peak was detected by cell cycle analysis. It revealed that G1 phage cells increased and S phage cells decreased. CONCLUSION: The data indicate that BCB extractive induces time- and concentration-dependent apoptosis in Jurkat cell line

  Fourier Transform-Raman spectroscopic study of natural resins of archaeological interest.:Biopolymers. 2002;67(2):129-41.Brody RH, Edwards HG, Pollard AM.Department of Chemical and Forensic Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom.

 Resins from several different genera are studied using Fourier transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy. Tree resins can be broadly divided into those that contain diterpenoid components and those that contain triterpenoid components. The diterpenoid resins analyzed are from the genera Pinus, Cedrus, and Agathis (kauri resin) and the triterpenoid resins examined are samples from Pistacia, Boswellia (frankincense), and Commiphora (myrrh) genera. A protocol is developed to nondestructively distinguish diterpenoid and triterpenoid resins and to differentiate the genera within the two types. The effects of oxidation on the discrimination of the FT-Raman spectra are considered.

  Cytotoxic action of acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) on meningioma cells.:Planta Med. 2002 May;68(5):397-401.Park YS, Lee JH, Bondar J, Harwalkar JA, Safayhi H, Golubic M.Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

 Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpene isolated from the gum resin exudate of the tree Boswellia serrata (frankincense). Because pentacyclic triterpenes have antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects against different tumor types, we investigated whether AKBA would act in a similar fashion on primary human meningioma cell cultures. Primary cell cultures were established from surgically removed meningioma specimens. The number of viable cells in the absence/presence of AKBA was determined by the non-radioactive cell proliferation assay. The activation status of the proliferative cell marker, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (Erk-1 and Erk-2) was determined by immunoblotting with the antibody that recognizes the activated form of these proteins. Treatment of meningioma cells by AKBA revealed a potent cytotoxic activity with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 2 - 8 microM. At low micromolar concentrations, AKBA rapidly and potently inhibited the phosphorylation of Erk-1/2 and impaired the motility of meningioma cells stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor BB. The cytotoxic action of AKBA on meningioma cells may be mediated, at least in part, by the inhibition of the Erk signal transduction pathway. Because of the central role the Erk pathway plays in signal transduction and tumorigenesis, further investigation into the potential clinical use for AKBA and related boswellic acids is warranted.

  Experimental study on induction of apoptosis of leukemic cells by Boswellia carterii Birdw extractive.:Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 1999;24(1):23-5. Chinese.Qi Z, Zhang G, Zhu W.Research Laboratory of Hematology, Xiangya Hospital, Hunan Medical University, Changsha 410008.

 The purpose of the study was to investigate the apoptosis of leukemic cells induced by Boswellia Carterii Birdw(BCB). The target leukemia cell line HL60 and bone marrow leukemic cells from 30 acute non-lymphocytic leukemic(ANLL) patients (3 M1 11 M2a 10 M3 1 M4a 5 M5b) were studied. Apoptosis was detected by morphological observation, DNA electrophoresis, percentage of DNA fragmentation test and flow cytometric cell cycle analysis. It is concluded that BCB can induce apoptosis in ANLL cells and HL60 cells.

  Clastogenic effects of dietary supplement--Spirulina alga, and some medicinal plant products from Boswellia serrata, Withania somnifera on mice.:Indian J Exp Biol. 2001 Oct;39(10):1068-70.

 Pretreatment of aqueous extracts of Zyrulina (Spirulina), Aswagandha (Withania) and Nopane (Boswellia) on colchicine induced chromosome damage showed weakness of clastogenic activity in Swiss albino mice. None of the treatments increased significantly the number of chromosome aberrations.

  The annotated research on "Xun du", "Xun li" as seen in excavation of the remains of Western Han dynasty.:Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi. 2001 Oct;31(4):207-9. Chinese.Zhang X.Institute of Literature, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu 610066.

 The "Collected Notes of Armed Vehicles of 4th year of Wuku Yong shi" in Han bamboo slips excavated from the remains of Han tomb in Lianyungang, Jiangsu, carries a "Xun du", while a "Xun li" is carried in the Han record paper excavated in the remains of Xuanquan of Han, Dunhuang, Gansu. Both should be "frankincense", being the earliest record of this material, demonstrating that this medicine had been imported at least in early Western Han dynasty. Thus, the record of frankincense should be 300 years ahead of the existing record.

  High-performance thin layer chromatographic analysis of anti-inflammatory triterpenoids from Boswellia serrata Roxb.:Phytochem Anal. 2001 Nov-Dec;12(6):374-6.Krohn K, Rao MS, Raman NV, Khalilullah M.Universit?t Paderborn, Fachbereich Chemie und Chemietechnik, 33098 Paderborn, Germany.

 A rapid and simple high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative estimation of the biologically active triterpenoids beta-boswellic acid, 3-O-acetyl-beta-boswellic acid, 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid and 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid from the gum resin of Boswellia serrata. The assay combines the isolation and separation of boswellic acid derivatives on silica gel 60F254-HPTLC plates with spot visualisation and scanning at 250 nm. Methanol was found to be the most appropriate solvent for the exhaustive extraction of boswellic acid derivatives.


  • 1.Frankincense,fraunk-encens,the Oleo-gum-resin and the magical sun luck carrier.Frankincense Olibanum Extract.

♥The article and literature were edited by Herbalist of MDidea Extracts Professional.It runs a range of descriptions about the titled herb and related phytochemicals, including comprehensive information related, summarized updating discoveries from findings of herbalists and clinical scientists from this field.The electronic data information published at our official website and, we tried to update it to latest and exact as possible.
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Available Product
  • Name:Frankincense Olibanum Extract
  • Serie No:P026
  • Specifications:Boswellic Acid 65%by HPLC,Boswellic Acid 65%by Titration.10:1.TLC.
  • EINECS/ELINCS No.:289-620-2,308-366-6
  • CAS:89957-98-2,97952-72-2
  • Chem/IUPAC Name:Boswellia Carterii Extract is an extract of the bark exudate of the olibanum, Boswellia carterii, Burseraceae Boswellia Serrata Extract is an extract of the bark exudate of the olibanum, Boswellia serrata, Burseraceae
  • Other Names:Frankincense,Olibanum,Boswellia thurifera,Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst,Bible Frankincense,Olibanum,Boswellia carteri,boswellia carterii,Gummiresina olibanum,Ru Xiang.

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Frankincense Olibanum Extract INCI Name Boswellia Carterii Extract Boswellia Serrata Extract CAS 89957-98-2.97952-72-2 EINECS ELINCS No.289-620-2,308-366-6 Boswellia Extract Boswellic Acids

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