Apple cider vinegar has a long history of healing.

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Research Update:Apple cider vinegar:

Apple Cider Vinegar ACV   Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study.:BMC Gastroenterol. 2007 Dec 20;7(1):46.Hlebowicz J, Darwiche G, Almer LO, Bjorgell O.

 ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Previous studies on healthy people show that vinegar delays gastric emptying and lowers postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying rate on diabetes mellitus patients. METHODS: Ten patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic gastroparesis, including one patient who had undergone vagotomy, were included and completed the investigator blinded crossover trial. The gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured using standardized real-time ultrasonography. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after ingestion of 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water (GER1), or 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water with 30 ml apple cider vinegar (GER2). The subjects drank 200 ml water daily before breakfast one week before the measurement of GER1. The same subjects drank 200 ml water with 30 ml vinegar daily before breakfast for two weeks before the measurement of GER2. RESULTS: The median values of GER1 and GER2 were 27% and 17%, respectively. The effect of vinegar on the rate of gastric emptying was statistically significant (p <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that vinegar affects insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic gastroparesis by reducing the gastric emptying rate even further, and this might be a disadvantage regarding to their glycaemic control. Trial registration number: ISRCTN33841495.

  Development of alcoholic and malolactic fermentations in highly acidic and phenolic apple musts.:Bioresour Technol. 2007 Aug 10;Campo GD, Berregi I, Santos JI, Due?as M, Irastorza A.Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of the Basque Country, Manuel Lardizabal 3, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain.

 This work reports the influence of the high acidity and high phenolic content in apple musts on the development of alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and on the final chemical and microbiological composition of the ciders. Four different musts were obtained by pressing several varieties and proportions of cider apples from the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Specially acidic and phenolic varieties were selected. Three musts were obtained in experimental stations and the fourth one, in a cider factory following usual procedures. The evolution of these musts was monitored during five months by measuring 18 parameters throughout eight samplings. In the most acidic of the three experimental musts, yeasts were added to complete the alcoholic fermentation. In the rest of the musts, alcoholic and malolactic fermentations took place spontaneously due to natural microflora and no chemical was added to control these processes. Malolactic fermentation (MLF) finished before alcoholic fermentation in the three tanks obtained in experimental stations, even in the most acidic and phenolic one (pH 3.18, 1.78g tannic acid/l). After four months, these ciders maintained low levels of lactic acid bacteria (10(4)CFU/ml) and low content of acetic acid (<0.60g/l). Both fermentations began simultaneously in the must obtained in the cider factory, but MLF finished 10 days after alcoholic fermentation. Subsequently, this must maintained a high population of lactic acid bacteria (>10(6)CFU/ml), causing a higher production of acetic acid (>1.00g/l) than in the other ciders. These results show the possible advantages of MLF finishing before alcoholic fermentation.

  Application of fingerprint chromatogram in quality assessment of apple cider.:Se Pu. 2007 Jan;25(1):93-5. Chinese.Xu K, Song J, Ren Y, Ma H, Huang J, Du X.Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physical-Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China. quakexu@sohu.com

 Fingerprints of 14 apple cider samples from different manufacturers were studied using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an electrochemical detector (ECD). The analysis was carried out on a Zorbax SB-C18 column at 30 degrees C with 2% (v/v) methanol aqueous solution-4% (v/v) acetic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The electrochemical detector was set at 0.7 V. By calculating the relative retention times of certain peaks with chlorogenic acid as the reference standard, 8 common peaks in the samples were analyzed. Relative retention times for the common peaks of various samples were calculated, and the similarities of all the samples were figured out through each peak area with the vectorial angle cosine method and correlative coefficient method. The results indicated that apple cider products of the same manufacturer have good similarity, with the similarities greater than 92.7%. According to this experiment, effectual microcosmic information for apple cider analysis was gained through HPLC and ECD. Moreover, this test method will help the analysis and the control of product quality, the development of new products and the establishment of trade standard.

  Behavioral responses of Drosophila to biogenic levels of carbon dioxide depend on life-stage, sex and olfactory context.:J Exp Biol. 2006 Jul;209(Pt 14):2739-48.Faucher C, Forstreuter M, Hilker M, de Bruyne M.Freie Universit?t Berlin, Neurobiologie, K?nigin-Luise-Strasse 28-30, D-14195 Berlin, Germany.

 Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) detects and uses many volatiles for its survival. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is detected in adults by a special class of olfactory receptor neurons, expressing the gustatory receptor Gr21a. The behavioral responses to CO(2) were investigated in a four-field olfactometer bioassay that is new for Drosophila. We determined (1) whether the sensitivity of this response changes with odor context, and (2) if it depends on sex and life stage. When CO(2) was added to ambient air in one field and tested against ambient air in the three other fields, individually observed adults avoided CO(2) (0.1-1% above ambient), but did not respond to a low rise of 0.02%. We relate this behavior to measurements of CO(2) production in bananas and flies. When 0.02% CO(2) was combined with the odor of apple cider vinegar in one field of the olfactometer and tested against ambient air in the three other fields, the addition of CO(2) did not affect the attractiveness of apple cider vinegar alone. However, this combination of CO(2) and vinegar became repellent when it was tested against vinegar at ambient CO(2) concentrations in the three other fields. This ;odor background effect' was female-specific, revealing a sexually dimorphic behavior. The new assay allowed us to test larvae under similar conditions and compare their behavior to that of adults. Like adults, they avoided CO(2), but with lower sensitivity. Larvae lacking neurons expressing Gr21a lost their avoidance behavior to CO(2), but kept their positive response to vinegar odor. Hence, Gr21a-expressing neurons mediate similar behaviors in larvae and adults.

  Esophageal injury by apple cider vinegar tablets and subsequent evaluation of products.:J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Jul;105(7):1141-4.Hill LL, Woodruff LH, Foote JC, Barreto-Alcoba M.Department of Human Environmental Science (Human Nutrition), University of Arkansas, Fayetteville 72701, USA. llhill@uark.edu

 Apple cider vinegar products are advertised in the popular press and over the Internet for treatment of a variety of conditions. After an adverse event was reported to the authors, eight apple cider vinegar tablet products were tested for pH, component acid content, and microbial growth. Considerable variability was found between the brands in tablet size, pH, component acid content, and label claims. Doubt remains as to whether apple cider vinegar was in fact an ingredient in the evaluated products. The inconsistency and inaccuracy in labeling, recommended dosages, and unsubstantiated health claims make it easy to question the quality of the products.
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  Stimulus preexposure reduces generalization of conditioned taste aversions between alcohol and non-alcohol flavors in infant rats.:Behav Neurosci. 2003 Feb;117(1):113-22. Chotro MG, Alonso G.Facultad de Psicología, Universidad del País Vasco, San Sebastian, Spain. gchotro@ss.ehu.es

 Results of 3 experiments showed that infant rats (age 13-17 days) generalize conditioned taste aversions between alcohol and non-alcohol tastes such as a mixture of sucrose and quinine, apple cider vinegar, or coffee. Nonreinforced preexposure to those tastes reduced generalized aversions between them. Generalization between alcohol and sucrose-quinine was reduced not only after preexposure to both tastes, but also when only the nonconditioned taste was preexposed, whereas with alcohol and vinegar, both tastes had to be preexposed to obtain that effect. In no case was generalization reduced when only the to-be-conditioned taste was preexposed. Previous experience with alcohol alone, as well as with similar gustatory stimuli, may enhance subjects' ability to differentiate them during infantile stages in rats.

  Grape and apple wines volatile fermentation products and possible relation to spoilage.:Bioresour Technol. 2003 May;87(3):337-9.Polychroniadou E, Kanellaki M, Iconomopoulou M, Koutinas AA, Marchant R, Banat IM.Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Section of Analytical, Environmental and Applied Chemistry, GR-26500, Patras, Greece.

 The main volatile by-products of the alcoholic fermentation of grape wine, cider and apple pulp wine were investigated to determine if any correlated with spoilage resistance in the latter two. Spoilage was visually detected after seven days in low-alcohol grape wine in comparison to 11 and 16 days in cider and apple pulp wine, respectively. Acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol, propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols were the main fermentation by-products detected in all three wines. There were highest concentrations of acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol and propanol in grape wine and, therefore, these by-products could not be implicated in spoilage resistance in apple wines. Increased concentrations of isobutanol and amyl alcohols, however, in cider and apple pulp wine in comparison to grape wine might have been the reason for spoilage resistance in the apple wines.

  Improved method for the analysis of organic acids and new derivatization of alcohols in complex natural aqueous matrixes: application to wine and apple vinegar.:J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Jun;49(6):2875-82.Giumanini AG, Verardo G, Della Martina D, Toniutti N.Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy. giumanini@uniud.it

 An improvement in the procedure for investigation of organic acids and a new derivatization method, amenable to gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric detection of alcohols, are presented. The latter is based on the formation of phenacetyl esters. The simultaneous application of the two methods also allows data to be obtained on some volatile neutrals present in complex natural aqueous fluids. Application to wine and cider vinegars allowed detection of a number of previously unreported components, among which are interesting partially esterified polycarboxylic esters.

  Clinical nutrition of adult horses.:Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 1990 Aug;6(2):339-54. Review.Ralston SL.Department of Animal Sciences, Cook College, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

 Horses suffering from trauma, sepsis, and severe burns need 12% to 16% of protein (dry matter basis) in their diet. Since reduced appetite may be a problem, relatively energy dense (greater than 2 Mcal DE/kg) feeds should be offered. In hepatic failure, maintenance protein requirements (8% on a dry matter basis for adult horses) should be met with feeds that are high in short branched-chain amino acids and arginine but low in aromatic amino acids and tryptophan (for example, milo, corn, soybean, or linseed meal) in addition to grass hay. Vitamins A, C, and E should also be supplemented. In cases with renal failure, protein, calcium, and phosphorus should be restricted to maintenance or lower levels. Grass hay and corn are the best feeds for horses with reduced renal function. Do not offer free-choice salt to horses with dependent edema from uncompensated chronic heart failure. Following gastrointestinal resection, legume hay and grain mixtures are the feeds of choice. Horses with diarrhea should not be deprived or oral or enteral alimentation for prolonged periods of time. Liquid formulas may be used if bulk or gastrointestinal motility are a problem. Apple cider vinegar and a high grain diet may reduce the incidence of enteroliths in horses prone to this problem. Pelleted feeds will reduce fecal volume and produce softer feces for horses that have had rectovaginal lacerations or surgery. Horses with small intestinal dysfunction or resection should be offered low residue diets initially, but long-term maintenance requires diets that promote large intestinal digestion (alfalfa hay, vegetable oil, restricted grain). Geriatric horses (greater than 20 years old need diets similar to those recommended for horses 6 to 18 months old.

  Management of patients using unproven regimens for arthritis.:J Am Diet Assoc. 1987 Sep;87(9):1211-4.Wolman PG.

 Such treatments as vegetarian diets, fresh or raw diets, allergy diets, no-dairy-products diets, fasting, vitamin and mineral supplementation, apple cider vinegar, and honey drinks are touted in the popular press as effective for the treatment of arthritis. In contrast to conventional therapies, the unproven treatments promise not only relief from symptoms but freedom from the disease as long as the diet regimen is followed. Several of the remedies appear to be harmless, but others are dangerous, especially if followed for prolonged periods. Nutrition professionals should be aware of the nature of these treatments and be prepared to offer sound, scientifically based but nonjudgmental care and information.
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  Behavior of parathion in apple juice processed into cider and vinegar.:J Environ Sci Health B. 1982;17(5):505-14.Banna AA, Kawar NS.

 Apple juice, fortified with 25 ppm (ug/g) of parathion, was processed into cider and vinegar. After the initial fermentation period of 12 days, the supernatant cider contained 7.4 ppm of parathion while the level in the sedimented lees was 88 ppm. Sorption to the sedimented matter was the main pathway for parathion residue reduction in the cider. Levels of aminoparathion and 4-nitrophenol, the only metabolites of parathion detected as confirmed by thin-layer chromatography, were 0.19 and 1.2 ppm, respectively, in the cider. The 56-day-old finished cider prior to bottling contained 2.2 ppm parathion, 0.15 ppm aminoparathion and 1.3 ppm 4-nitrophenol. Storage of the cider at 24, 12, 4 and -20 degrees C resulted in further reduction in the parathion levels. After one year, samples stored at 24 degrees C contained only 2.5% of the initial level added to the juice. Samples stored at the three other temperatures contained about 5% of the original level. Vinegar formed after 57 days of fermentation contained 5.1 ppm parathion, while the residue level in the lees was 76 ppm. Aminoparathion and 4-nitrophenol levels were 0.23 and 1.2 ppm, respectively in the vinegar. Storage of the vinegar at 24 degrees C for one year resulted in a gradual decline in the parathion level and at the end of the storage period, the remaining residue represented about 6% of the initial 24 ppm added to the juice.

  Use of activated charcoal for the removal of patulin from cider.:Appl Environ Microbiol. 1976 Sep;32(3):388-91.Sands DC, McIntyre JL, Walton GS.

 Penicillium urticae (NRRL 2159A) was grown in culture broth containing 1 muCi of [1-14C-A1acetate to produce [14C]patulin. [14C]patulin was purified from the broth and added to apple cider. After the patulin concentration of the cider was adjusted to 30 mug/ml with unlabeled patulin, the cider was subjected to various charcoal treatments. [14C]patulin was completely removed by shaking the cider with 20 mg of activated charcoal per ml and by eluting the cider through a 40- to 60-mesh charcoal column. Activated charcola at 5 mg/ml reduced patulin in naturally contaminated cider to nondetectable levels.
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  • 1.Apple cider vinegar has a long history of healing.

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