Lotus root is the fat root of a plant Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.


Research Update:Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn,Lotus root,Lotus leaf.:

Lotus Root Lotus Leaf Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn Sacred Water Lotus   Constituents from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera stimulate lipolysis in the white adipose tissue of mice.:Planta Med. 2007 Oct;73(12):1255-9. Epub 2007 Sep 24.

 Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaceae) has been used for various medicinal purposes as in Chinese herbal medicine. In particular, the leaves are known for diuretic and astringent properties, and are used to treat obesity. During our search for a plant-derived anti-obesity agent from natural products, we have found that a 50% ethanol (EtOH) extract prepared from the leaves of N. nucifera (NN) stimulated lipolysis in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice and that the beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) pathway was involved in this effect. In subsequent experiments, dietary supplementation of NN resulted in a significant suppression of body weight gain in A/J mice fed a high-fat diet. Bioassay-guided fractionation and repeated chromatography of NN has led to the isolation and identification of quercetin 3-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-galactopyranoside (1), rutin (2), (+)-catechin (3), hyperoside (4), isoquercitrin (5), quercetin (6) and astragalin (7). Of these, compounds 1, 3, 4, 5 and 7 exhibited lipolytic activity, especially in visceral adipose tissue. Our results indicate that the effects of NN in preventing diet-induced obesity appear to be due to various flavonoids and that the activation of beta-AR pathway was involved, at least in part.

  Isolation and preparation of flavonoids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn by preparative reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography.:Se Pu. 2007 Jan;25(1):88-92. Chinese.Tian N, Liu Z, Huang J, Luo G, Liu S, Liu X.Engineering Department of Medical Resource, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China. tianna5678@163.com

 It has been confirmed that flavonoids in the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (lotus leaves) have many pharmacological activities. Currently, total flavones in the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn have been studied extensively, however, only a few researches were able to investigate the individual components in it. At first, crude extract was obtained from lotus leaves by reflux extraction using 60% ethanol for three times. Then, the concentrated crude extract was separated on a D-101 column (eluted with 70% ethanol) and a polyamide column (step gradient 15% to 90% ethanol). The Fr-1 fraction was obtained from the eluate of 45% ethanol and was subjected to a preparative reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatograph (RP-HPLC) for the isolation of target components. The preparation of the individual flavonoids was carried out on an RP-HPLC with a Symmetry Prep C18 column, and the mobile phase was water-acetonitrile at a flow rate of 5.0 mL/min. Three compounds were identified with ultra violet absorbance (UV), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). They were hyperin, isoquercetin and astragalin. To our knowledge that astragalin was the first time successfully isolated from this plant. The purity of the three compounds was all over 97%.

  Rat lens aldose reductase inhibitory constituents of Nelumbo nucifera stamens.:Phytother Res. 2006 Oct;20(10):825-30.

 Aldose reductase, the principal enzyme of the polyol pathway, has been shown to play an important role in the complications associated with diabetes. A methanol extract of the stamens of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. was shown to exert an inhibitory effect on rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), and thus was fractionated using several organic solvents, including dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction, which manifested potent RLAR-inhibitory properties, was then purified further via repeated measures of silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Thirteen flavonoids: kaempferol (1) and seven of its glycosides (2-9), myricetin 3',5'-dimethylether 3-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (10), quercetin 3-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (11) and two isorhamnetin glycosides (12, 13) were isolated from N. nucifera, as well as four non-flavonoid compounds: adenine (14), myo-inositol (15), arbutin (16) and beta-sitosterol glucopyranoside (17). These compounds were all assessed with regard to their RLAR-inhibitory properties. Among the isolated flavonoids, those harboring 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside groups in their C rings, including kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (5) and isorhamnetin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (13), were determined to exhibit the highest degree of rat lens aldose reductase inhibitory activity in vitro, evidencing IC(50) values (concentration required for a 50% inhibition of enzyme activity) of 5.6 and 9.0 microm, respectively.

  Separation, identification and rapid determination of liensine, isoliensinine and neferine from embryo of the seed of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. by liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and tandem mass spectrometry.:J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007 Jan 4;43(1):99-104. Epub 2006 Jul 18.Chen Y, Fan G, Wu H, Wu Y, Mitchell A.Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, No. 325 Guohe Road, Shanghai 200433, PR China.

 An application of mass spectrometric methods has been developed to characterize, prepare and quantitatively analyze three bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids (liensinine, isoliensinine and neferine) from embryo of the seed of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Initially, an analytical method based on liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) with positive ionization mode using a MonoChrom C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm i.d. 10 microm) has been developed to characterize liensinine, isoliensinine and neferine, and then scaled up to purify them on a 21.4 mm x 250 mm preparative column. The structures of liensinine, isoliensinine and neferine were elucidated by NMR. Finally, a LC-MS/MS determination method, successfully applied to separation within 3 min, was developed for high throughput simultaneous measurement of liensinine, isoliensinine, and neferine in the extract samples. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used to monitor the transition of the protonated molecules m/z 611, 611, 625 [M+H]+ to the product ions m/z 206, 192, 206 for analysis of liensinine, isoliensinine and neferine. The LC-MS/MS system was linear in the concentration range of 0.0247-6.02 microg/ml with correlation coefficients of r2>0.992. The quantitative method was validated, with an S/N=3 detection limit of 0.15 ng for liensinine, 0.19 ng for isoliensinine and 0.1 2ng for neferine. The mass fractions of liensinine, isoliensinine, and neferine in the crude extract and the phenolic alkaloid sample of embryo of the seed of N. nucifera Gaertn. were 16.5+/-1.1 and 228.6+/-11.9 for liensinine (mg/g), 45.7+/-1.8 and 640.7+/-15.2 for isoliensinine (mg/g), 59.7+/-6.4 and 58.8+/-9.8 for neferine (mg/g).

  Anti-obesity effect of Nelumbo nucifera leaves extract in mice and rats.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jun 30;106(2):238-44. Epub 2006 Feb 21.

 The leaf of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (family Nymphaeaceae) has been used for summer heat syndrome as home remedy in China, and it has recently been used to treat obesity in China. So we investigate the pharmacological mechanism of the anti-obesity effect of Nelumbo nucifera leaves extract (NNE). We examined the effect of NNE on digestive enzyme activity, lipid metabolism and theromogenesis and evaluated the effects of anti-obesity using high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice that were treated with NNE for 5 weeks. NNE caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of the activities of alpha-amylase and lipase, and up-regulated lipid metabolism and expression of UCP3 mRNA in C2C12 myotubes. NNE prevented the increase in body weight, parametrial adipose tissue weight and liver triacylglycerol levels in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet. UCP3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle tended to be higher, when mice were administrated by NNE and were exercised. Therefore, NNE impaired digestion, inhibited absorption of lipids and carbohydrates, accelerated lipid metabolism and up-regulated energy expenditure. Consequently, NNE is beneficial for the suppression of obesity.

  Isolation, characterization, and determination of antioxidative activity of oligomeric procyanidins from the seedpod of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Apr 6;53(7):2441-5.Ling ZQ, Xie BJ, Yang EL.Natural Product Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Technology, Hua Zhong Agriculture University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China. zhqling323@hotmail.com

 The procyanidins of nonedible parts of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) were determined for the first time. The procyanidins of lotus seedpod were extracted with Me(2)CO/H(2)O and purified by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, with a purity of >98%. ESI-MS analysis showed that the main molecular weight distribution of procyanidins ranged from 291 to 1155, with M + H peak values of 291.1, 579.2, 731.2, 867.2, 1019.4, and 1155.3, respectively. This indicates that the extract contains monomers, dimers, and tetramers of procyanidins, in which the amounts of dimers are greatest, and catechin and epicatechin are the base units. (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra confirmed that two to four monomers are linked through C(4)-C(8) (or C(6)) bonds. The effects of the procyanidins on lipid autoxidation, lipoxygenase activities, and free radical scavenging were also studied. The results showed that 0.1% procyanidins have a strong antioxidant activity in a soybean oil system, better than BHT at the same concentration; inhibited lipoxygenase activity by >90% at a concentration of 62.5 mug/mL, with an IC(50) value of 21.6 mug/mL; and had IC(50) inhibitory values rate to (*)OH of 10.5 mg/L and a scavenging effect on O(2)(*)(-) of 17.6 mg/L.

  Inhibitory effects of isoliensinine on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.:Planta Med. 2005 Mar;71(3):225-30.Xiao JH, Zhang JH, Chen HL, Feng XL, Wang JL.Department of Pharmacology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, P. R. China.

 The effects of isoliensinine (IL), a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid extracted from the Chinese traditional medicine seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice were investigated. Seventy-two male Kungming mice were divided randomly into eight groups as BLM-IL10, BLM-IL20, BLM-IL40, BLM-Sal, Sal-IL10, Sal-IL20, Sal-IL40 and Sal-Sal groups. BLM (0.1 mg in 0.05 ml saline per animal, once) or saline (0.05 ml per animal, once) was applied intratracheally, and IL (10, 20, 40 mg/kg) or saline was administered orally 3 times per day in the appropriate groups. Animals were sacrificed 14 days after intratracheal treatment. Lung tissue and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta (1)) were determined by biochemical measurements and immunohistochemistry. BLM treatment resulted in a significant increase of the hydroxyproline content and an obvious lung histological injury as compared to the Sal-Sal group. Administration of IL remarkably suppressed the increase in hydroxyproline content and abated the lung histological injury induced by BLM. There was a decrease in SOD activity and an increase in MDA level in lung tissue and serum in the BLM-Sal group (p < 0.01 , p < 0.01, vs. Sal-Sal group, respectively). And IL could obviously enhance the SOD activity and decrease the MDA level in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, IL also significantly inhibited the overexpression of TNF-alpha and TGF-beta (1) induced by BLM. These results indicated that IL possessed a significant inhibitory effect on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, probably due to its antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory activities and inhibitory overexpressing TNF-alpha and TGF-beta (1) induced by BLM.

  Preparative counter-current chromatography isolation of liensinine and its analogues from embryo of the seed of Nelumbo nucifera GAERTN. using upright coil planet centrifuge with four multilayer coils connected in series.:J Chromatogr A. 2004 Jul 2;1041(1-2):153-62.Wu S, Sun C, Cao X, Zhou H, Hong Z, Pan Y.Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

 Preparative counter-current chromatography (CCC) isolation of liensinine and its analogues, isoliensinine and neferine from embryo of the seed of Nelumbo nucifera GAERTN. has been successfully performed for the first time using upright coil planet centrifuge with four multilayer coils connected in series with 1600 mL capacity. Two kinds of two-phase solvent systems were applied to preparative CCC isolation. The first was the system composed of light petroleum (b.p. 60-90 degrees C)-ethyl acetate-tetrachloromethane-chloroform-methanol-water (1:1:4:4:6:2, v/v) which was very suitable for fast and small-scale CCC isolation. The second was the system composed of ethyl acetate-tetrachloromethane-methanol-water (1:6:4:1, v/v), which was the optimum for large-scale CCC isolation. Using the first system, 1102 mg of the crude alkaloid was purified in one-step separation of 150 min, yielding 350 mg neferine, 100 mg isoliensinine and 95 mg liensinine with over 95% purity. While using the second solvent system, 5850 mg of the crude alkaloid was purified in one-step separation of 9 h, yielding 2545 mg neferine, 698 mg isoliensinine and 650 mg liensinine with over 97% purity. Structures of the compounds were identified by electrospray ionization multiple mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional NMR.

  The extracts from Nelumbo Nucifera suppress cell cycle progression, cytokine genes expression, and cell proliferation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.:Life Sci. 2004 Jun 25;75(6):699-716.Liu CP, Tsai WJ, Lin YL, Liao JF, Chen CF, Kuo YC.Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

 In the hope of identifying agents of therapeutic value in tissue inflammation, we tested ethanolic extracts of six Chinese herbs for their effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) proliferation in vitro. The results indicated that the extracts from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, used in treatment of tissue inflammation in traditional Chinese medicine, inhibited PBMC proliferation activated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA). By a bioassay-guided fractionation procedure, NN-B-4 identified from N. nucifera ethanolic extracts significantly suppressed activated PBMC proliferation. The inhibitory action of NN-B-4 did not involve direct cytotoxicity. In an attempt to further localize the point in the PBMC proliferation where arrest occurred, a set of key regulatory events leading to the cell proliferation, including cell cycle progression, production and gene expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-10, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was examined. Cell cycle analysis indicated that NN-B-4 arrested the cell cycle progression of activated PBMC from the G1 transition to the S phase. The cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 4 mRNA expression in PBMC stimulated with PHA was reduced by NN-B-4. NN-B-4 suppressed, in activated PBMC, the production and mRNA expression of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-gamma in a dose-dependent fashion. The suppressant effects of NN-B-4 on proliferation of PBMC activated by PHA therefore appear to be mediated, at least in part, through inhibition of early transcripts of PBMC, especially those of important IL-2, IFN-gamma, and cdk4 and arrest of cell cycle progression in the cells.

  Cardiovascular pharmacological effects of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid derivatives.:Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2002 Dec;23(12):1086-92. Review.Qian JQ. Faculty of Pharmacology, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China. qianjq_tjmc@hotmail.com.

 Tetrandrine, dauricine, daurisoline and neferine are bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid derivatives isolated from Chinese traditional medicine and herbs. The cardiovascular pharmacological effects and the mechanism of actions of these compounds were reviewed. Tetrandrine isolated from Stephania tetrandra S Moore possesses antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic effects. The antihypertensive effects of tetrandrine have been demonstrated in experimental hypertensive animals and in hypertensive patients. Recent studies showed that in addition to its calcium antagonistic effect, tetrandrine interacted with M receptors. Modulation by M receptor is one of the pharmacological mechanisms of cardiovascular effects of tetrandrine. Dauricine and daurisoloine were isolated from Menispermum dauricum DC. The antiarrhythmic effects of dauricine have been verified in different experimental arrhythmic models and in cardiac arrhythmic patients. Dauricine blocked the cardiac transmembrane Na+,K+ and Ca2+ ion currents. Differing from quinidine and sotalol, which exhibited reverse use-dependent effect, dauricine prolonged APD in a normal use-dependent manner in experimental studies. The antiarrhythmic effect of daurisoline and neferine which is an alkaloid isolated from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, and their mechanisms of actions have also been studied. The antiarrhythmic effect of daurisoline is more potent than that of dauricine.

  Antioxidative enzymes in seedlings of Nelumbo nucifera germinated under water.:Physiol Plant. 2001 May;112(1):39-46.

 Dry seeds of anoxia-tolerant lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn=Nelumbium speciosum Willd.) have green shoots with plastids containing chlorophyll, so photosynthesis starts even in seedlings germinated under water, namely hypoxia. Here we investigated antioxidative enzyme changes in N. nucifera seedlings responding to oxygen deficiency. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR; EC and glutathione reductase (GR; EC were lower in seedlings germinated under water (submerged condition) in darkness (SD seedlings) than those found in seedlings germinated in air and darkness (AD seedlings). In contrast, ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC activity was higher in SD seedlings and the activity of catalase (EC and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR; EC in SD seedlings was nearly the same as in AD seedlings. When SD seedlings were exposed to air, the activity of SOD, DHAR and GR increased, while the activity of catalase and MDAR decreased. Seven electrophoretically distinct SOD isozymes were detectable in N. nucifera. The levels of plastidic Cu,Zn-SODs and Fe-SOD in SD seedlings were comparable with those found in AD seedlings, which may reflect the maintenance of green plastids in SD seedlings as well as in AD seedlings. These results were substantially different from those previously found in rice seedlings germinated under water.

  Effects of neferine on platelet aggregation in rabbits.:Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1997;32(1):1-4. Chinese.Yu J, Hu WS.Department of Pharmacology, Tongji Medical University, Wuhan 430030.

 Neferine (Nef), a hypotensive agent with antiarrythmic action, is a dibenzyl isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from a Chinese medicinal herb (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn). Its effects on platelet aggregation and TXA2/PGI2 and cAMP/cGMP balance were studied with methods of turbidimetry and RIA. Nef was shown to significantly inhibit rabbit platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid (AA) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) with IC50 of 16, 22, 193 and 103 mumol.L-1, respectively. Nef was found to increase vascular 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and platelet cAMP levels in dose-dependent manner, but inhibit AA stimulated TXA2 release from platelets. Nef showed no significant effect on the platelet cGMP level. The results suggest that the mechanism of Nef on platelet aggregation is related to regulation of TXA2/PGI2 and cAMP/cGMP balance.

  Studies on psychopharmacological effects of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. rhizome extract.:J Ethnopharmacol. 1996 Nov;54(2-3):63-7.

 Methanolic extract of rhizomes of Nelumbo nucifera (NNRE) was investigated for different psychopharmacological actions in rats and mice. The extract was found to cause reduction in spontaneous activity, decrease in exploratory behavioural pattern by the head dip and Y-maze test, reduction in muscle relaxant activity by rotarod, 30 degrees inclined screen and traction test and potentiated the pentobarbitone induced sleeping time in mice significantly.

  Quantitative determination of liensinine in the embryo Nelumbinis (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) by TLC-scanning.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1993 Mar;18(3):167-8, 192. Chinese. Hu XM, Zhou BH, Luo SD, Cai HS, Yin WH.People's Hospital of Hubei Province, Wuhan.

 The content of liensinine in the green seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera was determined by dual-wavelength TLC-scanning. The crude drug was extracted with two different method of impregnating and refluxing. The content of liensinine was determined to be 0.853% and 0.939% and the average recovery was 97.9% and 100.9% respectively.

  Effects of linesinine on slow action potentials in myocardium and slow inward current in canine cardiac Purkinje fibers.:Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1993;28(11):812-6. Chinese.Wang JL, Nong Y, Xia GJ, Yao WX, Jiang MX.Department of Pharmacology, Tongji Medical University, Wuhan.

 Standard microelectrode and two-microelectrodes voltage clamp techniques were used to study the effects of linesinine (Lien), an alkaloid extracted from the green seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, on slow action potentials (AP) and slow inward current (Isi). Lien 10-100 mumol/L was shown to concentration-dependently decrease the action potential amplitude (APA), the maximal velocity of phase 0 depolarization (Vmax) and prolong the sinus cycle length (SCL) of slow AP in isolated sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaker cells of rabbits. On both slow APs of rabbit SAN cells and guinea pig papillary muscles partly depolarized by high K+, Bay K 8644 0.03 mumol/L markedly increased the APA and Vmax, which were obviously antagonized by Lien 10 mumol/L. Moreover, Lien 1-100 mumol/L was found to inhibit the Isi of canine cardiac Purkinje fiber in concentration-dependent manner. Lien 3 and 100 mumol/L reduced the peak value of Isi by 14% and 88% respectively. The results suggest that Lien possesses calcium antagonistic effects.

  Effects of liensinine on haemodynamics in rats and the physiologic properties of isolated rabbit atria.:Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1992;27(12):881-5. Chinese.Wang JL, Nong Y, Jing MX.Department of Pharmacology, Tongji Medical University, Hankou.

 Liensinine(Lien), an alkaloid extracted from the green seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, has been shown to have anti-arrhythmic action, its mechanism may be related to blockade of Ca2+, Na+ influx. Lien 3 mg/kg i.v. may temporarily inhibit all parameters of haemodynamics in anesthetized or pithed rats. The inhibitory effects on LVP, +dp/dtmax and SAP in anesthetized rats are slightly stronger than those of quinidine (Qui) 3 mg/kg. Lien 1-30 mg/kg dose-dependently produced these actions. Lien and Qui 12 mg/kg lowered LVP, +dp/dtmax and SAP by 33%, 37%, 29% and 9%, 12%, 9% respectively. While both of them inhibited the other parameters of haemodynamics with nearly equal degrees. The degrees of inhibitory effect of Lien 12 mg/kg on all haemodynamic parameters nearly corresponded to these of verapamil 1 mg/kg. Lien 1-100 mumol/L reduced the contractile force of isolated left atria and the spontaneously beating rate of isolated right atria of rabbits in concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that the properties of the effect of Lien on haemodynamics may be similar to those of verapamil and different from those of Qui.

  Effects of neferine on heart electromechanical activity in anaesthetized cats.:Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1990 Mar;11(2):158-61. Chinese.Li GR, Qian JQ, Lü FH.Department of Pharmacology, Tongit Medical University, Hankou, China.

 Neferine, an alkaloid extracted from the green seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, has been shown to have anti-arrhythmic action. Neferine 1-10 mg/kg iv dose-dependently decreased the monophasic action potential amplitude (MAPA), prolonged the monophasic action potential duration (MAPD). It also decreased LVP, dP/dt, prolonged SCL, and reduced arterial blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were similar to those of quinidine, and different from tetrandrine. The latter had an inhibitory effect on LVP and dP/dt, but had no influence on MAPA and MAPD. The results indicate that neferine and quinidine have similar effects on heart electro-mechanical activity.

  Effects of neferine on transmembrane potentials of guinea pig myocardium.:Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1989 Sep;10(5):406-10. Chinese.Li GR, Li XG, Lü FH.

 Neferine, an alkaloid first isolated from the seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn in China, possesses an anti-arrhythmic action. The effects on the action potential duration (APD) and the maximal upstroke velocity (Vmax) in different driving rates, the slow response action potentials of K+-depolarized ventricular myocardium and the ouabain-induced oscillatory potentials were studied in guinea pig papillary muscles. Neferine 10 and 50 mumols/L markedly suppressed the transmembrane potentials Vmax at 0.1-5 Hz. It (50 mumols/L) prolonged the APD at 0.5-5 Hz. Neferine 10-100 mumols/L inhibited the contractility, amplitude of action potentials and Vmax of K+-depolarized guinea pig papillary muscles in a concentration-dependent manner, and 100 mumols/L decreased the amplitude of action potentials and Vmax from 73 +/- 7 mV and 6.0 +/- 1.7 V/s of control to 57 +/- 4 mV and 3.2 +/- 0.7 V/s, respectively. In addition, neferine 50 mumols/L abolished the oscillatory potentials induced by ouabain. The results indicate that the effects of neferine on APD and Vmax seem not to be related to the frequency of stimuli, and its anti-arrhythmic action is relevant to the inhibitory effects on Na+, K+, Ca2+ currents of myocardium.


  • 1.Lotus root is the fat root of a plant Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.

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  • Name:Lotus Root Extract.Lotus Leaf Extract.
  • SN(Serial No.):P066.067.
  • Specifications:10:1.TLC.
  • INCI Name:Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn Extract.
  • CAS:N/A
  • Chem/IUPAC Name:Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn Extract is an extract of the root or leaf or seed of the Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner,nymphaeaceae
  • Other Names:Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner,Nelumbium nelumbo (L.) Druce,Nelumbium speciosum Willd.,Nymphaea nelumbo L.,teratai,Nelumbium nelumbo,kamal,Nelumbo speciosa,Nelumbium speciosum,egyptian lotus,bunga telpok,sacred water lotus,sacred water lilly,pink lotus,lian,lian hua,lian ou,he ou,Ou,Ou jie,Ou gen,Ou pian,Ou fen,Sacred Water Lotus,Sacred Lotus,Chinese Arrowroot,Lotus leaves,He Ye.

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