Common Knowledge»FAQ45.Brief Glossary of Terms used in Specifications and Standard.


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Common Knowledge 
 Serial Number:A serial number is a unique number assigned for identification which varies from its successor or predecessor by a fixed discrete integer value. Common usage has expanded the term to refer to any unique alphanumeric identifier for one of a large set of objects, however not every numerical identifier is a serial number; identifying numbers which are not serial numbers are sometimes called nominal numbers. In data processing and allied fields in computer science, the distinction between serial and nominal numbers is an important one.Serial numbers are valuable in quality control, as once a defect is found in the production of a particular batch of product, the serial number will quickly identify which units are affected. Serial numbers are also used as a deterrent against theft and counterfeit products in that serial numbers can be recorded, and stolen or otherwise irregular goods can be identified.

 Specification:Specification (technical standard),A specification is an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, product, or service.Should a material, product or service fail to meet one or more of the applicable specifications, it may be referred to as being out of specification;the abbreviation OOS may also be used.A technical specification may be developed privately, for example by a corporation, regulatory body, or military organization, or it may be developed by standards organizations which often have more diverse input and usually develop voluntary standards (Voluntary standards may become mandatory if adopted by a government or business contract).Sometimes the term specification is used in connection with a data sheet (or spec sheet). A data sheet is usually used for technical communication to describe technical characteristics of an item or product. It can be published by a manufacturer to help people choose products or to help use the products.

 Part Used:which means the part of the original herb or other origin which was used for manufacture processing of the related products.

 INCI Name INCI Name:The International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients, abbreviated INCI, is a system of names for waxes, oils, pigments, chemicals, and other ingredients of soaps, cosmetics, and the like, based on scientific names and other Latin and English words.INCI names often differ greatly from systematic chemical nomenclature or from more common trivial names.INCI labeling:In the U.S., under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act, certain accurate information is a requirement to appear on labels of cosmetic products.In Canada, the regulatory guideline is the Food and Drugs Act and Cosmetic Regulations.Ingredient names must comply by law with EU requirements by using INCI names.The cosmetic regulation laws are enforceable for important consumer safety. For example, the ingredients are listed on the ingredient declaration for the purchaser to reduce the risk of an allergic reaction to an ingredient the user has had an allergy to before. INCI names are mandated on the ingredient statement of every consumer personal care product. The INCI system allows the consumer to identify the ingredient content. In the U.S., true soaps (as defined by the FDA) are specifically exempted from INCI labeling requirements as cosmetics per FDA regulation

 EINECS EINECS:European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances, EINECS.These are substances, excluding polymers, that were commercially available in the EU from 1 January 1971 to 18 September 1981. These were considered registered registered under Article 8(1) of directive 67/548/EEC.The identifying number of these substances is called the EINECS number.

 ELINCS:European List of Notified Chemical Substances, ELINCS.These are substances that became commercially available after 18 September 1981.The identifying number of these substances is called the ELINCS number.

 CAS Registry Numbers CAS:CAS Registry Numbers are unique numerical identifiers assigned by the "Chemical Abstracts Service" to every chemical described in the open scientific literature (currently including those described from at least 1957 through the present) and including elements, isotopes, organic and inorganic compounds, organometallics, metals, alloys, coordination compounds, minerals, and salts; as well as standard mixtures, compounds, polymers; biological sequences including proteins & nucleic acids; nuclear particles, and nonstructurable materials (aka 'UVCB's- i.e., materials of Unknown, Variable Composition, or Biological origin).They are also referred to as CAS RNs, CAS Numbers, etc.The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. Currently the CAS Registry identifies more than 56 million organic and inorganic substances and 62 million sequences, plus additional information about each substance; and the Registry is updated with an approximate 12,000 additional new substances daily.Historically, chemicals have been identified by a wide variety of synonyms. Frequently these are arcane and constructed according to regional naming conventions relating to chemical formulae, structures or origins. Well-known chemicals may additionally be known via multiple generic, historical, commercial, and/or black-market names.

 CAS number search engine included:CHEMINDEX Search via Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety;ChemIDplus Advanced via United States National Library of Medicine;Common Chemistry TM via Australian Inventory of Chemical Substances;European chemical Substances Information System via the website of Royal Society of Chemistry;HSNO Chemical Classification Information Database via Environmental Risk Management Authority;Search Tool of Australian Inventory of Chemical Substances.

 IUPAC IUPAC:A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds. IUPAC nomenclature is worldwide the most used chemical nomenclature. It is developed and kept up to date under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book and the Red Book respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book, describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP), while a fourth, the Gold Book, contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry (the White Book, in association with the IUBMB), analytical chemistry (the Orange Book), macromolecular chemistry (the Purple Book) and clinical chemistry (the Silver Book). These "color books" are supplemented by shorter recommendations for specific circumstances which are published from time to time in the journal Pure and Applied Chemistry.

 Shelf life:Shelf life is the length of time that food, drink, medicine, chemicals, and many other perishable items are given before they are considered unsuitable for sale, use, or consumption. In some regions, a best before, use by or freshness date is required on packaged perishable foods.Shelf life is the recommendation of time that products can be stored, during which the defined quality of a specified proportion of the goods remains acceptable under expected (or specified) conditions of distribution, storage and display.Most shelf life labels or listed expiration dates are used as guidelines based on normal handling of products. Use prior to the expiration date does not necessarily guarantee the safety of a food or drug, and a product is not always dangerous nor ineffective after the expiration date.
 Shelf life is different from expiration date; the former relates to food quality, the latter to food safety. A product that has passed its shelf life might still be safe, but quality is no longer guaranteed.In most food stores, shelf life is maximized by using stock rotation, which involves moving products with the earliest sell by date to the front of the shelf, meaning that most shoppers will pick them up first and so getting them out of the store. This is important, as some stores can be fined for selling out of date products, and most if not all will have to mark such products down as wasted, leading to a loss of profit.
 Shelf life is most influenced by several factors: exposure to light and heat, transmission of gases (including humidity), mechanical stresses, and contamination by things such as micro-organisms. Product quality is often mathematically modelled around a parameter (concentration of a chemical compound, a microbiological index, or moisture content).
 For some foods, the shelf life is an important factor to health. Bacterial contaminants are ubiquitous, and foods left unused too long will often acquire substantial amounts of bacterial colonies and become dangerous to eat, leading to food poisoning. However, the shelf life itself is not an accurate indicator to the food safety. For example, pasteurized milk can remain fresh for five days after its sell-by date if it is refrigerated properly. In contrast, if milk already has harmful bacteria, the use-by dates become irrelevant.
 The expiration date of pharmaceuticals specifies the date the manufacturer guarantees the full potency and safety of a drug. Most medications are potent and safe after the expiration date. A rare exception is a case of renal tubular acidosis purportedly caused by expired tetracycline. A study conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration covered over 100 drugs, prescription and over-the-counter. The results showed about 90% of them were safe and effective as far as 15 years past their expiration dates. Joel Davis, a former FDA expiration-date compliance chief, said that with a handful of exceptions - notably nitroglycerin, insulin and some liquid antibiotics - most expired drugs are probably effective.
 Preservatives and antioxidants may be incorporated into some food and drug products to extend their shelf life. Some companies use induction sealing and vacuum/oxygen-barrier pouches to assist in the extension of the shelf life of their products where oxygen causes the loss.
 Some degradation factors can be controlled by use of appropriate packaging. For example, the amber bottle used for many beers blocks damaging wavelengths of light. Transparent beer bottles do not. Packaging with barrier materials (e.g. low moisture vapor transmission rate, etc.) extends the shelf life of some foods and pharmaceuticals.
 The United States Department of Defense (DoD) Shelf-Life Program defines shelf-life as,"The total period of time beginning with the date of manufacture, date of cure (for elastomeric and rubber products only), date of assembly, or date of pack (subsistence only), and terminated by the date by which an item must be used (expiration date) or subjected to inspection, test, restoration, or disposal action; or after inspection/laboratory test/restorative action that an item may remain in the combined wholesale (including manufacture's) and retail storage systems and still be suitable for issue or use by the end user. Shelf-life is not to be confused with service-life (defined as, A general term used to quantify the average or standard life expectancy of an item or equipment while in use. When a shelf-life item is unpacked and introduced to mission requirements, installed into intended application, or merely left in storage, placed in pre-expended bins, or held as bench stock, shelf-life management stops and service life begins.)"

 Appearance:The visual appearance of objects is given by the way in which they reflect and transmit light. The color of objects is determined by the parts of the spectrum of (incident white) light that are reflected or transmitted without being absorbed. Additional appearance attributes are based on the directional distribution of reflected (BRDF) or transmitted light (BTDF) described by attributes like glossy, shiny versus dull, matte, clear, turbid, distinct, etc..

 Mesh:Mesh material is often used in determining the particle size distribution of a granular material. For example, a sample from a truckload of peanuts may be placed atop a mesh with 5 mm openings. When the mesh is shaken, small broken pieces and dust pass through the mesh while whole peanuts are retained on the mesh. A commercial peanut buyer might use a test like this to determine if a batch of peanuts has too many broken pieces. This type of test is common in some industries, and to facilitate uniform testing methods, several standardized mesh series have been established.
 Particle size distribution:Powders and granular materials are sometimes described as having a certain mesh size (e.g. 30 mesh sand). By itself, this type of description is somewhat ambiguous. More precise specifications will indicate that a material will pass through some specific mesh (that is, have a maximum size; larger pieces won't fit through this mesh) but will be retained by some specific tighter mesh (that is, a minimum size; pieces smaller than this will have passed through the mesh). This type of description establishes a range of particle sizes.One notation for indicating particle size distribution using mesh size is to use + and - designations. A "+" before the sieve mesh indicates the particles are retained by the sieve, while a "-" before the sieve mesh indicates the particles pass through the sieve. This means that typically 90% or more of the particles will have mesh sizes between the two values.For instance, if the particle size of a material is described as -80/+170 (or could also be written -80 +170), then 90% or more of the material will pass through an 80 mesh sieve and be retained by a 170 mesh sieve. Using the conversion chart below, the resulting particles will have a range of diameters between 0.089 and 0.178 mm (89 and 178 micrometers).

 Color Color:Color or colour (see spelling differences) is the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red, green, blue and others. Color derives from the spectrum of light (distribution of light energy versus wavelength) interacting in the eye with the spectral sensitivities of the light receptors. Color categories and physical specifications of color are also associated with objects, materials, light sources, etc., based on their physical properties such as light absorption, reflection, or emission spectra. By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by their coordinates.Because perception of color stems from the varying spectral sensitivity of different types of cone cells in the retina to different parts of the spectrum, colors may be defined and quantified by the degree to which they stimulate these cells. These physical or physiological quantifications of color, however, do not fully explain the psychophysical perception of color appearance.
 Color of objects:The color of an object depends on both the physics of the object in its environment and the characteristics of the perceiving eye and brain. Physically, objects can be said to have the color of the light leaving their surfaces, which normally depends on the spectrum of the incident illumination and the reflectance properties of the surface, as well as potentially on the angles of illumination and viewing. Some objects not only reflect light, but also transmit light or emit light themselves (see below), which contribute to the color also. And a viewer's perception of the object's color depends not only on the spectrum of the light leaving its surface, but also on a host of contextual cues, so that the color tends to be perceived as relatively constant: that is, relatively independent of the lighting spectrum, viewing angle, etc. This effect is known as color constancy.

 Odor:An odor or odour is caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds, generally at a very low concentration, that humans or other animals perceive by the sense of olfaction. Odors are also commonly called scents, which can refer to both pleasant and unpleasant odors. The terms fragrance, scent, and aroma are used primarily by the food and cosmetic industry to describe a pleasant odor, and are sometimes used to refer to perfumes. In contrast, malodor, stench, reek, and stink are used specifically to describe unpleasant odors.

 Smell:Olfaction, sense of smell, the ability of humans and other animals to perceive odors.Odor, the percept resultant from the sense of smell. The environmental stimulus which gives rise to a 'smell' which is made up of numerous monomolecular odorants.

 Taste:Taste (or, the more formal term, gustation; adjectival form: "gustatory") is one of the traditional five senses. It refers to the ability to detect the flavor of substances such as food, certain minerals, and poisons, etc.Humans receive tastes through sensory organs called taste buds, or gustatory calyculi, concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue.The sensation of taste can be categorized into five basic tastes: sweetness, bitterness, sourness, saltiness, and umami. The recognition and awareness of umami is a relatively recent development in Western cuisine.MSG produces a strong umami taste.As taste senses both harmful and beneficial things, all basic tastes are classified as either appetitive or aversive, depending upon the effect the things they sense have on our bodies.Basic taste sense including 1.Bitterness,2 Saltiness,3 Sourness,4 Sweetness,5 Umami.

 Bulk Density Bulk Density:Bulk density is a property of powders, granules and other "divided" solids, especially used in reference to mineral components (soil, gravel), chemical substances, (pharmaceutical) ingredients, foodstuff or any other masses of corpuscular or particulate matter. It is defined as the mass of many particles of the material divided by the total volume they occupy. The total volume includes particle volume, inter-particle void volume and internal pore volume.Bulk density is not an intrinsic property of a material; it can change depending on how the material is handled. For example, a powder poured in to a cylinder will have a particular bulk density; if the cylinder is disturbed, the powder particles will move and usually settle closer together, resulting in a higher bulk density. For this reason, the bulk density of powders is usually reported both as "freely settled" (or "poured" density) and "tapped" density (where the tapped density refers to the bulk density of the powder after a specified compaction process, usually involving vibration of the container.)
 The particle density or true density of a particulate solid or powder, is the density of the particles that make up the powder, in contrast to the bulk density, which measures the average density of a large volume of the powder in a specific medium (usually air). The particle density is a relatively well-defined quantity, as it is not dependent on the degree of compaction of the solid, whereas the bulk density has different values depending on whether it is measured in the freely settled or compacted state (tap density). However, a variety of definitions of particle density are available, which differ in terms of whether pores are included in the particle volume, and whether voids are included.Measurement available included:1 Archimedes' principle,2 Volumetric measurement.The measurement of particle density can be done in a number of ways:
 Archimedes' principle:The powder is placed inside of known volume, and weighed. The pycnometer is then filled with a fluid of known density, in which the powder is not soluble. The volume of the powder is determined by the difference between the volume as shown by the pycnometer, and the volume of liquid added (i.e. the volume of air displaced). A similar method, which does not include pore volume, is to suspend a known mass of particles in molten wax of known density, allow any bubbles to escape, allow the wax to solidify, and then measure the volume and mass of the wax/particulate brick.A slurry of the powder in a liquid of known density can also be used with a hydrometer to measure particle density by buoyancy.Another method based on buoyancy is to measure the weight of the sample in air, and also in a liquid of known density.A column of liquid with a density gradient can also be prepared: The column should contain a liquid of continuously varying composition, so that the maximum density (at the bottom) is higher than that of the solid, and the minimum density is lower. If a small sample of powder is allowed to settle in this column, it will come to rest at the point where the liquid density is equal to the particle density.
 Volumetric measurement:A gas pycnometer can be used to measure the volume of a powder sample. A sample of known mass is loaded into a chamber of known volume that is connected by a closed valve to a gas reservoir, also of known volume, at a higher pressure than the chamber. After the valve is opened, the final pressure in the system allows the total gas volume to be determined by application of Boyle's law.A mercury porosimeter is an instrument that allows the total volume of a powder to be determined, as well as the volume of pores of different sizes: A known mass of powder is submerged in mercury. At ambient pressure, the mercury does not invade the interparticle spaces or the pores of the sample. At increasing pressure, the mercury invades smaller and smaller pores, with the relationship between pore diameter and pressure being known. A continuous trace of pressure versus volume can then be generated, which allows for a complete characterization of the sample's porosity.

 Loss on Drying Loss on Drying (LOD):The classic laboratory method of measuring high level moisture in solid or semi-solid materials is loss on drying (LOD). In this technique a sample of material is weighed, heated in an oven for an appropriate period, cooled in the dry atmosphere of a desiccator, and then reweighed. If the volatile content of the solid is primarily water, the LOD technique gives a good measure of moisture content. Because the manual laboratory method is relatively slow, automated moisture analyzers have been developed that can reduce the time necessary for a test from a couple hours to just a few minutes. These analyzers incorporate an electronic balance with a sample tray and surrounding heating element. Under microprocessor control the sample can be heated rapidly and a result computed prior to the completion of the process, based on the moisture loss rate, known as a drying curve.

 Ash:In analytical chemistry, ashing is the process of mineralization for preconcentration of trace substances prior to chemical analysis.Ash is the name given to all non-aqueous residue that remains after a sample is burned, which consists mostly of metal oxides. Ash is the waste product of fire, and its content may be listed in nutrition labels, such as for pet food.Ash is one of the components in the proximate analysis of biological materials, consisting mainly of salty, inorganic constituents. It includes metal salts which are important for processes requiring ions such as Na+ (Sodium), K+ (Potassium), and Ca2+ (Calcium). It also includes trace minerals which are required for unique molecules, such as chlorophyll and hemoglobin.

 The Ash Tests are designed to measure the amount of the residual substances when a sample is ignited under the conditions specified in the individual monograph.The Acid-Insoluble Ash Test is designed to measure the amount of ash insoluble to diluted hydrochloric acid.

 Acid Insoluble Ash:In analytical chemnistry,the part of total ash content which insoluble in acid(normally refer to non-oxidative acid,for example hydrochloric acid,dilute sulphuric acid),which mainly including nonmetal oxidizing substances(SiO2 etc),acid insoluble metallic oxide(AlO3 etc) and acid insoluble sulphate,halogenide,etc.

 Total Heavy Metals:The heavy metals normally refer to those metal elements which can happen chemical reactions with diphenyl thiocarbazone,in lab test and specification index,the total heavy metals normally defined and refer to Arsenic(As),Lead(Pb),Cadmium(Cd),Mercury(Hg).

 Total Heavy Metals:Arsenic(As).Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in conjunction with sulfur and metals, and also as a pure elemental crystal.Arsenic and many of its compounds are especially potent poisons.Elemental arsenic and arsenic compounds are classified as "toxic" and "dangerous for the environment" in the European Union under directive 67/548/EEC.The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recognizes arsenic and arsenic compounds as group 1 carcinogens,and the EU lists arsenic trioxide, arsenic pentoxide and arsenate salts as category 1 carcinogens.

 Total Heavy Metals:Lead(Pb).Lead is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin: plumbum) and atomic number 82.If ingested,lead is poisonous to animals and humans, damaging the nervous system and causing brain disorders.Excessive lead also causes blood disorders in mammals.Lead is a neurotoxin that accumulates both in soft tissues and the bones.Lead poisoning has been documented from ancient Rome, ancient Greece,and ancient China.

 Total Heavy Metals:Cadmium(Cd).Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.The most dangerous form of occupational exposure to cadmium is inhalation of fine dust and fumes,or ingestion of highly soluble cadmium compounds.Inhalation of cadmium-containing fumes can result initially in metal fume fever but may progress to chemical pneumonitis,pulmonary edema,and death.Tobacco smoking is the most important single source of cadmium exposure in the general population.It has been estimated that about 10% of the cadmium content of a cigarette is inhaled through smoking.The absorption of cadmium from the lungs is much more effective than that from the gut, and as much as 50% of the cadmium inhaled via cigarette smoke may be absorbed.In the non-smoking part of the population food is the biggest source of exposure to cadmium.High quantities of cadmium can be found for example in crustaceans, molluscs,offals,and algal products.However,due to the higher consumption the most significant contributors to the dietary cadmium exposure are grains,vegetables,and starchy roots and tubers.Cadmium exposure is a risk factor associated with early atherosclerosis and hypertension, which can both lead to cardiovascular disease.Due to the adverse effects on the environment and human health, the supply and use of cadmium is restricted in Europe under the REACH Regulation.The EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain has set 2.5 μg/kg body weight as a tolerable weekly intake for humans.In comparison,the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives has established 7 μg/kg bw as a provisional tolerable weekly intake level.

 Total Heavy Metals:Mercury(Hg).Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.140 countries agreed in the Minamata Convention on Mercury by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) to prevent emissions.The convention was signed on the 10th of October 2013.Mercury and most of its compounds are extremely toxic and must be handled with care;in cases of spills involving mercury (such as from certain thermometers or fluorescent light bulbs),specific cleaning procedures are used to avoid exposure and contain the spill.Mercury can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes and mercury vapors can be inhaled,so containers of mercury are securely sealed to avoid spills and evaporation. Heating of mercury,or of compounds of mercury that may decompose when heated,is always carried out with adequate ventilation in order to avoid exposure to mercury vapor.The most toxic forms of mercury are its organic compounds,such as dimethylmercury and methylmercury.Mercury can cause both chronic and acute poisoning.

 Total Plate Count:The total plate count TPC (aerobic, mesophilic organisms) defines how many aerobic (oxygen-loving), mesophilic (moderate-temperature-loving) micro-organism colonies such as bacteria,yeast and mould fungi will grow in 72 hours on an agar plate that was normed for microbiological testing at a controlled temperature of 30 Deg C.

 Total Plate Count:Mould.A mold or mould is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.In contrast,fungi that can adopt a single celled growth habit are called yeasts.Molds are a large and taxonomically diverse number of fungal species where the growth of hyphae results in discoloration and a fuzzy appearance, especially on food.Molds are ubiquitous,and mold spores are a common component of household and workplace dust;however, when mold spores are present in large quantities,they can present a health hazard to humans,potentially causing allergic reactions and respiratory problems.Some molds also produce mycotoxins that can pose serious health risks to humans and animals.Some studies claim that exposure to high levels of mycotoxins can lead to neurological problems and in some cases death. Prolonged exposure, e.g. daily home exposure, may be particularly harmful. Research on the health impacts of mold has not been conclusive.The term "toxic mold" refers to molds that produce mycotoxins, such as Stachybotrys chartarum, and not to all molds in general.Molds can also pose a hazard to human and animal health when they are consumed following the growth of certain mold species in stored food.Some species produce toxic secondary metabolites,collectively termed mycotoxins including aflatoxins,ochratoxins,fumonisins,trichothecenes,citrinin,and patulin.These toxic properties may be used for the benefit of humans when the toxicity is directed against other organisms;for example,penicillin adversely affects the growth of Gram-positive bacteria (e.g. Clostridium species),certain spirochetes and certain fungi.

 Total Plate Count:Yeast.Yeasts are eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with 1,500 species currently described.Some species of yeast are opportunistic pathogens that can cause infection in people with compromised immune systems. Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are significant pathogens of immunocompromised people.They are the species primarily responsible for cryptococcosis, a fungal disease that occurs in about one million HIV/AIDS patients, causing over 600,000 deaths annually.The cells of these yeast are surrounded by a rigid polysaccharide capsule, which helps to prevent them from being recognised and engulfed by white blood cells in the human body.Yeasts of the Candida genus,another group of opportunistic pathogens,cause oral and vaginal infections in humans,known as candidiasis.Candida is commonly found as a commensal yeast in the mucous membranes of humans and other warm-blooded animals.However,sometimes these same strains can become pathogenic. The yeast cells sprout a hyphal outgrowth,which locally penetrates the mucosal membrane,causing irritation and shedding of the tissues.The pathogenic yeasts of candidiasis in probable descending order of virulence for humans are:C. albicans,C. tropicalis,C. stellatoidea,C. glabrata,C. krusei,C. parapsilosis,C. guilliermondii,C. viswanathii,C. lusitaniae, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa.Candida glabrata is the second most common Candida pathogen after C. albicans,causing infections of the urogenital tract,and of the bloodstream (candidemia).Yeasts are able to grow in foods with a low pH (5.0 or lower) and in the presence of sugars, organic acids, and other easily metabolized carbon sources.During their growth, yeasts metabolize some food components and produce metabolic end products.This causes the physical,chemical,and sensible properties of a food to change, and the food is spoiled.

 Total Plate Count:E.Coli.Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms.Most E. coli strains pose no harm to human health, except for serotype O157:H7, which can cause food poisoning in humans and can become life-threatening.

 Total Plate Count:Salmonella.Salmonella: Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, predominantly motile enterobacteria.Salmonella germs can live in the intestinal tract of many different animals.Salmonellosis is a bacterial disease caused by the bacterium Salmonella.Salmonella is closely related to the Escherichia genus and are found worldwide in cold- and warm-blooded animals (including humans), and in the environment.They cause illnesses such as typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and foodborne illness.

 Total Plate Count:Staphylococcus.Staphylococcus (from the Greek: σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus (or Staph aureus) is a type of bacteria commonly found on the skin and hair as well as in the noses and throats of people and animals.These bacteria are present in up to 25 percent of healthy people and are even more common among those with skin,eye,nose,or throat infections.

 Solvent Solvent:A solvent is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically different liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.The maximum quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with temperature.

 Excipient:Excipients are commonly used to bulk up formulations that contain potent active ingredients (thus often referred to as "bulking agents," "fillers," or "diluents"), to allow convenient and accurate dispensation of an active substance when producing a dosage form.

 HPLC HPLC:High-performance liquid chromatography (sometimes referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), HPLC, is a chromatographic technique that can separate a mixture of compounds and is used in biochemistry and analytical chemistry to identify, quantify and purify the individual components of the mixture.HPLC typically utilizes different types of stationary phases, a pump that moves the mobile phase(s) and analyte through the column, and a detector to provide a characteristic retention time for the analyte. The detector may also provide additional information related to the analyte, (i.e. UV/Vis spectroscopic data for analyte if so equipped). Analyte retention time varies depending on the strength of its interactions with the stationary phase, the ratio/composition of solvent(s) used, and the flow rate of the mobile phase. It is a form of liquid chromatography that utilizes smaller column size, smaller media inside the column, and higher mobile phase pressures.With HPLC, a pump (rather than gravity) provides the higher pressure required to move the mobile phase and analyte through the densely packed column. The increased density arises from smaller particle sizes. This allows for a better separation on columns of shorter length when compared to ordinary column chromatography.

 UV:Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region. This means it uses light in the visible and adjacent (near-UV and near-infrared (NIR)) ranges. The absorption or reflectance in the visible range directly affects the perceived color of the chemicals involved. In this region of the electromagnetic spectrum, molecules undergo electronic transitions. This technique is complementary to fluorescence spectroscopy, in that fluorescence deals with transitions from the excited state to the ground state, while absorption measures transitions from the ground state to the excited state.

 GC:Gas chromatography (GC), is a common type of chromatography used in analytic chemistry for separating and analysing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition. Typical uses of GC include testing the purity of a particular substance, or separating the different components of a mixture (the relative amounts of such components can also be determined). In some situations, GC may help in identifying a compound. In preparative chromatography, GC can be used to prepare pure compounds from a mixture.In gas chromatography, the mobile phase (or "moving phase") is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas such as helium or an unreactive gas such as nitrogen. The stationary phase is a microscopic layer of liquid or polymer on an inert solid support, inside a piece of glass or metal tubing called a column (a homage to the fractionating column used in distillation). The instrument used to perform gas chromatography is called a gas chromatograph (or "aerograph", "gas separator").The gaseous compounds being analyzed interact with the walls of the column, which is coated with different stationary phases. This causes each compound to elute at a different time, known as the retention time of the compound. The comparison of retention times is what gives GC its analytical usefulness.Gas chromatography is in principle similar to column chromatography (as well as other forms of chromatography, such as HPLC, TLC), but has several notable differences. Firstly, the process of separating the compounds in a mixture is carried out between a liquid stationary phase and a gas mobile phase, whereas in column chromatography the stationary phase is a solid and the mobile phase is a liquid. (Hence the full name of the procedure is "Gas-liquid chromatography", referring to the mobile and stationary phases, respectively.) Secondly, the column through which the gas phase passes is located in an oven where the temperature of the gas can be controlled, whereas column chromatography (typically) has no such temperature control. Thirdly, the concentration of a compound in the gas phase is solely a function of the vapor pressure of the gas.Gas chromatography is also similar to fractional distillation, since both processes separate the components of a mixture primarily based on boiling point (or vapor pressure) differences. However, fractional distillation is typically used to separate components of a mixture on a large scale, whereas GC can be used on a much smaller scale (i.e. microscale).Gas chromatography is also sometimes known as vapor-phase chromatography (VPC), or gas-liquid partition chromatography (GLPC). These alternative names, as well as their respective abbreviations, are frequently found in scientific literature. Strictly speaking, GLPC is the most correct terminology, and is thus preferred by many authors..

 TLC:Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a chromatography technique used to separate mixtures.Thin layer chromatography is performed on a sheet of glass, plastic, or aluminum foil, which is coated with a thin layer of adsorbent material, usually silica gel, aluminium oxide, or cellulose (blotter paper). This layer of adsorbent is known as the stationary phase.After the sample has been applied on the plate, a solvent or solvent mixture (known as the mobile phase) is drawn up the plate via capillary action. Because different analytes ascend the TLC plate at different rates, separation is achieved.Thin layer chromatography can be used to:Monitor the progress of a reaction,Identify compounds present in a given mixture,Determine the purity of a substance.
 Specific examples of these applications include:analyzing ceramides and fatty acids,detection of pesticides or insecticides in food and water,analyzing the dye composition of fibers in forensics, or assaying the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals,identification of medicinal plants and their constituents.
 A number of enhancements can be made to the original method to automate the different steps, to increase the resolution achieved with TLC and to allow more accurate quantization. This method is referred to as HPTLC, or "high performance TLC"..

 HPTLC:High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) is an enhanced form of thin layer chromatography (TLC). A number of enhancements can be made to the basic method of thin layer chromatography to automate the different steps, to increase the resolution achieved and to allow more accurate quantitative measurements.Automation is useful to overcome the uncertainty in droplet size and position when the sample is applied to the TLC plate by hand. One recent approach to automation has been the use of piezoelectric devices and inkjet printers for applying the sample.The spot capacity (analogous to peak capacity in HPLC) can be increased by developing the plate with two different solvents. After the plate is exposed to the first solvent, the solvent is removed, the plate is rotated 90° and developed with a second solvent. If the two solvents show different selectivity, then the spots may be spread over the entire surface of the plate. This is obviously a form of two-dimensional chromatography.

 Vacuum packing:Vacuum packing or vacuum packaging is a method of packaging that removes air from the package prior to sealing. It can involve both rigid and flexible types of packaging. The intent is usually to remove oxygen from the container to extend the shelf life of foods and, with flexible package forms, to reduce the volume of the contents and package.The vacuum environment reduces atmospheric oxygen, limiting the growth of aerobic bacteria or fungi, and preventing the evaporation of volatile components. Vacuum packing is commonly used for long-term storage of dry foods such as cereals, nuts, cured meats, cheese, smoked fish, coffee, and potato chips (crisps). It is also for storage of fresh foods such as vegetables, meats, and liquids such as soups in a shorter term because vacuum condition cannot stop bacteria from getting water which can promote their growth.Vacuum packing is also used to reduce greatly the bulk of non-food items. For example, clothing and bedding can be stored in bags evacuated with a domestic vacuum cleaner or a dedicated vacuum sealer. This technique is sometimes used to compact household waste, for example where a charge is made for each full bag collected.Vacuum packaging products using plastic bags, canisters, bottles, or mason jars are available for home use.Vacuum packaging delicate food items can be done by using an inert gas, such as nitrogen. This helps prevent crushing fragile items and delicate foods such as potato chips.In an oxygen-poor environment, Anaerobic organisms can proliferate, potentially causing food safety problems. Vacuum packing is often used in combination with other packaging and food processing techniques.

 Packaging Packaging:Packaging is the science, art, and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use. Packaging contains, protects, preserves, transports, informs, and sells.[1] In many countries it is fully integrated into government, business, institutional, industrial, and personal use.ackage labelling (en-GB) or labeling (en-US) is any written, electronic, or graphic communications on the packaging or on a separate but associated label.

 Aluminium foil:Aluminium foil is aluminium prepared in thin metal leaves, with a thickness less than 0.2 millimetres (8 mils), thinner gauges down to 6 µm (0.2 mils) are also commonly used.[1] In the USA, foils are commonly gauged in mils. The foil is pliable, and can be readily bent or wrapped around objects. Thin foils are fragile and are sometimes laminated to other materials such as plastics or paper to make them more useful. Aluminium foil supplanted tin foil in the mid 20th century.Annual production of aluminium foil was approximately 800,000 tonnes (880,000 tons) in Europe and 600,000 tonnes (660,000 tons) in the USA in 2003.Approximately 75% of aluminium foil is used for packaging of foods, cosmetics, and chemical products, and 25% used for industrial applications (e.g. thermal insulation, cables and electronics).In North America, aluminium foil is known as aluminum foil. It is also sometimes called Reynolds wrap after Reynolds Metals, the leading manufacturer in North America. In the United Kingdom and United States it is, informally, widely called tin foil, for historical reasons. Metallised films are sometimes mistaken for aluminium foil, but are actually polymer films coated with a thin layer of aluminium.
 Packaging:As aluminium foil acts as a complete barrier to light and oxygen (which cause fats to oxidise or become rancid), odours and flavours, moisture, and bacteria, it is used extensively in food and pharmaceutical packaging. Aluminium foil is used to make long life packs (aseptic packaging) for drinks and dairy products which enables storage without refrigeration. Aluminium foil laminates are also used to package many other oxygen or moisture sensitive foods, and tobacco, in the form of pouches, sachets and tubes, and as tamper evident closures. Aluminium foil containers and trays are used to bake pies and to pack takeaway meals, ready snacks and long life pet foods.Aluminium foil is widely sold into the consumer market, often in rolls of 500 mm (20 in) width and several metres in length.It is used for wrapping food in order to preserve it, for example when storing leftover food in a refrigerator (where it serves the additional purpose of preventing odour exchange), when taking sandwiches on a journey, or when selling some kinds of take-away or fast food. Tex-Mex restaurants in the United States, for example, typically provide take-away burritos wrapped in aluminium foil.

 Stock Status:below give some explain about the terms of stock status we indicated at product supplying conditions page,and they got explained as below with icon and detailed notes:
 √ In stock,the icon indicate this conditioninstock,which means this product production batch comes in bulk volume(normally in 100~500kgs+,or over metric tons in our factory store),it is ready to be shipped during normal production seasons,in most cases,they are available wholeyearly.
 √ Stock out:the icon indicate this conditionstockout,which means this product production lot comes in big batch volume,but its production depend on material seasons,the present status is clear out stock,and will be available again once the new material season comes.
 √ Processable:the icon indicate this conditionprocessable,which means this special product production lot comes Not in bulk volume Not in stock regularly,but processable freshly for firm order purchase request,normally this processable production we do accept with a minimal order quantity(MOQ),which according to our factory extraction tank size convenience.

 MOQ:this is brief for minimal order quantity,which means the volume we do accept for sale/process about a related product or production lot,its volume unit indicated in kgs(lbs).

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